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Portrait of Mr Kris Christmann Mr Kris Christmann

k.christmann@hud.ac.uk | 01484 473222



Biography

Qualifications: BSc, MA, MA, Pg Cert. SSRM

Kris joined the Applied Criminology Centre (ACC) at the University of Huddersfield in 2000 after completing a BSc in Psychology at Oxford Brookes, an MA in Philosophy and Social Theory at Warwick, an MA in Criminology at Keele, and a PG Cert in Research Methods at Nottingham Trent University.

He has been involved in a range of projects evaluating and research situational, social and developmental crime prevention measures funded by the Home Office, Youth Justice Board, Office for Security and Counter-terrorism; Government Office North-West, Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, the Nuffield Foundation and the EU.

He is currently undertaking cross national research with colleagues which investigates the mental health effects upon children when a carer is imprisoned. The COPING project is a large EU FP7 funded project that brings together colleagues in the Centre for Applied Childhood Studies and the Centre for Health and Social Care and the ACC here at Huddersfield, and our European partners (the Karolinska Institutet, and Riksbryggan in Sweden; the Dresden University of Technology, and Treffpunkt e.V. in Germany; the Universitatea Alexandru Ioan Cuza, and Alternative Sociale Association in Romania; the Quaker United Nations Office in Switzerland; Eurochips in France; and Partners of Prisoners Support Group here in the UK). He is the UK workpackage leader for disseminating the emerging findings and publicising the research study. He recently attended the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child in Geneva, who held a General Day of Discussion on the plight of children of prisoners worldwide.

In addition, Kris and colleagues have undertaken work examining Al-Qaida inspired radicalisation amongst young people in the UK, and evaluated a national programme aimed at preventing violent radicalistion. They are currently in the process of publishing these findings, both through the YJB and academic journals.

Kris has acted as a peer reviewer for research proposals for both the ESRC and The Big Lottery Fund.

Teaching:

  • HID1010 Community Safety and Crime Prevention
  • HHB1025 Key Issues in Criminology (Hons)
  • HFB1024 Human Rights and Contemporary Society
  • HHB1038 Final Year Project

Part Time PhD:

Kris is currently undertaking a part time PhD entitled: An Analysis of Police Use of Force when Policing Civil Disturbances: A Case Study of the G20 protest, the Anti-Cuts protest and the recent inner city ‘riots’ in the UK

Research & Scholarship

University research group memberships

Kris is currently a member of the Institute for Research in Citizenship and Applied Human Sciences and the Applied Criminology Centre.

Research interests

  • Offender resettlement and desistance
  • Hate crime offending and hate crime policy
  • Political and religiously motivated violence
  • Police corruption, brutality and violence
  • Police governance and reform
  • The militarisation of policing

In addition Kris is interested in a number of conceptual and normative issues in the area where moral, legal and political philosophy intersect–particularly, obedience, authority, legitimacy, obligation, coercion, and privacy

Selected research projects:

Publications (in press)

(For a list of published outputs see research outputs)

Christmann, K.; Rogerson, M. Hirschfield, A. Starrak, K., Wilcox, A., (2011) ‘Preventing the Development of Violent Extremism Amongst Young People’. Youth Justice Board.

Christmann, K. (2011) ‘Systematic Review: Preventing the Development of Violent Extremism amongst Young People’. Youth Justice Board..

Publications (other):

Christmann, K. ‘The Forgotten Victims of Crime’ (2011) Insidetime: The National Newspaper for Prisoners, October issue, p34.

Book Reviews: Review of C. Corbett’s ‘Car Crime’ Cullompton: Willan (2005) The Howard Journal (2005) 44 (3) pp335-6

Selected conference presentations:

Delivered Workshop for Youth Justice Board - Racially Motivated Offending and Targeted Interventions (with K. Wong) 2011

Huddersfield University 2009. COPING - what does the literature tell us about the mental health impact on children of having a parent in prison?

American Society of Criminology: Nashville TN 2005. Findings from a North-West short-term prisoner resettlement project

British Society of Criminology: Portsmouth University 2004. Emerging findings from a North-West short-term prisoner resettlement project

British Society of Criminology: Bangor University 2003. International and Internet Cases of Child Sexual Abuse – Work in Progress.

