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Portrait of Dr Dawn Leeming Dr Dawn Leeming

d.leeming@hud.ac.uk | 01484 473545



Biography

Dawn joined the University in 2009, having previously worked at UHI Millenium Institute in Inverness and the University of Northampton. Earlier in her career she was a clinical psychologist in the NHS, working with older adults in a community mental health team in Leicestershire. She obtained her BA in Psychology from Nottingham University in 1985, her Diploma in Clinical Psychology via the Lancashire In-Service training course in 1991 and her PhD in 2008 from the University of East London where she was investigating the management and repair of shame using qualitative methods, under the supervision of Prof Mary Boyle. She is a chartered psychologist and a member of the Division of Clinical Psychology, the BPS Qualitative Methods in Psychology Section and the International Society of Critical Health Psychology.

Research & Scholarship

University research group memberships

Dawn is currently a member of the Institute for Research in Citizenship and Applied Human Sciences and the Centre for Applied Psychological Research.

Research interests

Currently Dawn is researching women’s experiences of breastfeeding, the management and repair of shame and the impact of mental health stigma on users of mental health services from a range of age groups. Her research uses mostly qualitative methods and she is interested in the relative contributions of both contextual constructionist approaches and critical discursive methods for researching aspects of lived experience. Her clinical, research and teaching interests in mental health focus particularly on life transitions in relation to mental health (adolescence and later life) and critical perspectives on the conceptualisation of psychological problems.

Grants awarded:

  • 2004 - £15,717, British Academy Larger Research Grant Award.
    'Is breast experienced as best? Piloting audio diaries to explore women's lived experience of breastfeeding.' (with Johnson, S., Lyttle, S. & Williamson, I.)
  • 2011 - £110 ESRC bursary for training in research methods.

