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Portrait of Dr Bernard Gallagher Dr Bernard Gallagher

b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk | 01484 473158



Biography

I have worked as a researcher, specialising in child protection, since 1987. I have directed child protection research projects since 1992. From that time, I have carried out major projects into organised child sexual abuse (CSA), the physical and sexual abuse of children by strangers, the attrition of cases of child abuse and neglect in the criminal justice system, and international and internet CSA. I have also carried out research into looked after children. I have had research grants from the Charity Commission, the Department of Health, the Economic and Social Research Council (3), the Home Office, New Horizons (Child Care) Ltd., the NSPCC and The Nuffield Foundation. Prior to this, I worked with Jane Gibbons on a Department of Health funded follow-up study of physically abused children (1988-1992), David Farrington and Donald West on the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (1984-87), and Sue Creighton in the NSPCC Research Unit (1987-88) Before becoming a researcher, I worked as a residential social worker, for almost four years, in a variety of children’s homes in London.

I am currently an Associate Editor with Child Abuse Review.

Research & Scholarship

University research group memberships

I am currently a member of the Institute for Research in Citizenship and Applied Human Sciences and the Centre for Applied Childhood Studies.

Research interests

My special area of interest is child protection but I am also interested in the care of looked after children. Given the sensitivities of child protection research, along with the challenges arising from other studies I have worked on, I am concerned, in addition, with the methodological and ethical issues that arise in social research.

I have been awarded the following research and research-related grants in the last five years:

  • International and internet child sexual abuse, The Nuffield Foundation, £35,000, 2002-04
  • International and internet child sexual abuse (conference and travel grant to attend the 2nd World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, Yokohama, Japan, December 17-20), The Nuffield Foundation, £1,000, 2002
  • International and internet child sexual abuse (project extension), The Nuffield Foundation, £7,000, 2003-2004