Publications and Other Research Outputs

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Results suggest that official concern over reporting all hate crimes for service planning requirements is not shared by the overwhelming majority of respondents and would not be feasible to deliver. 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'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '16198', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '12', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20120100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => '77', 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '11', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Kris', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'hhs', 'institution' => 'University of Huddersfield', 'subjects' => 'BL', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '9', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '4', 'datestamp_day' => '4', 'abstract' => 'The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the scholarly literature on the process(es) of radicalisation, particularly among young people, and the availability of interventions to prevent extremism. The review was undertaken to inform the national evaluation of the Youth Justice Board for England and Wales’ (YJB) preventing violent extremism programmes within the youth justice system, and as such, represents one of the research outputs from that study. The full evaluation report, Process Evaluation of Preventing Violent Extremism Programmes for Young People, is to be published by the YJB alongside this review. The review found that the evidence base for effective preventing violent extremism interventions is very limited. Despite a prolific output of research, few studies contained empirical data or systematic data analysis. Furthermore, although a growing body of literature investigating the radicalisation process is emerging, the weight of that literature is focused upon terrorism rather than radicalisation. As such, the evidence is concerned with that smaller cohort of individuals who, once radicalised, go on to commit acts of violence in the pursuit of political or religious aims and objectives. This introduces a systematic bias in the literature, away from the radicalisation process that preceeds terrorism, including radicalisation that does not lead to violence. Despite these limitations, the systematic review found that Islamic radicalisation and terrorism emanate from a very heterogeneous population that varies markedly in terms of education, family background, socio-economic status and income. Several studies have identified potential risk factors for radicalisation, and, among these, political grievances (notably reaction to Western foreign policy) have a prominent role. The review found only two evaluated UK programmes that explicitly aimed to address Islamic radicalisation in the UK. These were outreach and engagement projects running in London: the Muslim Contact Unit (MCU) and the ‘Street’ Project. In addition, the review drew heavily upon the Department for Communities and Local Government’s (DCLG) rapid evidence assessment, Preventing Support for Violent Extremism through Community Interventions: A Review of the Evidence (Pratchett et al, 2010). This advocated the adoption of capacity building and empowering young people, and interventions that “challenge ideology that focus on theology and use education/training”. The Netherlands-based Slotervaart Project was identified as an exemplar of the outreach/community-based approach recommended by the DCLG review. The review also considered a number of de-radicalisation programmes operating in several Islamic countries and programmes tackling right-wing radicalisation. These programmes provide some potential learning points for future UK programmes, chiefly around the need for those engaging with radicalised individuals to carry authority and legitimacy, and to be equipped with profound ideological knowledge.', 'creators_id' => 'k.christmann@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => 'research_report', 'datestamp_minute' => '9', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2012', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '394' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => 'international internet child sexual abuse exploitation', 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1292601260', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Christmann', 'eprintid' => '394', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Kris', 'creators_id' => 'k.christmann@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gallagher', 'eprintid' => '394', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk' }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hodgson', 'eprintid' => '394', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Beth', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Fraser', 'eprintid' => '394', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Claire', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '1', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2007', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/394/1/ChristmannInternational.pdf|/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/394/2/GalIntAbstract.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'International and internet child sexual abuse and exploitation - issues emerging from research ', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/03/94', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '54', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.jordanpublishing.co.uk/Publications/catDetails.aspx?productID=50', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '9', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '17', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => '353-371', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2008', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Child and Family Law Quarterly', 'lastmod_second' => '40', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1358-8184', 'datestamp_hour' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Christmann', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => undef, 'note' => 'First published in Child and Family Law Quarterly Volume 15 Number 4 2003 and reproduced by kind permission of Jordan Publishing Limited.', 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => undef, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '394', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2010', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '12', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20030000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => '4', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '3494', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Kris', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'cacs', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'HN', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '34', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '22', 'datestamp_day' => '13', 'abstract' => 'There has, in recent years, been growing awareness and concern over cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) and exploitation1 which involve an international or internet dimension. These include child trafficking,2 child sex tourism,3 child abuse images4 (CAI), and g rooming.5 In terms of official recognition, these are relatively new risks to children, and ostensibly quite major ones. Governments, law enforcement and welfare agencies, voluntary bodies and industry have responded by implementing or advocating a plethora of policy and practice measures.6 In light of this level of concern and intervention, this article seeks to establish what is known regarding the extent and nature of these cases, and examines the subsequent organisational response. It does this by drawing upon the authors’ ongoing research in this area, other (completed) research and the wider literature.', 'creators_id' => 'k.christmann@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => undef, 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => '15', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => 'publisher supplied pdf with above statement required', 'referencetext' => '1 A number of authors, especially in this particular field of study, discriminate between child sexual abuse, which is generally that which takes place within the home or other familiar contexts, and child sexual exploitation, which generally involves a more commercial and organised element. For the purposes of this article, and partly in the interests of brevity, the term child sexual abuse is used throughout to refer to both categories. For further discussion see J. Warburton, ‘Prevention, protection and recovery of children from commercial sexual exploitation’, paper presented at the 2nd World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (Yokohama, 17–20 December 2001). 