Publications and Other Research Outputs

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However, there has been little explicit analysis of the practice of expressing breast milk. The aim of this article is to explore the embodied practice of expressing breast milk. This is done by analysing, from a feminist poststructuralist perspective, discourse surrounding expressing breast milk in sixteen first time mothers’ accounts of early infant feeding. Participants were recruited from a hospital in the South Midlands of England. The data are drawn from the first phase of a larger longitudinal study, during which mothers kept an audio diary about their breastfeeding experiences for seven days following discharge from hospital, and then took part in a follow-up interview. Key themes identified are expressing breast milk as (i) a way of managing pain whilst still feeding breast milk; (ii) a solution to the inefficiencies of the maternal body; (iii) enhancing or disrupting the ‘bonding process’; (iv) a way of managing feeding in public; and (v) a way to negotiate some independence and manage the demands of breastfeeding. Links between these and broader historical and socio-cultural constructions and practices are discussed. This analysis expands current feminist theorising around how women actively create the ‘good maternal body’. As constructed by the participants, expressing breast milk appears to be largely a way of aligning subjectivity with cultural ideologies of motherhood. 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Prior research provides compelling evidence that shame is central to many of the psychological difficulties for which people seek help from mental health services. Although shame has sometimes been conceptualised as negative self-evaluation, other perspectives, and recent research data, suggest the value of understanding shame as a painful awareness of one’s devaluation before potential or actual others. This underscores the importance of social contexts, and one’s perceived position within them, for the development and repair of difficult-to-manage feelings of shame. However, those using mental health services have often described ways in which the services leave them feeling devalued. In our study of experiences of accessing mental health services, although at times participants talked positively about the support and validation they had received from staff, elsewhere they referred to shame-like experiences of feeling demeaned, disempowered, exposed or rejected. We argue that one key factor in such paradoxical ‘care’ is the dominance of diagnostic approaches. Although some service-users may find elements of psychiatric diagnosis helpful, it promotes practices such as disconnection from, objectification of and silencing of service-users, which are diametrically opposed to conditions necessary for repair of shame. Instead, collaborative and sensitive psychological formulation may offer service-users better opportunities to connect with others and contextualise and normalise their difficulties. 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Although the norm is for research methods textbooks to present Qualitative Psychology as a collection of distinct methodologies with differing epistemological positions, many researchers are now in fact exploring bridges between varied qualitative perspectives and examining how combined methodological approaches might offer multi-layered, multi-perspective analyses with a greater range of resources for engaging with the complexity of participants’ experiences. This move against ‘methodolatry’ has not been without its critics though. There is debate as to whether we should be wary of epistemological incoherence or celebrate both the creative possibilities arising from epistemological tensions and the way in which multiple analytic starting points can help to challenge researchers’ pre-suppositions. In order to consider some of these debates, we discuss a project which employed written narratives and an open-ended questionnaire to explore the management and repair of a range of experiences of shame. Two forms of analysis were used. Firstly a thematic analysis with a contextual constructionist epistemology enabled the identification and exploration of themes within the participants’ experiences. Secondly, using a Foucauldian Discourse Analysis, we identified varying discursive constructions of shame and examined the implications of these for managing and repairing shame. Rather than providing an overview of both analyses, the paper focuses on an account by one of the participants (a young woman) of shame following sexual coercion, in order to explore how the addition of the discursive analysis enabled a fuller understanding of her experience of one of the overarching themes from the thematic analysis - ‘Being disabled by shame’. Previous literature on shame has made sense of experiences of feeling disabled or paralysed by shame with reference to other aspects of the phenomenology of shame such as a sense of submissive powerlessness or the desire to hide or destroy a fundamentally flawed self. However, the present analysis explores the way in which the participant also became mute and unable to act in the face of the contradictory constructions of shame available to her. These positioned her ambiguously as both unfairly shamed and yet also shameful and with limited rights to define the situation, hence silencing her and leaving her without a clear basis for resisting a humiliating attack. Reflecting on our use of a dual analysis, we note that whilst the thematic analysis was useful for identifying important aspects of the subjective experience of managing shame shared by many of the participants, the discursive analysis drew useful attention to the often contradictory and ambivalent nature of difficult emotional experiences and the way in which these can be embedded within shifting social meanings and power relations. Finally we suggest briefly some benefits to conducting two separate analyses of the data, rather than one ‘blended’ analysis, but note the challenges of bringing together epistemologically disparate interpretations into a coherent whole. 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Although psychologists and other researchers have explored some of the difficulties they experience, fuller exploration of the relational contexts in which breastfeeding takes place is warranted to enable more in-depth analysis of the challenges these pose for breastfeeding women. The present paper is based on qualitative data collected from 22 first-time breastfeeding mothers through two phases of interviews and audio-diaries which explored how the participants experienced their relationships with significant others and the wider social context of breastfeeding in the first five weeks postpartum. Using a thematic analysis informed by symbolic interactionism, we develop the overarching theme of ‘Practising socially sensitive lactation’ which captures how participants felt the need to manage tensions between breastfeeding and their perceptions of the needs, expectations and comfort of others. We argue that breastfeeding remains a problematic social act, despite its agreed importance for child health. Whilst acknowledging the limitations of our sample and analytic approach, we suggest ways in which perinatal and public health interventions can take more effective account of the social challenges of breastfeeding in order to facilitate the health and psychological well-being of mothers and their infants.', 'creators_id' => 'd.leeming@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '116', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '25', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1080/08870446.2012.737465', 'volume' => '28', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2013', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '8895' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1293099365', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Lyttle', 'eprintid' => '8895', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Steven', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Leeming ', 'eprintid' => '8895', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Dawn', 'creators_id' => 'd.leeming@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hanley', 'eprintid' => '8895', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Mary', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '11', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2010', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '22', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Young people’s images of cigarettes, alcohol and drugs. 