Publications and Other Research Outputs

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Despite this, knowledge about it remains limited. This paper presents findings from a study of institutional abuse cases referred to social service departments or the police in eight local authority areas. While such cases were relatively uncommon and constituted a small proportion of all child protection referrals, some involved large numbers of victims and abusers. Institutional abuse cases in the present study shared some characteristics with the majority of (intrafamilial) abuse cases, but there were also important differences, such as the proportion of male victims and the extent to which abuses used techniques of targeting and entrapment. Contrary to media representations, the institutional abuse reported here was not just a problem of children's homes, social work or the public sector, but occurred in a wide variety of settings and sectors and was perpetrated by a range of occupational groups. If all children are to be protected, then policy and practice measures to prevent abuse need to be directed towards a much wider range of institutions. 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This has highlighted the uncertainty over how best to educate these children and a pessimism over what they can achieve. Drawing upon the findings of an evaluation of a children’s home, this paper argues that children in residential care can have good educational outcomes. It also shows that it is possible to identify the processes by which these outcomes can be brought about. However, this largely positive assessment is predicated upon education being defined broadly in respect of ‘process’ and ‘outcome’. Moreover, it is important not to underestimate the formidable challenges inherent in this work. While the multi-agency nature of this work gives rise to one of the most significant, it has to be recognized that responsibility for the education of children in residential care falls primarily to children’s homes. If children’s homes are to meet the increasing expectations that are being made of them, national and local government will have to undertake a radical transformation of residential childcare, especially in terms of attitudes towards, and resources invested in, this sector. Central to this is the establishment of a qualified and properly supported workforce', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => undef, 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1093/bjsw/bch133', 'volume' => '34', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => 'References from scan from ILL', 'referencetext' => 'Aldgate, J .. Heath. A., Co1ton. M. and Simm, M. (1993) 'Social work and the education of children in foster care', Adoption and Fostering. 17, pp. 2.'1-34. 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=> undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '14', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'cacs', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'H1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '15', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => 'conference', 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '9', 'datestamp_day' => '9', 'abstract' => 'Objectives To establish the prevalence, typology and nature of incidents involving the attempted, or completed, sexual abuse and/or abduction of children by strangers. Method A school-based questionnaire survey with 2,420 children (83% response rate) aged 9- 16 years in 26 primary and secondary schools in North-West England. Results Almost 7% of children reported being the victim of a stranger-perpetrated attempted or completed sexual abuse or abduction incident away from home at some point in their lives. Four main types of incident were identified: indecent exposure (41%), touching (26%) and abduction (23%), and incidents involving multiple types of act (10%). The majority of these abductions (91%) and touching incidents (51%) were attempted as opposed to completed. Rates of victimization were generally higher among girls than boys (10% vs. 4%, p < .001). A sizeable minority of victims had experienced sexual abuse or abduction previously (29%). The large majority of incidents were carried out by males (88%). Most incidents occurred when children were accompanied by their peers (68%). Many victims were frightened by their experience (47% very frightened) and the large majority made a disclosure (80%). Only a minority of incidents were reported to the police (33%). 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'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '59', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '25', 'datestamp_day' => '25', 'abstract' => 'Last year, ChildLine – the national telephone helpline for children – celebrated its twentieth year of operation. Since its launch, it has answered 22 million telephone calls and counselled almost two million children on a range of grave problems including sexual, physical and emotional abuse, bullying, self-harm and suicide. ChildLine can rightly be viewed as one of the most important developments in child protection and wider child welfare in the UK in the last two decades.', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '59', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2007', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '16887' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => 'Department of Social Policy and Social Work', 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => 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'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'hhs', 'institution' => 'University of Manchester', 'subjects' => 'HN', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '16', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '1', 'datestamp_day' => '1', 'abstract' => 'Family participation in child protection conferences, and also the wider child protection system, has been a major issue in terms of policy, practice and family rights, and it raises a number of questions regarding, for example, parents being able to put their perspective and the sharing of information between agency workers. Aware of all of these concerns, the then Liverpool Area Child Protection Committee embarked upon a pilot project to assess the feasibility of family participation in initial cases conferences in three districts. Family members were invited to attend conferences between November 1991 and January 1992. Family members attended 20 conferences in this period. The pilot exercise was evaluated by means of questionnaires administered to agency workers (81 agency workers completed, between them, a total of 125 questionnaires in respect of the 20 conferences) and interviews with at least one family member from 17 of the families represented at the 20 conferences. The results were as follows: family members firmly believed they should be invited to attend initial case conferences, even though they found them very stressful and the conference format was not conducive to their participation. Efforts to prepare family members for participation were at least moderately successful and family members participated in the conference to a moderate degree at least. The presence of a family member did have some effect on agency worker behaviour and it affected the attitudes of a large number of agency workers. Training for family participation was highly valued but there was insufficient provision. Many of the problems experienced through participation were specific to particular families, agencies or conferences. Exclusions, of family members, were rare. Young people are able and willing to participate in cases conferences. The conclusions of the research are that: family members should be invited to initial cases conferences but more effort need to be invested in the training of agency workers and the preparation of family members. Chairpersons and keyworkers should be involved in briefing family members before the conference and de-briefing them afterwards. Resources need to be invested in the practical or logistical aspects of family participation. The format of conferences needs to be changed to make it more suitable to family participation. Family members should be provided with a contract that sets out what they should expect from participation and the child protection system. Family members should have access to an independent person to discuss any questions or concerns they have about participation or cases conferences more generally. Family participation should be subject to an on-going monitoring exercise to determine its effects.', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '116', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => 'project_report', 'datestamp_minute' => '16', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '1993', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '5567' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1294151013', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 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In Researching Children’s Perspectives, Lewis A, Lindsay G (eds). Open University Press: Milton Keynes. Matthews H, Limb M, Percy-Smith B. 1998. Changing worlds: the microgeographies of young teenagers, Tijdschrift voor Economische e.n. Social Geografie 89(2): 193–202. McNeish D, Roberts H. 1995. Playing it Safe. Today’s Children at Play. Barnardos: Ilford. Mawby R. 1979. The victimisation of juveniles: a comparative study of three areas of publicly owned housing in Sheffield. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 10(1): 98–113. Mental Health Foundation. 1999. Bright Futures. Mental Health Foundation: London. Pease K. 1998. Repeat victimisation: taking stock. Preventing and Detecting Crime. Paper 90. Home Office: Ilford. Weale S. 1995. Parents protection dilemma. The Guardian. 1st August p. 2. Wurtele SK, Miller-Perrin CL. 1992. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Shared Responsibility. University of Nebraska Press: Lincoln, Nebraska. 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OCSA includes the following types of case: • Child sexual abuse (CSA) by multiple offenders (a small proportion of these cases may also involve allegations of ritual or satanic CSA) • Sex offenders who abuse a series of children • Sex offenders who abuse children with whom they work The study described in this research report* involved the following: • A postal questionnaire survey carried out among police child protection teams and children’s services departments, and selected NSPCC projects. (Information was obtained on 51 OCSA cases.) • Interviews with agency workers concerning specific cases of OCSA that they had investigated or managed. These interviewees comprised police officers, social workers and staff from voluntary agencies/NGOs, including the NSPCC. Interviews were carried out with 30 agency workers. • Interviews with agency workers who had either more specialist knowledge of OCSA cases or who could provide input on the broader aspects of investigating and managing OCSA. Interviews were carried out with 13 agency workers. All of the above work was carried out in London in 1995 and 1996. It was funded by the NSPCC (National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children). The research report contains numerous findings on the special issues that arise in the investigation and management of OCSA cases. It also makes a whole series or recommendations as to how practitioners should respond to these cases. The research report addresses work in the following areas: Area Child Protection Committees [now superseded by Local Safeguarding Children’s Boards]; the handling of OCSA in general; and then the specific issues that arise in terms of the roles of the police, children’s services departments, the NSPCC, the criminal justice system, the Prison Service, Customs and Excise, other ACPC agencies (health, education and probation) and voluntary agencies/NGOs. This work remains one of the few studies of OCSA. *Gallagher, B. (1998) Grappling with Smoke. Investigating and Managing Organised Child Sexual Abuse: A Good Practice Guide. 