2 Stop the Traffic! (UNICEF, 2003) available at: www.endchildexploitation.org.uk/pdf/ct/uktrafficking reportfinal.pdf. 3 J. Seabrook, No Hiding Place: Child Sex Tourism and the Role of Extraterritorial Legislation (Zed Books, 2000); M. Taylor and E. Quayle, Child Pornography. An Internet Crime (Brunner-Routledge, 2003); and D. Finkelhor, K. J. Mitchell and J. Wolak, Online Victimisation: A Report on the Nation’s Youth (National Centre for Missing and Exploited Children, 2000). 4 In common with an increasing number of workers in the field, we believe the term ‘child abuse images’ should be used in place of ‘child pornography’. This is because it is felt the latter term tends to suggest that the problem is predominantly one of images of naked children and does not convey the full range of acts to which children may be subjected, and which can, for example, involve rape, bestiality and torture. 5 ‘Grooming’ refers to the process whereby a would-be abuser manipulates a child into a situation where he or she can be more readily sexually abused and is simultaneously less likely to disclose. As the term ‘grooming’ is the one most commonly used at present (including within the Government’s Sexual Offences Bill) it is adopted in this article. However, as a number of commentators have argued, this term is not – in the light of what children are subjected to – a wholly appropriate term. One of the current authors has suggested the term ‘entrapment’ in its place. For further discussion see B. Gallagher, Grappling with Smoke. Investigating and Managing Organised Child Sexual Abuse. A Good Practice Guide (NSPCC, 1998). 6 National Plan for Safeguarding Children from Commercial Sexual Exploitation (Department of Health, 2001).7 ECPAT – End Child Prostitution, Pornography and Trafficking, IWF – Internet Watch Foundation; NSPCC – National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children; and UNICEF – The United Nations Children’s Fund. 8 Where possible this paper uses the term ‘abuser’ in place of ‘paedophile’ as it is felt the latter term is misleading, particularly in respect of the causes of CSA. For further discussion see B. Gallagher, ‘Paedophiles: What’s the problem?’ (1998) 28 Nota News 3. 9 Op cit, n 6. 10 Profiting from Abuse. An Investigation into the Sexual Exploitation of our Children (UNICEF, 2001). 11 Indeed, in the course of writing this article the authors were struck by a number of factual errors in the literature. Although these largely numerical errors were not of an order whereby they conveyed a radically different message, they do serve to underline a casualness with which some of the literature has been produced, which, in turn, underlines the need for caution. 12 A seventh category of case, which could have been included here, is that of children being exposed to pornography over the internet. This, however, was beyond the remit of the current study. For further discussion see K. J . Mitchell, D. Finkelhor a nd J . Wolas, ‘The exposure o f youth t o unwanted s exual material o n the Internet. A National Survey of Risk, Impact and Prevention’ (2003) 34(3) Youth and Society 330.13 What has been included here – as something of a sub-category – are cases where individuals have initiated contact with a child via the latter’s mobile phone, and have gone on to groom and then sexually abuse that child. There were two main reasons why it was felt relevant to include these cases; one, being the increasing computer, and especially internet, ability of mobile phones – the so-called 3G phones; and two, reports from Japan, specifically, of children being drawn into child prostitution having first been approached over their mobile phones. For further discussion see Childnet International, ‘Children, Mobile Phones and the Internet: the Mobile Internet and Children’, proceedings of the Experts’ Meeting in Tokyo (Japan, 6–7 March 2003) available at: www.childnet-int.org.14 L. Kelly and L. Regan, Stopping the Traffic: Exploring the Extent of and Responses to Trafficking in Women for Sexual Exploitation in the UK (Home Office, 2000), at p 22. 15 L. Kelly, ‘Journeys of jeopardy: a commentary on current research on trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation within Europe’, paper presented at the European Conference on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings: Global Challenge for the 21st Century (Brussels, 18–20 September 2000). 16 Op cit, n 2. 17 See, for example, ‘Britons “killed boys” in Dutch porn movies’, The Guardian, 5 April 1997. 18 End Child Exploitation: Faces of Exploitation (UNICEF, 2003), at p 18. 19 Child Trafficking. Information Sheet (UNICEF, 2003), at p 1. 20 Child-Safe. Protecting Young People Travelling Abroad. Conference Report (Avon and Somerset Constabulary, 1999). 21 Facts and Figures (UNICEF, 2003). 22 J. O’Connell Davidson, ‘The Sex Exploiter’, paper presented at the 2nd World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (Yokohama, 17–20 December 2001), at p 14. 23 Early Marriage: Whose Right to Choose? (Forum on Marriage and the Rights of Women and Girls, 2000).24 C. Somerset, What the Professionals Know: The trafficking of Children into and through the UK for Sexual Purposes (ECPAT, 2001). 25 Op cit, n 15. 26 Op cit, n 14. 27 Op cit, n 2. 28 A. Hill, ‘Teenage slaves bought to order’, The Observer, 14 January 2001. 29 Op cit, n 2. 30 Op cit, n 22. 31 Op cit, n 20.32 British Refugee Council and Save the Children, Separated Children in the UK (Save the Children, 2001). 33 No Child of Mine. Opening the World’s Eyes to the Sexual Exploitation of Children (World Vision, 2002), at p 7. 34 Op cit, n 24. 35 Protecting the Public. Strengthening Protection against Sex Offenders and Reforming the Law on Sexual Offences, Cm 5668 (Home Office, 2002). 36 L. Gray, Children at Risk. Practical Approaches to Addressing Child Protection Issues in Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam (World Vision, 2003). 37 Op cit, n 6. 38 Op cit, n 10, at p 22. 39 Op cit, n 20. 40 D. Adams, ‘Exchange dangers’, Police Review, 21 August 1998. 41 A Choice by Right. The Report of the Working Group on Forced Marriages (Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 2000). 42 Dealing with Cases of Forced Marriages. Guidelines for Police (Foreign and Commonwealth Office, undated). 43 Forced Marriage – The Overseas Dimension (Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 2000).44 A. Travis and J. Meikle, ‘Howard set to block sex tourism bill’, The Guardian, 13 July 1995. 45 K. Marks, ‘British sex tourists turn killing fields of Cambodia into paedophiles’ playground’ The Independent on Sunday, 5 January 2003. 46 Op cit, n 22. 47 Op cit, n 3.48 End Child Exploitation. Information Sheet (UNICEF, 2003). 49 J. Kane, Sold for Sex (Arena, 1998). 50 ‘Asia’s child sex tourism rising’ available at: www.news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/891319.stm (accessed on: 30 June 2003). 51 Op cit, n 10. 52 J. O’Connell, ‘Sex tourism in Cuba’ (1996) 38(1) Race and Class 39. 53 Op cit, n 6. 54 Op cit, n 2. 55 ‘Government Crackdown on Sex Tourism’ available at: www.homeoffice.gov.uk accessed on: 9 September 2003. 56 P. Cawson, C. Wattam, S. Brooker and G. Kelly, Child Maltreatment in the United Kingdom. A Study of the Prevalence of Child Abuse and Neglect (NSPCC, 2000).57 HM Customs and Excise, Ninety-third Report of the Commissioners of HM Customs and Excise, Cm 5671 (TSO, 2002). 58 J. Carr, ‘Child Pornography’, paper presented at the 2nd World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (Yokohama, 17–20 December 2001). 59 Ibid. 60 T. Tate, Child Pornography. An Investigation (Methuen, 1990).61 W. Utting, People Like Us. The Report of the Review of the Safeguards for Children Living Away from Home (TSO, 1997), at p 102. 62 Op cit, n 6. 63 Op cit, n 58. 64 Annual Report of Investigations (US Postal Inspection Service, 2002). 65 Op cit, n 3.66 K. J. Mitchell, D. Finkelhor and J. Wolak, ‘Risk factors for and impact of online sexual solicitation of youth’ (2001) 285(33) Journal of the American Medical Association 3011, at p 3013. 67 Op cit, n 3. 