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However, few studies involving younger adolescents have collated participant-generated impressions of a range of legal and illegal substances. The present study used a word association methodology to explore adolescents' impressions of cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol and taking a range of illegal drugs. In total, 3571 images were generated which were placed into 24 categories on the basis of content analysis. The predominance of negative imagery was of note, particularly for cigarette smoking and drug taking and there was little evidence of a simplistic generic attitude to substance use. Images of alcohol, especially alcopops, were markedly more positive and were much less likely to contain reference to specific health problems than the images of cigarette smoking. However, there was less differentiation between 'hard' and 'soft' illegal drugs than has been found with older adolescents in other studies and many of the images relating to illegal drugs were poorly defined, revealing vague notions of danger and risk. The present methodology is proposed as a useful tool for assessing attitudes both prior to and following prevention programmes and it is suggested, based on the wide variation in images elicited, that successful prevention dialogues with young people may need to vary their message according to the particular substance targeted.', 'creators_id' => 'd.leeming@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '4654', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '53', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1080/09687630110059168 ', 'volume' => '9', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2002', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '8897' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => 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'BF', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '17', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => 'conference', 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '23', 'datestamp_day' => '23', 'abstract' => 'Although considerable attention has been paid to stigma in relation to mental health difficulties, less attention has been paid to the possible emotional consequences of this, such as chronic feelings of shame, and to the impact on negative or positive identity of an individual’s understanding of his or her mental health difficulties. This presentation draws on data from a qualitative interview-based study with 22 service users which explored how they managed the potential for shame in using mental health services. We discuss one theme from the data, ‘making sense of having a diagnosis’, with reference to (i) the use of diagnostic categories to resist alternative shaming explanations for changed behaviour (ii) the sense of shame some participants felt about their diagnosis (iii) the discursive strategies they used for resisting this, and (iv) the role of others in helping them to make sense of their difficulties in a validating and non-shaming manner. Conclusions are drawn regarding the need for explanations of mental health difficulties that take account of the interdependence of psychological, behavioural and physiological responses to adverse circumstances, without invoking shaming notions of ‘abnormality’. Otherwise, there is a risk that contact with mental health services may exacerbate some of the very difficulties that lead to referral. 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'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '12', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20040900', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '10', 'number' => '3', 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => '3494', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Dawn', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'hhs', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'BF', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '59', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '3', 'datestamp_day' => '3', 'abstract' => 'An increased clinical interest in shame has been reflected in the growing number of research studies in this area. However, clinically-orientated empirical investigation has mostly been restricted to the investigation of individual differences in dispositional shame. This paper reviews recent work on dispositional shame but then argues that the primacy of this construct has been problematic in a number of ways. Most importantly, the notion of shame as a context-free intrapsychic variable has distracted clinical researchers from investigating the management and repair of experiences of shame and shameful identities, and has made the social constitution of shame less visible. Several suggestions are made for alternative ways in which susceptibility to shame could be conceptualised, which consider how shame might arise in certain contexts and as a product of particular social encounters. For example, persistent difficulties with shame may relate to the salience of stigmatising discourses within a particular social context, the roles or subject positions available to an individual, the establishment of a repertoire of context-relevant shame avoidance strategies and the personal meaning of shamefulness. 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=> undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Dawn', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'capr', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'BF', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '39', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => 'conference', 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '23', 'datestamp_day' => '23', 'abstract' => 'Understanding the establishment of breastfeeding by focussing on the mother-child dyad offers only a limited perspective. Instead, breastfeeding can be understood as becoming established or breaking down within broader networks of relationships (e.g. Dykes, 2006; Tiedje et al., 2002). Quantitative research has suggested that support from various others (lay and professional) can be an important factor in sustaining breastfeeding (Sikorski et al., 2003). However, those around the mother may orientate to breastfeeding in various ways. For example, fathers play a key role in decisions about infant feeding and in supporting breastfeeding, and yet need to define and adjust to their new parenting role and changed relationship with their partner in a way that accommodates breastfeeding (Bar-Yam & Darby, 1997). From the perspective of the mother, breastfeeding can be an important aspect of the transition to motherhood. However, becoming a mother is not an individual project but one that involves redefining roles and relationships with others (Mercer, 2004; Nelson, 2003), and negotiating mothering practices such as breastfeeding in the context of others’ expectations and cultural prescriptions for motherhood (McBride-Henry, 2010). The present research aims to extend understanding of how breastfeeding mothers experience their relations with others and how these are implicated in their experiences of breastfeeding and their developing relationship with their infant. The data discussed here have been taken from a longitudinal qualitative study of 22 new mothers in the UK who expressed an intention to breastfeed and were interviewed during the first week following birth and one month later. At each time point they were also asked to keep an audio-diary of their experiences of feeding their baby for one week. The analysis discussed here draws on symbolic interactionism and other theoretical perspectives which emphasise the relational nature of the self and assume that relations with others are part of, rather than external to, lived experience and mediate more distal cultural influences. The themes explored include the women’s sense of duty to balance what they saw as the needs of their baby, their own needs and the needs, demands and sensibilities of others, and the ways in which they negotiated these. We also discuss the way in which, as the participants were developing their new identities as breastfeeding mothers, others with expertise in breastfeeding or perceived to have knowledge regarding related norms and expectations took on a particular significance in the women’s lives. As such, these "experts" were experienced by the participants as in a powerful position to provide either validation or invalidation of them as breastfeeding mothers. We discuss (i) the implications of our analysis for facilitating supportive interactions between health professionals and breastfeeding mothers and their immediate networks and (ii) the implications for breastfeeding promotion of viewing ongoing engagement with the practices of infant feeding as mutually negotiated and enabled, rather than as the choice of individual women. 