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This technology includes computers and their software, the internet and its innumerable protocols, digital storage devices, web and digital cameras, and mobile phones. These developments— which are ongoing—have radically altered our ability to obtain and manage information, and a wide variety of other materials. Moreover, they have drastically changed the way in which we communicate with one another and interact more generally. This is relevant as much to our professional as our personal lives, and as much to children (including young people) as adults.', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '45', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1002/car.923', 'volume' => '14', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => 'Gallagher B, Christmann K, Fraser C, Hodgson B. 2003. International and internet child sexual abuse and exploitation—issues emerging from research. 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'datestamp_hour' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Gallagher', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => undef, 'note' => 'First published in Child and Family Law Quarterly Volume 15 Number 4 2003 and reproduced by kind permission of Jordan Publishing Limited.', 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => undef, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '394', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2010', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '12', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20030000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => '4', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '3494', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'cacs', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'HN', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '34', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '22', 'datestamp_day' => '13', 'abstract' => 'There has, in recent years, been growing awareness and concern over cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) and exploitation1 which involve an international or internet dimension. These include child trafficking,2 child sex tourism,3 child abuse images4 (CAI), and g rooming.5 In terms of official recognition, these are relatively new risks to children, and ostensibly quite major ones. Governments, law enforcement and welfare agencies, voluntary bodies and industry have responded by implementing or advocating a plethora of policy and practice measures.6 In light of this level of concern and intervention, this article seeks to establish what is known regarding the extent and nature of these cases, and examines the subsequent organisational response. It does this by drawing upon the authors’ ongoing research in this area, other (completed) research and the wider literature.', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => undef, 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => '15', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => 'publisher supplied pdf with above statement required', 'referencetext' => '1 A number of authors, especially in this particular field of study, discriminate between child sexual abuse, which is generally that which takes place within the home or other familiar contexts, and child sexual exploitation, which generally involves a more commercial and organised element. For the purposes of this article, and partly in the interests of brevity, the term child sexual abuse is used throughout to refer to both categories. For further discussion see J. Warburton, ‘Prevention, protection and recovery of children from commercial sexual exploitation’, paper presented at the 2nd World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (Yokohama, 17–20 December 2001). 2 Stop the Traffic! (UNICEF, 2003) available at: www.endchildexploitation.org.uk/pdf/ct/uktrafficking reportfinal.pdf. 3 J. Seabrook, No Hiding Place: Child Sex Tourism and the Role of Extraterritorial Legislation (Zed Books, 2000); M. Taylor and E. Quayle, Child Pornography. An Internet Crime (Brunner-Routledge, 2003); and D. Finkelhor, K. J. Mitchell and J. Wolak, Online Victimisation: A Report on the Nation’s Youth (National Centre for Missing and Exploited Children, 2000). 4 In common with an increasing number of workers in the field, we believe the term ‘child abuse images’ should be used in place of ‘child pornography’. This is because it is felt the latter term tends to suggest that the problem is predominantly one of images of naked children and does not convey the full range of acts to which children may be subjected, and which can, for example, involve rape, bestiality and torture. 5 ‘Grooming’ refers to the process whereby a would-be abuser manipulates a child into a situation where he or she can be more readily sexually abused and is simultaneously less likely to disclose. As the term ‘grooming’ is the one most commonly used at present (including within the Government’s Sexual Offences Bill) it is adopted in this article. However, as a number of commentators have argued, this term is not – in the light of what children are subjected to – a wholly appropriate term. One of the current authors has suggested the term ‘entrapment’ in its place. For further discussion see B. Gallagher, Grappling with Smoke. Investigating and Managing Organised Child Sexual Abuse. A Good Practice Guide (NSPCC, 1998). 6 National Plan for Safeguarding Children from Commercial Sexual Exploitation (Department of Health, 2001).7 ECPAT – End Child Prostitution, Pornography and Trafficking, IWF – Internet Watch Foundation; NSPCC – National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children; and UNICEF – The United Nations Children’s Fund. 8 Where possible this paper uses the term ‘abuser’ in place of ‘paedophile’ as it is felt the latter term is misleading, particularly in respect of the causes of CSA. For further discussion see B. Gallagher, ‘Paedophiles: What’s the problem?’ (1998) 28 Nota News 3. 9 Op cit, n 6. 10 Profiting from Abuse. An Investigation into the Sexual Exploitation of our Children (UNICEF, 2001). 11 Indeed, in the course of writing this article the authors were struck by a number of factual errors in the literature. Although these largely numerical errors were not of an order whereby they conveyed a radically different message, they do serve to underline a casualness with which some of the literature has been produced, which, in turn, underlines the need for caution. 12 A seventh category of case, which could have been included here, is that of children being exposed to pornography over the internet. This, however, was beyond the remit of the current study. For further discussion see K. J . Mitchell, D. Finkelhor a nd J . Wolas, ‘The exposure o f youth t o unwanted s exual material o n the Internet. A National Survey of Risk, Impact and Prevention’ (2003) 34(3) Youth and Society 330.13 What has been included here – as something of a sub-category – are cases where individuals have initiated contact with a child via the latter’s mobile phone, and have gone on to groom and then sexually abuse that child. There were two main reasons why it was felt relevant to include these cases; one, being the increasing computer, and especially internet, ability of mobile phones – the so-called 3G phones; and two, reports from Japan, specifically, of children being drawn into child prostitution having first been approached over their mobile phones. For further discussion see Childnet International, ‘Children, Mobile Phones and the Internet: the Mobile Internet and Children’, proceedings of the Experts’ Meeting in Tokyo (Japan, 6–7 March 2003) available at: www.childnet-int.org.14 L. Kelly and L. Regan, Stopping the Traffic: Exploring the Extent of and Responses to Trafficking in Women for Sexual Exploitation in the UK (Home Office, 2000), at p 22. 15 L. Kelly, ‘Journeys of jeopardy: a commentary on current research on trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation within Europe’, paper presented at the European Conference on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings: Global Challenge for the 21st Century (Brussels, 18–20 September 2000). 16 Op cit, n 2. 17 See, for example, ‘Britons “killed boys” in Dutch porn movies’, The Guardian, 5 April 1997. 18 End Child Exploitation: Faces of Exploitation (UNICEF, 2003), at p 18. 19 Child Trafficking. Information Sheet (UNICEF, 2003), at p 1. 20 Child-Safe. Protecting Young People Travelling Abroad. Conference Report (Avon and Somerset Constabulary, 1999). 21 Facts and Figures (UNICEF, 2003). 22 J. O’Connell Davidson, ‘The Sex Exploiter’, paper presented at the 2nd World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (Yokohama, 17–20 December 2001), at p 14. 23 Early Marriage: Whose Right to Choose? (Forum on Marriage and the Rights of Women and Girls, 2000).24 C. Somerset, What the Professionals Know: The trafficking of Children into and through the UK for Sexual Purposes (ECPAT, 2001). 25 Op cit, n 15. 26 Op cit, n 14. 27 Op cit, n 2. 28 A. Hill, ‘Teenage slaves bought to order’, The Observer, 14 January 2001. 29 Op cit, n 2. 30 Op cit, n 22. 31 Op cit, n 20.32 British Refugee Council and Save the Children, Separated Children in the UK (Save the Children, 2001). 33 No Child of Mine. Opening the World’s Eyes to the Sexual Exploitation of Children (World Vision, 2002), at p 7. 34 Op cit, n 24. 35 Protecting the Public. Strengthening Protection against Sex Offenders and Reforming the Law on Sexual Offences, Cm 5668 (Home Office, 2002). 36 L. Gray, Children at Risk. Practical Approaches to Addressing Child Protection Issues in Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam (World Vision, 2003). 37 Op cit, n 6. 38 Op cit, n 10, at p 22. 39 Op cit, n 20. 40 D. Adams, ‘Exchange dangers’, Police Review, 21 August 1998. 41 A Choice by Right. The Report of the Working Group on Forced Marriages (Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 2000). 42 Dealing with Cases of Forced Marriages. Guidelines for Police (Foreign and Commonwealth Office, undated). 43 Forced Marriage – The Overseas Dimension (Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 2000).44 A. Travis and J. Meikle, ‘Howard set to block sex tourism bill’, The Guardian, 13 July 1995. 45 K. Marks, ‘British sex tourists turn killing fields of Cambodia into paedophiles’ playground’ The Independent on Sunday, 5 January 2003. 46 Op cit, n 22. 47 Op cit, n 3.48 End Child Exploitation. Information Sheet (UNICEF, 2003). 49 J. Kane, Sold for Sex (Arena, 1998). 50 ‘Asia’s child sex tourism rising’ available at: www.news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/891319.stm (accessed on: 30 June 2003). 51 Op cit, n 10. 52 J. O’Connell, ‘Sex tourism in Cuba’ (1996) 38(1) Race and Class 39. 53 Op cit, n 6. 54 Op cit, n 2. 55 ‘Government Crackdown on Sex Tourism’ available at: www.homeoffice.gov.uk accessed on: 9 September 2003. 56 P. Cawson, C. Wattam, S. Brooker and G. Kelly, Child Maltreatment in the United Kingdom. A Study of the Prevalence of Child Abuse and Neglect (NSPCC, 2000).57 HM Customs and Excise, Ninety-third Report of the Commissioners of HM Customs and Excise, Cm 5671 (TSO, 2002). 58 J. Carr, ‘Child Pornography’, paper presented at the 2nd World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (Yokohama, 17–20 December 2001). 59 Ibid. 60 T. Tate, Child Pornography. An Investigation (Methuen, 1990).61 W. Utting, People Like Us. The Report of the Review of the Safeguards for Children Living Away from Home (TSO, 1997), at p 102. 62 Op cit, n 6. 63 Op cit, n 58. 64 Annual Report of Investigations (US Postal Inspection Service, 2002). 65 Op cit, n 3.66 K. J. Mitchell, D. Finkelhor and J. Wolak, ‘Risk factors for and impact of online sexual solicitation of youth’ (2001) 285(33) Journal of the American Medical Association 3011, at p 3013. 67 Op cit, n 3. 68 Ibid, at p 7.69 Op cit, n 6. 70 Online Grooming and UK Law. A Submission by Childnet International to the Home Office (Childnet International, undated). 71 For example, the Superhighway Safety Pack produced between the Department for Education and Skills and the British Educational Communications and Technology Agency. 72 Op cit, n 58. 73 Op cit, n 35. 74 Op cit, n 70. 75 Op cit, n 60. 76 It should be pointed out that the terms ‘incitement’ and ‘conspiracy’ are, for the purposes of this article, not employed in any strict legal sense but are used to describe the basic components of an offender’s behaviour.77 This may either be a specified child – as occurs when the abuse of children is viewed and directed over the internet in ‘real time’ (ie the person holding the child receives instructions as to what they should do) – or a more general incitement to abuse unknown children. 78 Op cit, n 3. 79 G. Seenan and A. Clennell, ‘Trainee teacher jailed after US tip-off’, The Guardian, 12 August 2003.80 For further discussion see P. Sommer, ‘Evidence in Internet paedophilia cases’, paper presented at the Policing Child Abuse on the Internet Conference (Buckinghamshire Chilterns University College, 15–16 July 2002). 