68 Ibid, at p 7.69 Op cit, n 6. 70 Online Grooming and UK Law. A Submission by Childnet International to the Home Office (Childnet International, undated). 71 For example, the Superhighway Safety Pack produced between the Department for Education and Skills and the British Educational Communications and Technology Agency. 72 Op cit, n 58. 73 Op cit, n 35. 74 Op cit, n 70. 75 Op cit, n 60. 76 It should be pointed out that the terms ‘incitement’ and ‘conspiracy’ are, for the purposes of this article, not employed in any strict legal sense but are used to describe the basic components of an offender’s behaviour.77 This may either be a specified child – as occurs when the abuse of children is viewed and directed over the internet in ‘real time’ (ie the person holding the child receives instructions as to what they should do) – or a more general incitement to abuse unknown children. 78 Op cit, n 3. 79 G. Seenan and A. Clennell, ‘Trainee teacher jailed after US tip-off’, The Guardian, 12 August 2003.80 For further discussion see P. Sommer, ‘Evidence in Internet paedophilia cases’, paper presented at the Policing Child Abuse on the Internet Conference (Buckinghamshire Chilterns University College, 15–16 July 2002). 81 There are a number of dimensions according to which the extent of internet-based CAIs can be measured. While this article cannot discuss any of these in detail, it does endeavour to provide some guide as to the scale of the problem. In considering these figures, it is important to take on board a number of caveats. The internet, in terms of content and usage, is massive, expanding, ever-changing and autonomous. Beyond, and because of this, it is impossible to have anything other than a crude idea as to what the internet contains and how it is used. Furthermore, and reflecting the inherently international and anonymous nature of the internet, the extent of the problem can be discussed only on a worldwide, as opposed to a country-specific, basis. 82 This was not an FBI investigation as is commonly reported. 83 R. Hart, Short Report on the Wilton Park Conference 696: Combating Child Abuse on the Internet: An International Response (Wilton Park, 8–10 January 2003). 84 R. Winnett and G. Walsh, ‘Net closes on child porn suspects’, The Sunday Times, 26 January 2003. 85 COPINE – Combating Paedophile Information Networks in Europe. 86 Op cit, n 3, at pp 41–42. 87 Op cit, n 58, at p 21. 88 As M. Taylor and E. Quayle (op cit, n 3, at p 41) have pointed out, many still photographs come from videos: ‘the number of video captures that can be made from a 30-minute video may range from two or three to many thousand, depending on the interests, energy and technical capacity of the producer’. They conclude that ‘the number of pictures available is a rather arbitrary and fluid thing, related as much to the producer’s whim as to objective qualities’.89 R. Ford, ‘Dossier time bomb for 7,000 suspects’, The Times, 13 January 2003. 90 ‘Caught in the net’, The Guardian, 18 July 2003. 91 A. Nathan and D. Leppard, ‘City bosses named on child porn list’, The Sunday Times, 26 January 2003. 92 Op cit, n 58. 93 Ibid. 94 Ibid. 95 Op cit, n 64. 96 A range of other, even higher, figures have been produced on this issue including ones which state that ‘at least 80%’ or ‘almost all’ such offenders sexually assault children (op cit, n 58). 97 Op cit, n 83.', 'date_year' => '2003', 'status_changed_hour' => '18', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '18741' => { 'funders' => 'Suffolk Hate Crime Partnership', 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => 'The Hallam Centre for Community Justice/Applied Criminology Centre', 'contributors_id' => 'a.d.newton@hud.ac.uk', 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1380633183', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Christmann', 'eprintid' => '18741', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Kris', 'creators_id' => 'k.christmann@hud.ac.uk' }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Senior', 'eprintid' => '18741', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Paul', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Wong', 'eprintid' => '18741', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Kevin', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Albertson', 'eprintid' => '18741', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Katherine', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Meadows', 'eprintid' => '18741', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Linda', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '10', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'Q KC copyright? 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The paper rehearses measurement and ethical issues which support such a view. It goes on to report the more nuanced and sophisticated views of community safety practitioners. The paper demonstrates that the abandonment of the reduction of crime fear as an objective would have little effect upon community safety activity.', 'creators_id' => 'k.christmann@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => undef, 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => '5', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => 'Audit Commission (2005) Safer and Stronger Communities Inspection, Bradford Metropolitan District Council. London: Audit Commission. Audit Commission (2003) Community Safety in Essex, Essex County Council Inspection Report. London: Audit Commission. Audit Commission (2002) Middlesbrough Council Community Safety Inspection Report. London: Audit Commission. Christmann, K., Rogerson, M., and Walter, D. (2003) Fear of Crime and Insecurity in the New Deal for Communities. London: Neighbourhood Renewal Unit. Rogerson, M., and Christmann, K. (2004). Crime, Fear of Crime and Quality of Life, London: Neighbourhood Renewal Unit. Ditton, J., Chadee, D., and Khan, F. (2005). The Stability of Global and Specific Measures of the Fear of Crime: Results from a Three Wave Trinidadian Longitudinal Study. International Review of Victimology, forthcoming. Ditton, J., Farrall, S., Bannister, J., and Gilchrist, E. (2000) Crime Surveys and the Measurement Problem: Fear of Crime in V. Jupp, P. Davies, and P. Francis, P. (eds.) Doing Criminological Research. London: Sage. Ditton, J., Farrall, S., Bannister, J., Gilchrist, E., and Pease, K. (1999) Reactions to Victimisation: Why Has Anger Been Ignored?, Crime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal, 1:37-54. Farrall, S., and Gadd, D. (2004) The Frequency of the Fear of Crime, British Journal of Criminology. 44(1):127-132 Fattah, E.H., and Sacco, V.F (1996) Crime and Victimisation of the Elderly quoted in C. Hale (1996) Fear of Crime: A Review of the Literature, International Review of Victimology, 4 (2):79- 150. Girling, E., and Loader, I., and Sparks, R. (2000) Crime and Social Change in Middle England: Questions of Order in an English Town. London: Routledge. Hale, C., (1996) Fear of Crime: A Review of the Literature. International Review of Victimology, 4 (2):79-150. Hodgson, B., (2005) Angry of What? Experiences of Being a Crime Victim, British Journal of Community Justice, 3 (3): Home Office (2005) National Community Safety Strategy, London: HMSO Innes, M., and Fielding, N., (2002) From Community to Communicative Policing: ‘Signal Crimes’ and the Problem of Public Reassurance, Sociological Research Online, 7(2) <http://www.socresonline.org.uk/7/2/innes.html Innes, M (2003) Signal Crimes Policing the Risks, Reactions and Insecurities (Unpublished Conference Paper). Jennett, C., (1998) Qualitative Review in Fear of Crime, Audit of the Literature and Community Programs, Volume 1. Canberra: NCAVAC Kershaw, C., Budd, T., Kinshott, G., Mattinson, J., Mayhew, P., and Myhill, A. (2000) The 2000 British Crime Survey, England and Wales, Home Office Statistical Bulletin 18/00. London: Home Office. Lupton, D., and Tulloch, J. (1999) Theorizing Fear of Crime: Beyond the Rational/Irrational Opposition. British Journal of Sociology, 50(30)507-523. Newburn, T., (ed) (2003) Handbook of Policing. Cullompton, Devon: Willian Publishing. Pain, R., Williams, S., and Hudson, B. (2000) Auditing Fear of crime on North Tyneside: A qualitative approach. The British Criminology Conference: Selected Proceedings. Volume 3. http://www.britsoccrim.org/volume3/012.pdf Pease, K., (1999). A Review of Street Lighting Evaluations: Crime Reduction Effects, in K.A. Painter and N. Tilley (eds.) Surveillance of Public Space: CCTV, Street Lighting and Crime Prevention. Monsey, N.:Criminal Justice Press Semmens, N.