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In order to explore how this might be achieved, we investigated how those who self-identify as in recovery from alcohol problems view themselves and their difficulties with alcohol and how they make sense of others’ responses to their addiction. Semi-structured interviews with six individuals who had been in recovery between 5 and 35 years and in contact with Alcoholics Anonymous were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The participants were acutely aware of stigmatising images of ‘alcoholics’ and described having struggled with a considerable dilemma in accepting this identity themselves. However, to some extent they were able to resist stigma by conceiving of an ‘aware alcoholic self’ which was divorced from their previously unaware self and formed the basis for a new more knowing and valued identity.', 'creators_id' => 'd.leeming@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '3483', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '27', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1007/s11469-014-9508-z', 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2014', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '10991' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1372168168', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Leeming', 'eprintid' => '10991', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Dawn', 'creators_id' => 'd.leeming@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Williamson', 'eprintid' => '10991', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Iain', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Johnson', 'eprintid' => '10991', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Sally', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Lyttle', 'eprintid' => '10991', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Steven', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 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'disk0/00/01/09/91', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '39', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'd.leeming@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8709.2011.00328.x', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '7', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '31', 'publisher' => 'Wiley-Blackwell', 'pagerange' => '434-447', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2011', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Maternal and Child Nutrition', 'lastmod_second' => '46', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1740-8695', 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Leeming', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '37', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 10, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '10991', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '1', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20121000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '4', 'rev_number' => '13', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Dawn', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'hhs', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'HQ', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '56', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '14', 'datestamp_day' => '14', 'abstract' => 'Breastfeeding is a practice which is promoted and scrutinized in the UK and internationally. In this paper, we use interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore the experiences of eight British first-time mothers who struggled with breastfeeding in the early post-partum period. Participants kept audio-diary accounts of their infant feeding experiences across a 7-day period immediately following the birth of their infant and took part in related semi-structured interviews a few days after completion of the diary. The overarching theme identified was of a tension between the participants' lived, embodied experience of struggling to breastfeed and the cultural construction of breastfeeding as ‘natural’ and trouble-free. Participants reported particular difficulties interpreting the pain they experienced during feeds and their emerging maternal identities were threatened, often fluctuating considerably from feed to feed. We discuss some of the implications for breastfeeding promotion and argue for greater awareness and understanding of breastfeeding difficulties so that breastfeeding women are less likely to interpret these as a personal shortcoming in a manner which disempowers them. We also advocate the need to address proximal and distal influences around the breastfeeding dyad and, in particular, to consider the broader cultural context in the UK where breastfeeding is routinely promoted yet often constructed as a shameful act if performed in the public arena.', 'creators_id' => 'd.leeming@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '116', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '56', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1111/j.1740-8709.2011.00328.x', 'volume' => '8', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2012', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '13566' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1401184556', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Leeming', 'eprintid' => '13566', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Dawn', 'creators_id' => 'd.leeming@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Johnson', 'eprintid' => '13566', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Sally', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Lyttle', 'eprintid' => '13566', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Steven', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Williamson', 'eprintid' => '13566', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Iain', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '5', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'Author checking agreement to see if can send PP SJT 22/5/12', 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/13566/1/LeemingExpressing_article_JAN_revised_Dec_2011_FINAL_(Repository).pdf|/style/images/fileicons/application_msword.png;/13566/2/LeemingExpressing_article_JAN_revised_Dec_2011_FINAL_(Repository).doc', 'status_changed_second' => '55', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Maintaining the 'good maternal body': Expressing milk as a way of negotiating the demands and dilemmas of early infant feeding. ', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/35/66', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '57', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'd.leeming@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2012.06035.x', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '5', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '27', 'publisher' => 'Blackwell Publishing', 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Journal of Advanced Nursing', 'lastmod_second' => '59', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0309-2402', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Leeming', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '55', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => undef, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '13566', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '5', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20120000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '9', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '14', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Dawn', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'hhs', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'BF', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '21', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '22', 