81 There are a number of dimensions according to which the extent of internet-based CAIs can be measured. While this article cannot discuss any of these in detail, it does endeavour to provide some guide as to the scale of the problem. In considering these figures, it is important to take on board a number of caveats. The internet, in terms of content and usage, is massive, expanding, ever-changing and autonomous. Beyond, and because of this, it is impossible to have anything other than a crude idea as to what the internet contains and how it is used. Furthermore, and reflecting the inherently international and anonymous nature of the internet, the extent of the problem can be discussed only on a worldwide, as opposed to a country-specific, basis. 82 This was not an FBI investigation as is commonly reported. 83 R. Hart, Short Report on the Wilton Park Conference 696: Combating Child Abuse on the Internet: An International Response (Wilton Park, 8–10 January 2003). 84 R. Winnett and G. Walsh, ‘Net closes on child porn suspects’, The Sunday Times, 26 January 2003. 85 COPINE – Combating Paedophile Information Networks in Europe. 86 Op cit, n 3, at pp 41–42. 87 Op cit, n 58, at p 21. 88 As M. Taylor and E. Quayle (op cit, n 3, at p 41) have pointed out, many still photographs come from videos: ‘the number of video captures that can be made from a 30-minute video may range from two or three to many thousand, depending on the interests, energy and technical capacity of the producer’. They conclude that ‘the number of pictures available is a rather arbitrary and fluid thing, related as much to the producer’s whim as to objective qualities’.89 R. Ford, ‘Dossier time bomb for 7,000 suspects’, The Times, 13 January 2003. 90 ‘Caught in the net’, The Guardian, 18 July 2003. 91 A. Nathan and D. Leppard, ‘City bosses named on child porn list’, The Sunday Times, 26 January 2003. 92 Op cit, n 58. 93 Ibid. 94 Ibid. 95 Op cit, n 64. 96 A range of other, even higher, figures have been produced on this issue including ones which state that ‘at least 80%’ or ‘almost all’ such offenders sexually assault children (op cit, n 58). 97 Op cit, n 83.', 'date_year' => '2003', 'status_changed_hour' => '18', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '341' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1294151606', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gallagher', 'eprintid' => '341', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '1', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2007', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/341/1/GallagherAssessment.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '54', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Assessment and intervention in cases of suspected ritual child sexual abuse ', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/03/41', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '33', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.694.abs', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '4', 'publisher' => 'Wiley', 'pagerange' => '227-242', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2008', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Child Abuse Review', 'lastmod_second' => '38', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0952-9136', 'datestamp_hour' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Gallagher', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => undef, 'note' => 'UoA 40 (Social Work and Social Policy and Administration) Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.', 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => undef, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '341', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2011', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '1', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20010000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => '4', 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => '3494', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'hhs', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'HN', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '32', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '22', 'datestamp_day' => '6', 'abstract' => 'Agency workers have been heavily criticized over their handling of alleged ritual child sexual abuse cases, particularly in respect of their assessments and interventions. However, a study of referrals to police and social service departments revealed that agency workers raised suspicions of ritual abuse in respect of both child victims and adult survivors very rarely. Furthermore, they did this only after an assessment which showed the cases to possess a number of troubling features. While agency workers believed that all the child victims had been subject to serious sexual abuse, virtually all of them were circumspect as to whether this had occurred in a ritual context. Initially, agency workers were generally open-minded as to the experiences of adult survivors, but by the end of their assessments, they tended to be more concerned about their mental health and less concerned about issues of ritual abuse. Finally, agency workers appeared to act appropriately in terms of the types of intervention they used and the way in which they applied these. These results suggest that there should be more confidence in the ability of agency workers to respond to cases of alleged ritual abuse. ', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => undef, 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1002/car.694.abs', 'volume' => '10', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => 'Bottoms BL, Shaver PR, Goodman GS. 1996. An analysis of ritualistic and religion-related child abuse allegations. Law and Human Behaviour 20: 1–34. Boyd A. 1991. Blasphemous Rumours: Is Satanic Ritual Abuse Fact or Fantasy? An Investigation. Fount Paperbacks: London. Clyde JJ. 1992. The Report of the Inquiry into the Removal of Children from Orkney in February 1991. HMSO: Edinburgh. Cook K, Kelly L. 1997. The abduction of credibility. British Journal of Social Work 27: 71–84. Crouch BM, Damphousse K. 1991. Law enforcement and the satanism–crime connection: a survey of ‘cult cops’. In The Satanism Scare, Richardson JT, Best J, Bromley DG (eds). Aldine de Gruyter: New York. Department of Health. 1998. Working Together to Safeguard Children: New Government Proposals for Inter-Agency Co-operation. Consultation paper. Department of Health: London. Department of Health. 1999. A Guide to Inter-Agency Working to Safeguard and Promote the Welfare of Children. Consultation draft. Department of Health: London. Department of Health, Department for Education and Employment and the Home Office. 2000. Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families. The Stationary Office: London. de Young M. 1996. Speak of the devil: rhetoric in claims-making about the satanic ritual abuse problem. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare 23: 57–74. Finkelhor D, Williams LM, Burns N. 1988. Nursery Crimes. 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Aldine De Gruyter: New York. Schumuttermaier J, Veno A. 1999. Counselors’ beliefs about ritual abuse: an Australian study. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse 8: 45–63. Tate T. 1991. Children for the Devil: Ritual Abuse and Satanic Crime. Methuen: London. Waterhouse R, Kingman S, Cuffe J. 1990. A satanic litany of children’s suffering. Independent on Sunday, March 18, 5. Weir IK, Wheatcroft MS. 1995. Allegations of children’s involvement in ritual sexual abuse: clinical experience of 20 cases. Child Abuse and Neglect 19: 491–505. Winter K. 1992. The Day they Took Our Children Away. Ritualistic Abuse, Social Work and the Press. Social Work Monographs. 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Despite this, the problem of how to tackle ethical dilemmas has received little attention in the literature. As a result, researchers faced with these dilemmas have little knowledge to draw upon, and groups associated with research, such as participating agencies and ethics committees, may not fully appreciate all the issues involved in dealing with ethical dilemmas. These issues are not only philosophical in nature but relate also to the methodological and practical implications of following one, rather than another, ethical principle. The researchers encountered a number of ethical dilemmas in their research in child protection. By discussing different approaches to solving ethical dilemmas, they intend to show that this is a complex problem and one which, along with ethics in general, requires greater attention in the literature. 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This book, by two of the world’s leading authorities on internet-based child pornography, is, then, extremely welcome.', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '48', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1080/13552600500184421', 'volume' => '11', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2005', 'status_changed_hour' => '10', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '15437' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1349430577', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 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undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '10', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20120200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '9', 'number' => '2', 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'hhs', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'HN', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '52', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '5', 'datestamp_day' => '5', 'abstract' => 'Children who have been severely maltreated may be placed in therapeutic children's homes (also known as residential treatment centres) in order that their often acute emotional and behavioural needs can be addressed. There is little data on process within these settings, especially outside the US. This article contains findings from interviews carried out with 16 young adults who had been placed in a therapeutic children's home in England. These former residents were asked for their views concerning the care they had received. The respondents were, in general, positive about their experiences, particularly in terms of their relationships with staff, life story work, leisure activities and the contact they had with staff after leaving the homes. Some of them were also happy with their experiences in relation to therapy, school, friendships and preparations for leaving the placement but others were less contented in these respects. The evidence from this research is that this highly disadvantaged group of children can be provided with a good quality of care within therapeutic children's homes.', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '116', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '52', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.11.014', 'volume' => '34', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2012', 'status_changed_hour' => '9', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '5483' => { 'funders' => 'The Nuffield Foundation', 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1294150442', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gallagher', 'eprintid' => '5483', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => 'Safeguarding Children? 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'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => '177', 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '15', 'edit_lock_user' => '3494', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'hhs', 'institution' => 'University of Huddersfield', 'subjects' => 'HN', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '35', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '22', 'datestamp_day' => '26', 'abstract' => 'There has, in recent years, been growing awareness and concern over cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) which have an international dimension or which involve the Internet. However, relatively little is known about these cases, as a result of which the policy and practice response may not be as appropriate or effective as it should be. This research project, directed by Bernard Gallagher, and funded by The Nuffield Foundation, was designed to further knowledge of international and Internet CSA, and in doing so contribute to the development of policy and practice. • While this research was focused upon cases known to law enforcement agencies (police and HM Revenue and Customs - HMRC), it has implications for the wider criminal justice system, a range of other statutory agencies, NGOs and industry, and governance at a national and international level.', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => 'project_report', 'datestamp_minute' => undef, 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '186218061X', 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => 'Abercrombie, N., Hill, S. and Turner, B.S. 