(2002) A Review of Recent Literature on the Measurement of the Fear of Crime. London: Home Office.Shaw, M. (2002) Time heals all wounds?, in G. Farrell and K. Pease (eds.) Repeat Victimisation. New York: Criminal Justice Press. Skogan, W. (1990) Disorder and Decline: Crime and the Spiral of Decay in American Neighbourhoods. Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. Smith, M., Clarke, R.V., and Pease, K.,(2002) Anticipatory Benefits in Crime Prevention, in N. Tilley Analysis for Crime Prevention, Monsey NY: Criminal Justice Press. Sutton, R.M. and Farrall, S. (2005) Gender, socially desirable responding and the fear of crime – Are women really more anxious about crime? British Journal of Criminology 45 (2): 212-224 Taylor, I., Evans, K. and Fraser, P.(1996) A Tale of Two Cities: Global Change, Local Feeling and Everyday Life in the North of England, A Study in Manchester and Sheffield. London:Routledge. Tulloch, M., (1998) Quantitative Review in Fear of Crime, Audit of the Literature and Community Programs. Vol. 1. Canberra: NCAVAC Tulloch, M., (2000) The Meaning of Age Differences and the Fear of Crime, Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, British Journal of Criminology, 40(3):451-467. Wilcox, P., Quisenberry, N., and Jones, S. (2003) The Built Environment and Community Crime Risk Interpretation. Journal Of Research In Crime And Delinquency,40(3):322-345. Wilcox-Rountree, P., (1998) A Re-examination Of The Crime-Fear Linkage. Journal Of Research In Crime And Delinquency,.35 (3):341-372. Wilkstom, P. O., and Dolmen, L., (2001) Urbanisation, Neighbourhood Social Integration, Informal Social Control, Minor Social Disorder, Victimisation and Fear of Crime. International Review of Victimology, 8(2):121-140. Wilson and Kelling (1982) Broken Windows: The Police and Neighbourhood Safety. Atlantic 249(3):pp29-38.', 'date_year' => '2007', 'status_changed_hour' => '18', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '16199' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => 'd.p.thomas@hud.ac.uk', 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1354635924', 'creatorlist' => { '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Sharratt', 'eprintid' => '16199', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Kathryn', 'creators_id' => 'k.sharratt@hud.ac.uk' }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Christmann', 'eprintid' => '16199', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Kris', 'creators_id' => 'k.christmann@hud.ac.uk' }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 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The strategy had five central objectives, which were to: ? challenge violent extremist ideology and support mainstream voices ? disrupt those who promote violent extremism and support the institutions where they are active ? support individuals who are being targeted and recruited to the cause of violent extremism1 ? increase the resilience of communities to violent extremism ? address the grievances which ideologues are exploiting. I n 2008, under the original Prevent Strategy, the Youth Justice Board (YJB) secured resources from the Office of Security and Counter Terrorism (OSCT) at the Home Office to fund the development of programmes within youth offending teams (YOTs) and the secure estate to prevent at-risk young people2 (primarily young Muslims) from becoming involved in Islamic radicalisation and violent extremism.3 The money was directed towards YOTs located in areas which intelligence suggested were at the highest risk of violent extremism. For the most part, the projects were given responsibility for designing their own interventions within the parameters of the 2007 Prevent objectives and with the OSCT exercising high-level oversight. The aims of this evaluation, which was commissioned4 by the YJB, were to: ? collate and assess the existing evidence relating to preventing violent extremism (PVE) ? describe and evaluate the implementation of the funded PVE programmes within the youth justice system 1 Later changed to “support individuals who are vulnerable to recruitment or who have already been recruited by violent extremists” (Home Office, 2009). 2 ‘At-risk young people’ were defined by both the YOT age range (from 10 to 18 years old) and by more pragmatic concerns at the individual project level. Therefore, it was not unusual for the project staff to extend their programme provision to older youths where there was a perception of a persistent vulnerability and risk, or to make allowances for natural peer groups. 3 ‘Radicalisation’ can be defined as the move towards active support for violent extremism, and, as such, it is a process of change which is downstream of, and prior to, violent extremism, although importantly it does not necessitate it. Therefore, a radicalised individual may not become involved in any violent action (and indeed could be opposed in principle to such action). 4 The research was commissioned to run from February 2009 to February 2011. 6 ? identify emerging good and promising practice by relating the findings of the process evaluation to the evidence identified in the literature review.', 'creators_id' => 'k.christmann@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => '', 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => 'research_report', 'datestamp_minute' => '21', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2012', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '461' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => 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However, relatively little is known about these cases, as a result of which the policy and practice response may not be as appropriate or effective as it should be. This research project, directed by Bernard Gallagher, and funded by The Nuffield Foundation, was designed to further knowledge of international and Internet CSA, and in doing so contribute to the development of policy and practice. • While this research was focused upon cases known to law enforcement agencies (police and HM Revenue and Customs - HMRC), it has implications for the wider criminal justice system, a range of other statutory agencies, NGOs and industry, and governance at a national and international level.', 'creators_id' => 'k.christmann@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => 'project_report', 'datestamp_minute' => undef, 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '186218061X', 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => 'Abercrombie, N., Hill, S. and Turner, B.S. 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(2006) ‘Chatroom paedophile campaign nets 50 a month’ The Sunday Telegraph, February 19, p.14 Maitland, A. (2006) ‘Call for clearer human rights standards in business’ Financial Times, March 1, p.8 143 Marks, K. (2003) ‘British sex tourists turn killing fields of Cambodia into paedophiles’ playground’ The Independent on Sunday, January 5 Metropolitan Police Service (2004) Paladin Child. The Safeguarding Children Strand of Maxim funded by Reflex. London: Metropolitan Police Service Mitchell, K.J, Finkelhor, D. and Wolak, J. (2003) ‘The exposure of youth to unwanted sexual material on the Internet. A national survey of risk, impact and prevention’ Youth and Society, vol. 34, part 3: pp.330-358 Muir, H. (2006) ‘CPS questions credibility of child porn witness’ The Guardian, January 18, p.7 National Audit Office (2005) HM Customs and Excise. Stopping Illegal Imports of Animal Products into Great Britain. 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Even child porn suspects have rights’ January 18. p.21 The Guardian (2004) ‘Man kept dead victim as trophy in storage unit’, January 15. p.8 The Independent (2004) ‘The rise in child trafficking needs a national response’ May 18. The Observer (2005) ‘Task force to seize child porn profits’ November 13. p.5 The Refugee Council (2003) The Refugee Council’s Response to the Government’s Green Paper: “Every Child Matters”. London: The Refugee Council The Register (2005) Child porn suspects tally hits 32 [online] Available at: <http://www.the register.co.uk/2004/12/21child_porn_suicide_shame/print.html> [Accessed 24th June 2005] UNICEF (2003a) End Child Exploitation. Stop the Traffic! [online] Available at: <www.endchildexploitation.org.uk/pdf/ct/uktraffickingreportfinal.pdf> [Accessed on 1st June 2005] UNICEF (2003b) End Child Exploitation: Faces of Exploitation. London: UNICEF US Customs (2001) US Customs Today, April 2001 [online] Available at: <www.cbp.gov/xp/CustomsToday/2001/April/custoday_blueorchid.xml> [Accessed 17th September 2003] US Postal Inspection Service (2002) Annual Report of Investigations. Chicago: USPIS Utting, Sir, W. (1997) People Like Us. The Report of the Review of the Safeguards for Children Living Away from Home. Norwich: The Stationary Office Virtual Global Taskforce (2005) About the Virtual Global Taskforce [online] Available at: <htp://www.virtualglobaltaskforce.com/aboutvgt/about.html> [Accessed 30th January 2006] Watts, J. (2006) ‘China’s war of words intensifies: army of censors tries to recruit Internet giants as it strives to defeat demand for free speech’ Guardian Weekly, February 24, p.8 Wessely, S. (2005) ‘Victimhood and resilience’ The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 353, part 6: pp.548-550 West, D. (1987) Sexual Crimes and Confrontations: A Study of Victims and Offenders. Aldershot: Gower Wilding, E. (2003) ‘Operation Ore - The Tip of the Iceberg?’ Computer Fraud and Security, March [online] Available at: <http://www.dgiforensic.com/dgi/pdf/FSB March.pdf> [Accessed 1st June 2005] Wilson, J. and Hopkins, N. (2003) ‘Townsend arrested over child porn’ The Guardian, January 14, p.1 Wolak, J., Mitchell, K.J. and Finkelhor, D. (2003) ‘Escaping of connecting? Characteristics of youth who form close online relationships’ Journal of Adolescence, vol. 26: pp.105-119 Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D. and Mitchell, K.J. (2005) The varieties of child pornography production. In: Quayle, E. and Taylor, M., eds. Viewing child pornography on the Internet. Understanding the offence, managing the offender, helping the victims Lyme Regis: Russell House Publishing. pp.31-48 Wolf, S.C. (1988) ‘A Model of Sexual Aggression/Addiction’ Journal of Social Work and Human Sexuality, vol.7, part 1: pp.131-48 World Atlas (2005) Countries of the world [online] Available at: <www.worldatlas.com/nations.htm> [Accessed 13th May 2005]', 'date_year' => '2006', 'status_changed_hour' => '18', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '18019' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => 'k.christmann@hud.ac.uk', 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1392301254', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hirschfield ', 'eprintid' => '18019', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alexander', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Robertson', 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=> '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Kris', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'hhs', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'HN', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '56', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '29', 'datestamp_day' => '29', 'abstract' => 'Worldwide, unprecedented numbers of people are being imprisoned and in many countries incarceration is on the increase (Walmsley, 2009); indeed ‘more parents than ever are behind bars’ (Murray et al., 2012) and each year, an estimated 800,000 children within the newly-expanded European Union are separated from an incarcerated parent. Despite this, the psychosocial impact on children is little known and rarely considered in sentencing even though the evidence to date suggests that children whose parents are imprisoned are exposed to triple jeopardy through break-up of the family, financial hardship, stigma and secrecy, leading to adverse social and educational repercussions. The rationale for the study of the impact of parental imprisonment is underscored by the findings of a recent meta-analysis of studies of children of prisoners (Murray et al. 2012). This systematic review synthesized empirical evidence on the associations between parental incarceration and children’s later behavioural, educational and health outcomes from 40 studies involving a total of over 7,000 children of prisoners. ', 'creators_id' => 'k.christmann@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => '', 'userid' => '3494', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '56', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2013', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '730' => { 'funders' => 'Phil Birch, Principal Community Safety Officer (Specialist Crime Team)/SWEET', 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => 'School of Human and Health Sciences', 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => 'male sex workers; community safety', 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1292601177', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Christmann', 'eprintid' => '730', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Kris', 'creators_id' => 'k.christmann@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Wilcox', 'eprintid' => '730', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Aidan', 'creators_id' => 'a.wilcox@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '5', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'completed', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2008', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/730/1/WilcoxSex.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '7', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Sex for sale: qualitative study of male sex workers', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/07/30', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'unpub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '53', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => 'E.mailbox@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.hud.ac.uk/edu/about_us/research.htm', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '5', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '17', 'publisher' => 'University of Huddersfield', 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2008', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'monograph', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '14', 'place_of_pub' => 'Huddersfield, UK', 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '9', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Christmann', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '7', 'note' => '© The Authors 2006', 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 9, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '730', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => 'Community Safety/SWEET Project Kirklees Safer Communities Service', 'lastmod_year' => '2010', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '12', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20060900', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => '35', 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '15', 'edit_lock_user' => '3494', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Kris', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'hhs', 'institution' => 'University of Huddersfield', 'subjects' => 'HN', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '32', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '9', 'datestamp_day' => '9', 'abstract' => '1. RESEARCH AIMS, METHODOLOGY AND LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH The Applied Criminology Centre was approached by the Phil Birch, Principal Community Safety Officer (Specialist Crime Team)/SWEET and Project Manager Community Safety/SWEET Project to investigate the nature and extent of the male sex market in the area. 1.1 RESEARCH AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This study set out to explore the experiences of male sex workers in Kirklees and neighbouring areas. Specifically, it aimed, through interviews with male sex workers (MSWs), to explore their reasons for engaging in sex work, to uncover the risks and dangers they face, the nature of their contact with agencies, and the help and support they required either to leave the profession or to conduct their work as safely as possible. Interviews with sex workers explored the following broad themes: • Childhood experiences • Education and employment history • Family and other significant relationships • Contact with criminal justice agencies • Important influences and turning points • Current living conditions • Length of time in sex work and reasons for starting • Sexuality of sex workers and their clients • Attitudes to sex work • Actual and perceived dangers of the work • Precautions taken to reduce the risks • Involvement with agencies • Future plans The second main aim of the study was to test the feasibility of asking participants to use a diary sheet to record their encounters with clients.', 'creators_id' => 'k.christmann@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => 'project_report', 'datestamp_minute' => '32', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => 'Aggleton, P. 