'datestamp_day' => '22', 'abstract' => 'Aim.? To report a descriptive study of early infant feeding experiences focusing on accounts of women who expressed milk extensively in the first few weeks postpartum. Background.? Relatively little is known about the reasons for expressing milk following healthy term births. Evidence indicates it is an increasingly common practice during early infant feeding in Westernized countries. A more comprehensive understanding of this practice will help midwives and nurses assist mothers negotiate early feeding challenges. Design.? Qualitative data were collected in two phases in the first few weeks postpartum. Method.? Audio-diary and semi-structured interview data from seven British women who extensively expressed milk in the first month postpartum were analysed. These data were drawn from a larger qualitative longitudinal study which took place in 2006–2007. Themes, discursive constructions and discourses are identified through the use of a feminist informed analysis. Findings.? The practice of expressing was employed as a solution to managing the competing demands and dilemmas of early breastfeeding and ensuring the continued provision of breast milk, thereby deflecting potential accusations of poor mothering. In addition, the practice may afford a degree of freedom to new mothers. Conclusions.? The need to maintain the ‘good maternal body’ can account for the motivation to express milk, although there may be reasons to be cautious about promoting expression as a solution to breastfeeding difficulties. Education for health professionals, which emphasizes the complexities and contradictions of mothering and which challenges prescriptive notions of ‘good mothering’ could better support new mothers in their feeding ‘choices’. 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'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '41', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'd.leeming@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.2011.02061.x', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '25', 'publisher' => 'Wiley', 'pagerange' => '140-160', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2011', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'British Journal of Social Psychology', 'lastmod_second' => '19', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0144-6665', 'datestamp_hour' => '9', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Leeming', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '29', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 3, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '11371', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '6', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20130300', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '1', 'rev_number' => '14', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Dawn', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'hhs', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'BF', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '1', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '25', 'datestamp_day' => '25', 'abstract' => 'Experiences of shame are often difficult to manage, not least because of their interpersonal implications. However, limited research attention has been paid to the management and repair of shame, and in particular to the role that social factors may play in this. We aimed to explore these issues by obtaining 50 written first-person accounts of experiences of managing difficult episodes of shame from a cross section of students and employees at a British university. These participant-generated narrative accounts were supplemented by written answers to open-ended questions. Via a contextual constructionist thematic analysis, three overarching themes were identified: The centrality of others’ evaluations of the self; Repositioning the self vis-à-vis others, and Being disabled by shame. Discussion focuses on the first two of these themes which together suggest that because the participants saw their shame as produced in interaction with others, effective management and repair of shame depended not just on a changed view of the self but on a repositioning of the self in relation to others. This analysis therefore suggests that repair of shame may often need to be mutually negotiated and as such provides support for theoretical approaches to shame which emphasize the centrality of others’ actual or perceived judgements of the self. ', 'creators_id' => 'd.leeming@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '116', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '1', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1111/j.2044-8309.2011.02061.x', 'volume' => '52', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2013', 'status_changed_hour' => '9', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '9529' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1297334749', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Leeming', 'eprintid' => '9529', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Dawn', 'creators_id' => 'd.leeming@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '2', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2011', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/9529/3/LeemingEmpirepdf.pdf|/style/images/fileicons/application_msword.png;/9529/1/The_Empire_of_Trauma_%2D_book_review.doc', 'status_changed_second' => '47', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Book review 'The Empire of Trauma: An Inquiry into the Condition of Victimhood by Didier Fassin & Richard Rechtman', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/95/29', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '18', 'refereed' => 'FALSE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.bpsshop.org.uk/Social-Psychological-Review-Vol-12-No-2-December-2010-P1383.aspx', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '2', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '10', 'publisher' => 'British Psychological Society', 'pagerange' => '37-40', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2011', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Social psychological review', 'lastmod_second' => '47', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1369-7862', 'datestamp_hour' => '11', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Leeming', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '47', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 12, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '9529', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2011', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '2', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20101200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => '2', 'rev_number' => '16', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Dawn', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'capr', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'BF', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '18', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '10', 'datestamp_day' => '10', 'abstract' => 'Fassin and Rechtman’s aims are not to explore individual experiences of victimhood or trauma. Instead their concern is with the social and political impact of the concept of ‘trauma’ as an increasingly used resource for making sense of a wide range of suffering. Addressing a multi-disciplinary audience, and initially taking a historical perspective, they explore ‘how we have moved from a realm in which the symptoms of the wounded solder or the injured worker were deemed of doubtful legitimacy to one in which their suffering, no longer contested, testifies to an experience that excites sympathy and merits compensation’ ', 'creators_id' => 'd.leeming@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '4654', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '18', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => '12', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2010', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef } };