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undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '25', 'datestamp_day' => '25', 'abstract' => 'Objective To establish the prevalence, typology and nature of attempted or completed incidents of stranger-perpetrated sexual abuse or abduction of children “away from home”. Methods A questionnaire was completed by 2,420 children (83% response rate) aged 9–16 years in 26 elementary and high schools in North-West England. Results Of these children, 19.0% (n = 461) reported that they had been the victims of any attempted or completed sexual abuse or abduction incident away from home at some point in their lives. Of these children, 161 (6.7% of the original sample) reported that the “last” incident had been perpetrated by a stranger. Based upon these last incidents, four main types of attempted or completed CSA or abduction incident were identified: indecent exposure (40.8% of victims), touching (25.8%), and abduction (23.1%), each occurring on their own; and incidents involving multiple types of act (10.2%). The majority of these abductions (91.1%) and touching incidents (50.9%) were attempted as opposed to completed. Rates of victimization were generally higher among girls than boys (10.4% vs. 4.2%, p < .001). A sizeable minority of victims had experienced sexual abuse or abduction previously (28.8%). The large majority of incidents were carried out by males (88.2%). Most incidents occurred when children were accompanied by their peers (67.9%). Many victims were frightened by their experience (46.9% very frightened) and the large majority made a disclosure (79.9%). Only a minority of incidents were reported to the police (33.3%). Conclusions Incidents of attempted and completed stranger CSA and abduction are distinct from CSA and abduction by known persons, go against stereotypes, are complex, and give rise to a number of key issues that may have implications for prevention and intervention. Practice implications Professionals involved in child protection should undertake work to reduce the risk of existing victims of CSA or abduction becoming victims of stranger CSA or abduction, and the risk of attempted incidents becoming completed ones. They also need to encourage the disclosure and reporting of attempted and completed stranger CSA and abduction incidents. 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Data gathering for this project has comprised two main phases so far; the first in the late 1990s and a second in the early 2000s. In each of these phases, questionnaires were posted or emailed to the representatives of all of the following organisations throughout the UK: departments in higher education institutions, statutory agencies (education departments, health authorities, police, probation and social services departments) and major voluntary bodies. In addition, questionnaires were posted to all the members of the British Association for the Study and Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (BASPCAN). This work has identified approximately 250 studies of child protection in the UK. The presentation will provide an overview of these studies and highlight some of the key themes within this data set. The presentation will also explore some of the broader issues that have been uncovered by this work, including the practical difficulties of constructing a research register, the inaccessibility of research and the need to facilitate greater exploitation of existing research. The presentation will close with a description of current developments surrounding this project; namely, the production of a hard copy of the register along with an associated website, a comprehensive literature search to identify further research and a more thorough analysis of the data collected thus far.', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '116', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '11', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2009', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '5991' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => 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'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1294151689', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gallagher', 'eprintid' => '5986', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '10', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2009', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/5986/1/R000236981%2D5k[1].pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '22', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Understanding the attrition of cases of child sexual abuse and neglect in the criminal justice system', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/59/86', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '34', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.esrcsocietytoday.ac.uk', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '10', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '4', 'publisher' => 'ESRC', 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2009', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'monograph', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '59', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '11', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Gallagher', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '22', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => undef, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '5986', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2011', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '1', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '19990000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => '36', 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '14', 'edit_lock_user' => '3494', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'hhs', 'institution' => 'University of Huddersfield', 'subjects' => 'HN', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '34', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '23', 'datestamp_day' => '23', 'abstract' => 'Research on the processing of child abuse cases has been dominated by a focus on the preparation of cases for criminal trial. However, police statistics indicate that the large majority of cases (as many as 85 per cent) are terminated, either by the police or the Crown Prosecution Service, before this stage. The police may decide not to charge, and the CPS may decline advise cases or decide not to prosecute. General child sexual abuse studies show that the termination or attrition of cases may have a significant negative effect upon childrens welfare, agency working, and the delivery of justice. This research aims to identify the number and characteristics of child sexual abuse cases that are terminated at each stage of the criminal justice process; and to determine the reasons why cases are terminated and the effects that this has upon children, non-abusing parents/carers, and agency workers. The study will assess the broader implications of attrition for the criminal justice sysytem, and reveal the extent to which, and circumstances in which, attrition should be reduced. A search will be made of records for the 1,000 most recently completed child sexual abuse cases in six police forces across England and Wales. Interviews will be conducted with a police officer and CPS official (where applicable) in a random sample of 200 of these cases. Postal questionnaires will be sent to the social workers responsible for these 200 cases.', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '116', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => 'technical_report', 'datestamp_minute' => '34', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'R000236981', 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '1999', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '2134' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1294151578', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gallagher', 'eprintid' => '2134', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '10', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2008', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '37', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Understanding child abuse', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/21/34', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '33', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.685', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '10', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '4', 'publisher' => 'Wiley', 'pagerange' => '75-80', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2008', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Child Abuse Review', 'lastmod_second' => '22', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '09529136', 'datestamp_hour' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 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'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'cacs', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'HN', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '27', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '9', 'datestamp_day' => '9', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '27', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1002/car.685', 'volume' => '10', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2001', 'status_changed_hour' => '10', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '5959' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1294152045', 'creatorlist' => { '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'West', 'eprintid' => '5959', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Donald J.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gallagher', 'eprintid' => '5959', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk' }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'St. Ledger', 'eprintid' => '5959', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 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'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'British Journal of Criminology', 'lastmod_second' => '1', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0007-0955', 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Gallagher', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '25', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 10, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '5959', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2011', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '1', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '19861000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => '4', 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => '3494', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'cacs', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'HN', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '36', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '22', 'datestamp_day' => '22', 'abstract' => 'The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development is a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 London males followed up from age eight onwards. This paper investigates the official crime rates of these males between the fourteenth birthday and an interview at a median age of 18 years 7 months, according to whether they were at school, in full-time employment, or unemployed. Crime rates were higher during periods of unemployment than during periods of employment . This was particularly true for offences involving material gain, at the younger ages (15–16), for the most delinquent-prone youths, and for youths with lower status jobs. However, there was little difference between crime rates just before leaving school and just afterwards in full-time