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(1974) ‘Male Prostitution: A Psychosocial View of Behaviour’ American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 44(5): 782-789. Connell, J. and Hart, G. (2003) An Overview of Male Sex Work in Edinburgh and Glasgow: The Male Sex Worker Perspective Medical Research Council Social and Public Health Sciences Unit Occasional Paper No. 8 Glasgow, MRC, University of Glasgow. Available online at: http://www.msocmrc. gla.ac.uk/Publications/pub/PDFs/Occasional-Papers/OP008.pdf Crosby, S. (1997) Getting High on the Beat: Towards a Contextual Understanding of Drug Use Among Prostitutes in City Centre Manchester, Liverpool: Liverpool John Moores University Cusick, L, Martin, A, and May, T. (2003) Vulnerability and Involvement in Drug Use and Sex Work Home Office Research Study 268. London: Home Office. Edwards, S. (1991) Prostitution – Whose Problem? Wolverhampton: Wolverhampton Safer Cities. Farley, M., Baral, I., Kiremire, M. and Sezgin, U. (1998) ‘Prostitution in Five Countries: Violence and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder’ Feminism & Psychology 8(4): 405-426. Farrington, D.P. (1997) ‘Human Development and Criminal Careers’ in M. Maguire, R. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (2nd Ed.) Oxford, OUP. Faugier, J., Hayes, C. and Butterworth, C. A. (1992) Drug Using Prostitutes, Their Health Care Needs, and Their Clients Manchester: Department of Nursing, University of Manchester. Green, J. (1992) It’s No Game: Responding to the Needs of Young Women at Risk or Involved in Prostitution Leicester: National Youth Agency. Harris, M. (1973) The Dilly Boys: Male Prostitution in Piccadilly London: Croon Helm. Kershaw (1999) Sex for Sale; A profile of young male sex workers, Youth and Policy Issue 65: 26-37. Lee, M. and O’Brien, R. (1995) The Game’s Up – Redefining Child Prostitution, London: The Children’s Society. MacNamara, D. and Sagarin, E. (1977) Sex, Crime and the Law. New York: Free Press. Maher, L. (1995) Hidden in the Light: Occupational Norms Among Crack-Using Street Level Sexworkers Journal of Drug Issues 26(1): 145-175. Minichiello, V., Mariño, R., Browne, J., Jamieson, M., Peterson, K., Reuter, B., et al. (1999) ‘A profile of the Clients of Male Sex Workers in Three Australian Cities’ Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 23(5): 511-518. Minichiello, V., Mariño, R., Browne, J., and Jamieson, M. (1998) ‘A review of Male to Male Commercial Sex Encounters’ Venereology 11(4): 32-41. Morse, E. V., Simon, P. M., Balson, P., and Osofsky, H. (1992) ‘Sexual Behavior Patterns of Customers of Male Street Prostitutes’ Archives of Sexual Behavior, 21(3): 347-357. Pearce, J. and Roache, P. (1997) The Links Between Prostitution, Drugs and Violence, Sheffield: S.O.V.A Pearce, J. J. (1999) ‘Selling Sex, Doing Drugs and Keeping Safe’ in Marlow, A. and Pearson, G. (eds.) Young People, Drugs and Community Safety, London: Russell House Publishing. Scott, J., Minichiello, V., Marino, R., Harvey, G., Jamieson, M. and Browne, J. (2005) ‘Understanding the New Context of the Male Sex Work Industry’ Journal of Interpersonal Violence 20(3): 320-342. Shaw I, Butler I, Crowley A, Patel G. (1996) Paying the Price? Young People and Prostitution. Cardiff: Cardiff University, School of Social and Administrative Studies. Silbert, M. H. and Pines, A. M. (1983) ‘Early Sexual Exploitation as an Influence to Prostitution’ Social Work 28: 285-289. Tomlinson, D., Hillman, R. and Harris, J. (1989) ‘Setting up a Support Service for Male Prostitutes in London’ International Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS 1(5): 360-1. UK NSWP (2004) United Kingdom Network of Sex Worker Projects Response to ‘Paying the Price’ Manchester, UK NSWP, available online at: http://www.uknswp.org/UKNSWP_Paying_the_Price_response.pdf Van der Poel, S. (1992) ‘Professional Male Prostitution: A Neglected Phenomenon’ Crime, Law and Social Change 18(3): 259-275. Vanwesenbeeck, I. (1994) Prostitutes’ Well-Being at Risk, Amsterdam: VU University Press Visano, L. (1988) ‘Generic and Generative dimensions of interactions: Towards the unfolding of critical dimensions’ International Journal of Comparative Sociology 29(3/4): 230-242. West, D. and de Villiers, B. 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While the phenomenon of female sex work has received a great deal of criminological scrutiny, there has been comparatively less attention paid to male sex workers (MSWs). The research which we report on in this chapter aimed to further our understanding of the motivations of MSWs, the risks they face, their engagement with support agencies and their intentions for the future. 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'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '22', 'datestamp_day' => '19', 'abstract' => 'the majority of NDC areas have targets to reduce fear of crime. 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(2000) Crime Surveys and the Measurement Problem: Fear of Crime. Doing Criminological Research. London, Sage. Semmens, N. (2002) A Review of Recent Literature on the Measurement of the Fear of crime, for the Research, Development and Statistics Directorate. London, Home Office. Tennyson-Mason, R (2002) Tackling the Fear of Crime, Putting the Pieces of the Jigsaw Together: Guidance for Crime and Disorder Partnerships. Leeds, Government Office for Yorkshire and the Humber.Kershaw, C. and Tseloni, A. (2004) Predicting Crime Rates, Fear and Disorder Based on Area Information: Evidence from the 2000 British Crime Survey. Wilcox Rountree, P. (1998) A re-examination of the Crime-fear linkage. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 341-372. Wilkstrom, P O. and Dolmen, L. (2001) Urbanisation, Neighbourhood Social Integration, Informal Social Control, Minor Social Disorder, Victimisation and Fear of Crime. International Review of Victimology, vol.. 8 no. 2, pp.121-140.Jacobson, J. and Saville, E. (1999) Neighbourhood Warden Schemes: An Overview, Policing and Reducing Crime Unit. Crime Reduction Research Series Paper 2. Policy Action Team 6 (2000) Neighbourhood Wardens: A National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal. London, The Stationary Office.Laycock, G. and Tilley, N. (1995) Policing and Neighbourhood Watch: Strategic Issues, Police Research Group. Crime Detection and Prevention Series, Paper 60. London, Home Office. Sims, L. (2001) Neighbourhood Watch: findings from the 2000 British Crime Survey, Development and Statistics Directorate Findings, 150. London, Home Office. Tilley, N. and Webb, J. (1994) Burglary Reduction: Findings from Safer Cities Schemes. Crime Prevention Unit Paper 51. London, Home Office.Armitage, R. (2002) To CCTV or not to CCTV. London, Nacro.', 'date_year' => '2004', 'status_changed_hour' => '18', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '7178' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => 'School of Human and Health Sciences', 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1292601100', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Christmann', 'eprintid' => '7178', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Kris', 'creators_id' => 'k.christmann@hud.ac.uk' }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Birch', 'eprintid' => '7178', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Philip', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Wilcox', 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published research literature in a selected number of countries, including the United Kingdom (UK) to answer specific questions about the characteristics of the people who procure sex, the context and setting for procuring sex, the related reasons, drivers and motivations and what has been tried elsewhere to deter or hinder those who procure sex and what works in tackling demand for prostitution.', 'creators_id' => 'k.christmann@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '116', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => 'project_report', 'datestamp_minute' => '53', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'Research Report 27', 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2009', 'status_changed_hour' => '9', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef } };

2013

Christmann, K (2013) ‘Arresting development? Police Professional (380), pp. 20-21.

Christmann, K (2013) ‘Arrested development?Justice for Children of Prisoners Newsletters: Police, Judges and Sentencing (3), pp. 6-7.

Jones, A., Gallagher, B., Manby, M., Robertson, O., Schützwohl, M., Berman, A., Hirschfield , A., Ayre , L., Urban , M., Sharratt, K. and Christmann, K. (2013) Children of Prisoners: Interventions and mitigations to strengthen mental health . Huddersfield: University of Huddersfield. ISBN 9781862181168

Wong, K., Christmann, K., Meadows, L., Albertson, K. and Senior, P. (2013) Hate Crime in Suffolk Understanding prevalence and support needs Sheffield: Sheffield Hallam University/University of Huddersfield

2012

Christmann, K., Turliuc, M. and M?irean, C. (2012) ‘Risk and Resilience in Children of Prisoners: A Research Review Scientific Annals of the “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University - Sociology and Social Work Section , 5 (2). ISSN 2065-3131

Christmann, K (2012) Preventing Religious Radicalisation and Violent Extremism: A Systematic Review of the Research Evidence Youth Justice Board

Hirschfield, A., Christmann, K., Wilcox, A., Rogerson, M. and Sharratt, K. (2012) Process Evaluation of Preventing Violent Extremism Programmes for Young People Youth Justice Board

2011

Smithson, H., Wilcox, A., Monchuk, L., Christmann, K. and Wong, K. (2011) ‘The prevalence of youth racially motivated offending: What do we really know?Probation Journal , 58 (3), pp. 233-249. ISSN 0264-5505

2010

Wilcox, A., Smithson, H., Christmann, K., Monchuk, L. and Wong, K. (2010) Racially motivated offending and targeted interventions London: Youth Justice Board for England and Wales

Christmann, K. and Wong, K. (2010) ‘Hate Crime Victims and Hate Crime Reporting: Some Impertinent Questions’. In: Hate Crime: Concepts, policy, future directions. Abingdon: Willan Publishing. . ISBN 978-1-84392-779-2

2009

Wilcox, A., Christmann, K., Rogerson, M. and Birch, P. (2009) Tackling the Demand for Prostitution: A Rapid Evidence Assessment of the published research literature Home Office

Wong, K. and Christmann, K. (2009) ‘The Role of Victim Decision Making in Reporting of Hate CrimesCommunity Safety Journal , 7 (2), pp. 19-35. ISSN 1757-8043

2008

Wilcox, A. and Christmann, K. (2008) ‘Getting paid for sex is my kick: a qualitative study of male sex workers’. In: Sex as Crime?. London, UK: Willan Publishing. pp. 118-136. ISBN 978-1-84392-267-4

2007

Rogerson, M. and Christmann, K. (2007) ‘Burglars and wardrobe monsters. Practical and ethical problems in the reduction of crime fear British Journal of Community Justice , 5 (1), pp. 79-94. ISSN 1475-0279

2006

Wilcox, A. and Christmann, K. (2006) Sex for sale: qualitative study of male sex workers Huddersfield, UK: University of Huddersfield (Unpublished)

Gallagher, B., Fraser, C., Christmann, K. and Hodgson, B. (2006) International and internet child sexual abuse and exploitation Huddersfield, UK: University of Huddersfield

2004

Christmann, K. and Rogerson, M. (2004) Crime, fear of crime and quality of life: Identifying and Responding to Problems Research Report 35 Sheffield: CRESR

2003

Rogerson, M., Christmann, K. and Walters, D. (2003) Fear of Crime and Insecurity in New Deal for Communities CRESR

Gallagher, B., Christmann, K., Fraser, C. and Hodgson, B. (2003) ‘International and internet child sexual abuse and exploitation - issues emerging from research Child and Family Law Quarterly , 15 (4), pp. 353-371. ISSN 1358-8184

Esteem

Indicators of Esteem

  • Acted as Peer Reviewer for ESRC; Big Lottery Fund.
  • Invited Attendee: Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism: Social and Behavioural Research Unit - Prevent Seminar Research Workshop (May 2010)

Research Degree Supervision

Increasing the reporting and recording of hate crime

It is generally recognised that levels of hate crime reporting remain notoriously low. The Lawrence Inquiry Report (1999) attempted to tackle under reporting by recommending Codes of Practice in order to create a comprehensive system of reporting and recording of all racist incidents and crimes by the Police and other agencies. Whilst the Inquiry was highly influential, heralding a flurry of policy initiatives, the evidence base for the effectiveness of the recommendations remains meagre. This is because little is known in relation to the decisive issue - the decision making behaviour of assorted hate crime victims in whether or not to report incidents, and any between group variability. Much of the research literature examining victims of hate crime has tended to focus upon the impacts of hate crime along with the appropriate practical and emotional support needs for victims. With the exception of one small scale study (Wong & Christmann, 2006) little research attention has been given to understanding the actual decision making processes of hate crime victims in whether or not to report hate crime incidents and how available reporting methods and publicity materials interplay and impact upon reporting decisions (Victim Support Review 2005). These gaps are even more noticeable in relation to offering either police or non police reporting agencies as a strategy for improving reporting levels across victimised groups. With the expanding scope of recent hate crime legislation (to include faith, disability and other minority group statuses) and increasing concerns over community cohesion, there is a need to establish a firmer and generalisable evidence base than hitherto exists on understanding non-reporting behaviour to better inform national policy.

Last updated Thursday 6 March 2014
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