2014

Leeming, D., Brooks, J., Burr, V. and Lucock, M. (2014) ‘Therapists' perspectives on using case formulation’. In: 5th Qualitative Research on Mental Health Conference, 2-4th September 2014, Chania, Greece

Hill, J. and Leeming, D. (2014) ‘Reconstructing ‘the Alcoholic’: Recovering from Alcohol Addiction and the Stigma this EntailsInternational Journal of Mental Health and Addiction . ISSN 1557-1874

2013

Leeming, D. and Boyle, M. (2013) ‘Exploring paralysis in the face of shame: An example of pluralism in qualitative analysis. ’. In: Annual conference of Qualitative Methods in Psychology Section of British Psychological Society, 4-6 September, Huddersfield

Leeming, D. and Boyle, M. (2013) ‘Shame and using mental health services: Connection and validation or alienation and objectification? ’. In: 8th biennial conference of International Society of Critical Health Psychology, July, 2013, Bradford, UK

Leeming, D., Williamson, I., Johnson, S. and Lyttle, S. (2013) ‘Socially sensitive lactation: Exploring the social context of breastfeedingPsychology and Health , 28 (4), pp. 450-468. ISSN 0887-0446

Leeming, D., Williamson, I., Johnson, S. and Lyttle, S. (2013) ‘Making use of expertise: A qualitative analysis of the experience of breastfeeding support for first time mothersMaternal & Child Nutrition . ISSN 1740-8709

Leeming, D. and Boyle, M. (2013) ‘Managing shame: An interpersonal perspectiveBritish Journal of Social Psychology , 52 (1), pp. 140-160. ISSN 0144-6665

2012

Williamson, I., Leeming, D., Lyttle, S. and Johnson, S. (2012) ‘It should be the most natural thing in the world: exploring first-time mothers' breastfeeding difficulties in the UK using audio-diaries and interviewsMaternal and Child Nutrition , 8 (4), pp. 434-447. ISSN 1740-8695