employment. ', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '116', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '36', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => '26', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '1986', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '6575' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1315394850', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gallagher', 'eprintid' => '6575', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '12', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => '7th Annual BASPCAN (British Association for the Study and Prevention of Child Abuse) Conference', 'date_type' => 'completed', 'pres_type' => 'paper', 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2009', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '57', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'International and Internet Child Sexual Abuse: Typologies, Extent, Nature, and Policy and Practice Implications', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/65/75', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'unpub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '27', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.baspcan.org.uk/congress2009.php', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '12', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '7', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => '71', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2009', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => 'Swansea, Wales', 'type' => 'conference_item', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '50', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '11', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Gallagher', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '57', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 9, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '6575', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2011', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '9', 'event_dates' => '13th - 16th September 2009', 'fulltimestamp' => '20090900', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'cacs', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'H1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '17', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => 'conference', 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '9', 'datestamp_day' => '9', 'abstract' => 'Object To establish the typology, extent, nature, and policy and practice implications of cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) that have an international dimension or which involve the internet, and are linked to the UK. Method National postal questionnaire survey among all police services in the UK and HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC), interviews with police officers and search of police files concerning specific cases of international and internet CSA, policy-focused interviews with representatives from the police, HMRC, government, industry and academia, and searches of police crime reporting and recording systems. Results There were three major types of international CSA and three major types of internet CSA, but each of these tended to comprise many sub-types of case. Known cases were relatively rare but with one major exception in respect of cases involving internet-based child abuse images, which were far more common. International and internet CSA cases were, in some aspects, similar to CSA cases in general. However, there were some important differences in terms of victim and offender characteristics, and offender modus operandi. Although there have been a number of policy and practice developments in this area, there remains many fundamental weaknesses in the response to these cases. Conclusion Known cases of international and internet CSA are quite diverse but relatively rare. They may share some characteristics with cases of CSA in general but can also be quite distinct. There are many shortcomings in the policy and practice response to international and internet CSA.', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '116', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '17', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2009', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21848' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1412163825', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gallagher', 'eprintid' => '21848', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '10', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '3', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Outcomes among young adults placed in therapeutic residential care as children', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/18/48', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '47', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17466661311309772', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '10', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '1', 'publisher' => 'Pavilion Journals', 'pagerange' => '31-51', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Journal of Children's Services', 'lastmod_second' => '3', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1746-6660', 'datestamp_hour' => '11', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Gallagher', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '3', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21848', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '10', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20130100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => '1', 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'hhs', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'H1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '47', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '1', 'datestamp_day' => '1', 'abstract' => 'Purpose – The purpose of this article is to advance knowledge concerning outcomes among the former residents of therapeutic children's homes, especially those located in England. Design/methodology/approach – In total, 16 young adults who had been resident in one of seven therapeutic homes took part in interviews. Findings – It appeared, from the information they gave in these interviews, that their outcomes were good in terms of their emotional and behavioural well?being, physical health, accommodation, and absence of early parenthood and substance use. Some of the young adults also had good outcomes in respect of their education and absence of criminal convictions. A small number of the young adults did less well on these latter two measures but few of them were particularly poor in either of these respects. The young adults had limited contact with their family members. Originality/value – The evidence from this research is that young adults who have been in therapeutic residential care can have good outcomes.', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '3483', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '47', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1108/17466661311309772', 'volume' => '8', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2013', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21852' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1412165380', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gallagher', 'eprintid' => '21852', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '10', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '52', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Involving children in research : challenges and opportunities', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/18/52', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '13', 'refereed' => 'FALSE', 'contact_email' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://childrenofprisoners.eu/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/NewsletterLookingForward.pdf', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '10', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '1', 'publisher' => 'Children of prisoners', 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Justice for children of prisoners newsletters : Looking forward', 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'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2013', 'status_changed_hour' => '12', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '5981' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1294151673', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gallagher', 'eprintid' => '5981', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '10', 'editors_name_honourific' => '', 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 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The peer-reviewed literature on internet sex offenders published between 2000 and 2011 was surveyed. Internet child sex offenders use a mixture of new and old technologies to abuse children. Offenders' awareness of internet-related risk appears to exist along a continuum. A number of psychological and demographic factors may influence offenders' perceptions of online security risk and their willingness to take security precautions. A surprisingly large number of apprehended offenders in the time period examined by this review did not seem to use any technologies to disguise their identities. 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'status_changed_hour' => '12', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14400' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1364474921', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Green', 'eprintid' => '14400', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Adam', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gallagher', 'eprintid' => '14400', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '7', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 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'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '49', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17466661311309772', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '7', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '28', 'publisher' => 'Emerald ', 'pagerange' => '31-51', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Journal of Children's Services', 'lastmod_second' => '43', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1746-6660', 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Gallagher', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '2', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 3, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14400', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '3', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20130300', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '12', 'number' => '1', 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => '3494', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bernard', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'hhs', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'RJ101', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '3', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '26', 'datestamp_day' => '26', 'abstract' => 'This aim of this paper is to advance knowledge concerning outcomes among the former residents of therapeutic children’s homes, especially those located in England. Sixteen young adults who had been resident in one of seven therapeutic houses took part in interviews. It appeared, from the information they gave in these interviews, that their outcomes were good in terms of their emotional and behavioural well-being, physical health, accommodation, and absence of early parenthood and substance use. Some of the young adults also had good outcomes in respect of their education and absence of criminal convictions. A small number of the young adults did less well on these latter two measures but few of them were particularly poor in either of these respects. The young adults had limited contact with their family members. The evidence from this research is that young adults who have been in therapeutic residential care can have good outcomes. ', 'creators_id' => 'b.gallagher@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '116', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '3', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1108/17466661311309772', 'volume' => '8', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2013', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef } };

2014

Gallagher, B (2014) ‘In Rotherham blame game, media ignores those who did good workThe Conversation .

Gallagher, B (2014) ‘Butler-Sloss stands down, but politicians still fail to face the facts on child sex abuseThe Conversation .

Gallagher, B (2014) ‘Rolf Harris guilty : but what has Operation Yewtree really taught us about child sexual abuse?The Conversation .

Balfe, M., Gallagher, B., Masson, H., Balfe, S., Brugha, R. and Hackett, S. (2014) ‘Internet Child Sex Offenders' Concerns about Online Security and their Use of Identity Protection Technologies: A ReviewChild Abuse Review . ISSN 0952-9136

2013

Gallagher, B (2013) ‘Why don’t we just …. trust social workers?The Big Issue .

Gallagher, B (2013) ‘Child Sex Abuse: Have We Learnt Anything?’. In: University of Huddersfield Public Lecture Series, 11th December 2013, Huddersfield, UK

Jones, A., Gallagher, B., Manby, M., Robertson, O., Schützwohl, M., Berman, A., Hirschfield , A., Ayre , L., Urban , M., Sharratt, K. and Christmann, K. (2013) Children of Prisoners: Interventions and mitigations to strengthen mental health . Huddersfield: University of Huddersfield. ISBN 9781862181168

Gallagher, B (2013) ‘Involving children in research : challenges and opportunitiesJustice for children of prisoners newsletters : Looking forward .

Gallagher, B. and Green, A. (2013) ‘Outcomes among young adults placed in therapeutic residential care as childrenJournal of Children's Services , 8 (1), pp. 31-51. ISSN 1746-6660

Gallagher, B (2013) ‘Outcomes among young adults placed in therapeutic residential care as childrenJournal of Children's Services , 8 (1), pp. 31-51. ISSN 1746-6660

2012

Gallagher, B. and Green, A. (2012) ‘In, out and after care: Young adults' views on their lives, as children, in a therapeutic residential establishmentChildren and Youth Services Review , 34 (2), pp. 437-450. ISSN 0190-7409

2009

Gallagher, B (2009) ‘Attempted and Completed Incidents of Stranger-Perpetrated Child Sexual Abuse and Abduction’. In: 7th Annual BASPCAN (British Association for the Study and Prevention of Child Abuse) Conference, 13th - 16th September 2009, Swansea, Wales , p. 59

Gallagher, B (2009) ‘Child sexual abuse: informed or in fear?Criminal Justice Matters , 77 (1), pp. 6-7. ISSN 0962-7251

Gallagher, B (2009) ‘The UK Register of Child Protection Research - 1990 Onwards’. In: 7th Annual BASPCAN (British Association for the Study and Prevention of Child Abuse) Conference, 13th - 16th September 2009, Swansea, Wales , p. 133

Gallagher, B (2009) ‘International and Internet Child Sexual Abuse: Typologies, Extent, Nature, and Policy and Practice Implications’. In: 7th Annual BASPCAN (British Association for the Study and Prevention of Child Abuse) Conference, 13th - 16th September 2009, Swansea, Wales , p. 71

2008

Gallagher, B (2008) ‘Preventing child deathsChild Abuse Review , 17 (5), pp. 289-296. ISSN 0952-9136

Gallagher, B (2008) ‘Commentary on ‘School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse’Evidence-Based Child Health A Cochrane Review Journal , 3 (3), pp. 637-639. ISSN 15576272

Gallagher, B (2008) ‘Fear of the unknownSafer Communities: a journal of practice, opinion, policy and research , 7 (3), pp. 22-25. ISSN 1757-8043

Gallagher, B (2008) ‘International and internet child sexual abuse’. In: British Society of Criminology, 9th - 11th July 2008, University of Huddersfield, UK

Gallagher, B (2008) ‘The sexual abuse and abduction of children by strangers’. In: British Society of Criminology Conference 2008, 9-11 July 2008, University of Huddersfield, UK

Gallagher, B., Bradford, M. and Pease, K. (2008) ‘Attempted and completed incidents of stranger-perpetrated child sexual abuse and abductionChild Abuse & Neglect , 32 (5), pp. 517-528. ISSN 0145-2134

Gallagher, B (2008) ‘Dangerous worlds? The problems of international and internet child sexual abuseCommunity Safety Journal , 7 (2), pp. 8-11. ISSN 1757-8043

2007

Gallagher, B (2007) ‘Don't call us: More support is needed for child telephone helplineschildRIGHT , pp. 12-13. ISSN 0265-1459

Gallagher, B (2007) ‘Stranger dangerJane's Police Review , pp. 24-25. ISSN 0309-1414

Gallagher, B (2007) ‘International and internet child sexual abuse: The typology, extent and nature of known causes, and their implication for policy and practicechildRIGHT , pp. 14-17. ISSN 0265-1459

Gallagher, B (2007) ‘International and internet child sexual abuse: the typology, extent and nature of known cases’. In: NOTA 17th Annual Conference: Challenging sexual abuse - challenging assumptions. Towards best practice, research and theory, 19th - 21st September 2007, Edinburgh, UK

Gallagher, B (2007) ‘How should policy and practice respond to international and internet child sexual abuse?’. In: NOTA 17th Annual Conference: Challenging sexual abuse - challenging assumptions. Towards best practice, research and theory, 19th - 21st September 2007, Edinburgh, UK

Gallagher, B (2007) ‘What is international child sexual abuse?’. In: Safeguarding Children? Current Debates – Future Prospects, 6th - 7th September 2007, University of Huddersfield

Gallagher, B (2007) ‘Internet-initiated incitement and conspiracy to commit child sexual abuse (CSA): The typology, extent and nature of known casesJournal of Sexual Aggression , 13 (2), pp. 101-119. ISSN 1355-2600

Gallagher, B (2007) ‘Criminal contactsJane's Police Review , pp. 24-25. ISSN 0309-1414

Gallagher, B (2007) ‘Dangerous liaisonsCommunity care (1658), pp. 34-35. ISSN 0307-5508

2006

Gallagher, B., Fraser, C., Christmann, K. and Hodgson, B. (2006) International and internet child sexual abuse and exploitation Huddersfield, UK: University of Huddersfield

2005

Gallagher, B (2005) ‘Internet child sexual abuse’. In: 1st US/European Summit on Missing and Exploited Children, 25th - 27th October 2005, Buonas, Switzerland

Gallagher, B (2005) ‘Book reviews: Child Pornography: An Internet Crime. Max Taylor, Ethel Quayle, Brunner-Routledge, Hove, 2003. 236 pp. ISBN 1-58391- 244-4.Journal of Sexual Aggression , 11 (2), pp. 227-228. ISSN 1355-2600

Gallagher, B (2005) ‘New technology: helping or harming children?Child Abuse Review , 14 (6), pp. 367-373. ISSN 0952-9136

2004

Gallagher, B., Brannan, C., Jones, R. and Westwood, S. (2004) ‘Good practice in the education of children in residential careBritish Journal of Social Work , 34 (8), pp. 1133-1160. ISSN 1468-263X

2003

Gallagher, B., Christmann, K., Fraser, C. and Hodgson, B. (2003) ‘International and internet child sexual abuse and exploitation - issues emerging from research Child and Family Law Quarterly , 15 (4), pp. 353-371. ISSN 1358-8184

2002

Gallagher, B (2002) ‘Book review: Public inquiries into abuse of children in residential care (by Corby, B., Doig, A. and Roberts, V., 2001)Research, Policy and Planning: The journal of the Social Services Research Group , 20 (1).

Gallagher, B., Bradford, M. and Pease, K. (2002) ‘The sexual abuse of children by strangers: its extent, nature and victim characteristics Children and Society , 16 (5), pp. 346-359. ISSN 0951-0605

2001

Gallagher, B (2001) ‘Assessment and intervention in cases of suspected ritual child sexual abuse Child Abuse Review , 10 (4), pp. 227-242. ISSN 0952-9136

Gallagher, B (2001) ‘Understanding child abuseChild Abuse Review , 10 (2), pp. 75-80. ISSN 09529136

2000

Gallagher, B (2000) ‘The extent and nature of known cases of institutional child sexual abuseBritish Journal of Social Work , 30 (6), pp. 795-817. ISSN 00453102

Gallagher, B (2000) ‘Ritual, and child sexual abuse, but not ritual child sexual abuseChild Abuse Review , 9 (5), pp. 321-327. ISSN 09529136

1999

Gallagher, B (1999) ‘The abuse of children in public careChild abuse review , 8 (6), pp. 357-365. ISSN 0952-9136

Gallagher, B (1999) ‘Institutional Abuse ’. In: Child Sexual Abuse: Responding to the Experiences of Children. : Wiley. pp. 197-210. ISBN 9780471983347

Gallagher, B (1999) Understanding the attrition of cases of child sexual abuse and neglect in the criminal justice system ESRC

1998

Gallagher, B (1998) ‘'Forked tails and forked tongues' book review: Speak of the devil, Tales of Satanic Abuse in Contemporary England by Jean La Fontaine (1998)Times Higher Education .

Gallagher, B (1998) ‘The nature and extent of known cases of organised child abuse in England and Wales’. In: Organised abuse - the current debate. : Ashgate. pp. 215-230. ISBN 9781857422849

Gallagher, B (1998) Grappling with smoke: investigating and managing organised child sexual abuse: a good practice guide . Policy Practice Research Series. London, UK: NSPCC. ISBN 9780902498839

1996

Hughes, B., Parker, H. and Gallagher, B. (1996) Policing child sexual abuse: the view from police practitioners . : Home Office.

1995

Gallagher, B., Creighton, S. and Gibbons, J. (1995) ‘Ethical Dilemmas in Social Research: no easy solutions British journal of social work , 25 (3), pp. 295-311. ISSN 0045-3102

Gibbons, J., Gallagher, B., Bell, C. and Gordon, D. (1995) Development after physical abuse in early childhood a follow-up study of children on protection registers . Studies in child protection Department of Health. London, UK: The Stationery Office. ISBN 9780113217908

Gibbons, J., Gallagher, B., Bell, C. and Gordon, D. (1995) Development after Physical Abuse in Early Childhood . : HMSO.

1993

Gallagher, B (1993) Family participation in initial child protection case conferences: report on a pilot project for Liverpool Area Child Protection Committee Liverpool Area Child Protection Committee

1990

Farrington, D., Gallagher, B., Morley, L., St. Ledger, R. and West, D. (1990) ‘Minimising attrition in longitudinal research: methods in tracing and securing cooperation in a 24-year follow-up study ’. In: Data Quality in Longitudinal Research. : Cambridge University Press. pp. 122-147. ISBN 9780521380911

1988

Gallagher, B., Farrington, D., Morely, L., St. Ledger, R. and Brown, W. (1988) ‘A 24-year follow-up of men from vulnerable backgrounds’. In: The abandonment of delinquent behaviour: promoting the turnaround. New York, USA: Praeger. pp. 335-356. ISBN 9780275929282

1986

Farrington, D., Gallagher, B., Morley, L., St. Ledger, R. and West, D. (1986) ‘Unemployment, school leaving and crimeBritish Journal of Criminology , 26 (4), pp. 335-356. ISSN 0007-0955

Research Degree Supervision

International child sexual abuse

There is much concern over cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) that have an international dimension. This includes cases of child trafficking and child sex tourism. There is, though, only a very limited literature on the problem of international CSA and some of this material is of questionable reliability. Moreover, much of the research to date has focused upon a very narrow range of cases. Proposals that explore any aspect of international CSA, for example, extent, nature of cases, policy and practices responses, are invited.

Internet child sexual abuse

With the rise of the internet, concern has grown over this technology being used to groom children for child sexual abuse (CSA) or to obtain child pornographic images. Recent research has identified a further concern, that of offenders inciting, and conspiring with, one another to commit CSA. While there is a little research on internet-initiated grooming and child pornography, internet-related CSA is, overall, an unexplored area. Proposals that explore any aspect of internet CSA, or other new technology-related CSA (e.g. mobile phones, covert cameras and online games) are invited.

Criminal victimisation of children

The criminal victimisation of children is a neglected research area, even though surveys show that this group experiences some of the highest rates of victimisation. There have been a few local crime victimisation surveys involving children but very few national surveys. Moreover, crime against children may be changing in line with wider societal developments e.g. greater mobile phone ownership among children. Proposals that explore crimes against children, especially the prevalence and nature of victimisation, are invited.

The attrition of cases of child abuse and neglect in the criminal justice system

There is currently much concern over the attrition (i.e. non-convictions) of rape cases in the criminal justice system. Much of this concern has focused upon the rape of adults, in particular women. However, the limited research that there is suggests that attrition is high among not only sexual abuse cases involving children but also cases of physical abuse and neglect that involve children. There are, though, few data in the UK on the extent of this problem, the reasons why cases are terminated or the implications of attrition for policy and practice. Proposals are invited on these or any other aspect relating to the attrition of cases of child abuse and neglect in the criminal justice system.

Is child sexual abuse declining in the UK?

Research by David Finkelhor in the United States suggests that the incidence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the United States is declining. This has proven to be a controversial argument but reducing the incidence of CSA is clearly a central goal of policy and practice but also wider societal efforts. It is important to determine whether there has been a similar decline in CSA in the UK and to identify the reasons for any such change. Proposals that examine trends in the incidence of CSA and/or the reasons for these trends are invited.

In addition to the above, I am happy to consider any proposal that is related to any aspect of child protection or looked after children.

Last updated Thursday 6 March 2014
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