Johnson, S., Leeming, D., Lyttle, S. and Williamson, I. (2012) ‘Empowerment or regulation? Exploring the implications of women’s perspectives on pumping breast milk’. In: Beyond Health, Beyond Choice: Breastfeeding Constraints and Realities. : Rutgers University Press. . ISBN 9780813553030

Johnson, S., Leeming, D., Williamson, I. and Lyttle, S. (2012) ‘Maintaining the 'good maternal body': Expressing milk as a way of negotiating the demands and dilemmas of early infant feeding. Journal of Advanced Nursing . ISSN 0309-2402

2011

Leeming, D., Williamson, I., Johnson, S. and Lyttle, S. (2011) ‘Becoming a breastfeeding mother: An interactionist perspective’. In: Nutrition and Nurture in Infancy and Childhood: Bio-Cultural Perspectives , 8-10 June 2011, Lancashire, UK

2010

Leeming, D (2010) ‘Book review 'The Empire of Trauma: An Inquiry into the Condition of Victimhood by Didier Fassin & Richard RechtmanSocial psychological review , 12 (2), pp. 37-40. ISSN 1369-7862

Leeming, D., Boyle, M. and MacDonald, J. (2010) ‘Managing shame in relation to both diagnostic & psychosocial conceptualisations of psychological problems’. In: The 3rd Qualitative Research on Mental Health Conference , 25-27 August, 2010, University of Nottingham, UK

2009

Johnson , S., Williamson, I., Lyttle, S. and Leeming, D. (2009) ‘Expressing yourself: A feminist analysis of talk around expressing breast milkSocial Science and Medicine , 69 (6), pp. 900-907. ISSN 0277-9536

Leeming, D., Boyle, M. and MacDonald, J. (2009) ‘Accounting for psychological problems: How user-friendly is formulation?Clinical Psychology Forum , 200, pp. 12-15. ISSN 1473-8279

2005

Leeming, D., Boyle, M. and MacDonald, J. (2005) ‘‘Even though I do not regret what I did,…I felt ashamed’: Shame and the Judgement of Others’. In: 2005 Scottish Branch Annual Conference BPS, 25-26th November 2005, Saluation Hotel, Perth

2004

Leeming, D. and Boyle, M. (2004) ‘Shame as a social phenomenon: A critical analysis of the concept of dispositional shamePsychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice , 77 (3), pp. 375-396. ISSN 1476-0835

2002

Leeming , D., Lyttle, S. and Hanley, M. (2002) ‘Young people’s images of cigarettes, alcohol and drugs. Drugs: Education, Prevention & Policy , 9 (2), pp. 169-185. ISSN 0968-7637

1998

Leeming, D (1998) ‘Shame and later lifePSIGE Newsletter , 67, pp. 17-21.

Research Degree Supervision

  • Shame - subjective experience, discursive construction, resistance, management, repair.
  • Qualitative explorations of aspects of the subjective experience of psychological problems and of accessing mental health services.
  • Transition to motherhood, particularly breastfeeding.
  • Alternatives to psychiatric models of psychological problems.
  • Lay and professional understandings of psychological difficulties (particularly as related to older adults).

Currently supervising doctoral research in the following areas:

  • Shame in psychotherapy training.
  • Experiences of voice hearing and people with learning disabilities.
  • Alcohol/substance misuse associated with violence and aggression.

Administrative Responsibilities

  • Admissions tutor for Psychology and Counselling Division.
  • Member of Human and Health Sciences School Board.
  • Member of Psychology and Counselling Division Ethics Panel.

Teaching and Professional Activities

Module Leader:

  • HIK1010 Cognitive Behavioural and Humanistic Approaches to Counselling.
  • HIK1011 Humanistic Approaches to Counselling.

Other teaching:

  • Qualitative Research Methods.
  • Psychological Difficulties.
  • Psychology of Health and Well-being.
  • Critical perspectives on Individual Differences.

External examining:

  • MSc Child and Adolescent Mental Health, University of Northampton.

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