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Portrait of Dr Paul Bills Dr Paul Bills

p.j.bills@hud.ac.uk | 01484 472769



Biography

In January 2014 Paul took the role of Senior Lecturer in Automotive and Mechanical Engineering within the School of Computing Engineering and is course leader for BEng/MEng Mechanical Engineering and BEng/MEng Energy Engineering and admissions tutor for the Mechanical Engineering subject area.

Paul studied for a BEng in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Birmingham, graduating in 1999. He then moved on to complete an MSc in Engineering Design and Its Management at the University of Huddersfield, graduating in 2000.

As a direct result of his MSc work Paul went to work for DePuy International Ltd, a leading orthopaedics manufacturing company and part of the Johnson and Johnson group of companies. His work there led on to a PhD with the Surface Metrology Group at the Centre for Precision Technologies under the supervision of Prof Liam Blunt and Prof Jane Jiang with most of the project work completed at DePuy in Leeds and leading to graduation in 2008. Paul's PhD work involved the development of methods for the simulation and characterisation of wear in orthopaedic knee replacement joints.

In 2007 Paul was taken on as a Research Fellow at the Centre for Precision Technologies and then in 2011 as a Senior Research Fellow within the EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology where he developed a reputation as a world renowned expert on the subject of orthopaedic wear measurement.

Paul is always open to new collaborations of an interdisciplinary nature. Such projects currently ongoing in application of metrology in aspects of Forensics, Archaeology, Food Science, Pharmaceutical Technology and Textiles. Paul was one of the founder members of the Institute for Skin Integrity and Infection Prevention and is a key member of the Arms and Armour Research Institute.

Outside of his research Paul has keen interests in music and sport, and is a long suffering supporter of Barnsley FC.

Research & Scholarship

Paul has a number of active areas of research which despite ranging across a number of subject areas share the common theme of the application of metrology to assess functionality of components and surfaces.

Paul has developed a reputation as a world renowned expert on the subject of orthopaedic wear measurement and has a large number of publications on this subject and has given a number of prestigious invited lectures. He is currently working with a number of colleagues to develop a best practice method for determining the geometry of retrieved implants and determining their ultimate mode of failure.  The overall aim of this research is to produce an overarching measurement methodology that is established from first principles and can be universally applied to the measurement of retrieved hip replacements. The furthering of understanding in this area has great implications for society through the ability to close the loop of understanding and develop more effective, longer lasting joint replacements.

Paul is an active member of standards development bodies looking at the subjects of wear measurement and industrial use of computed tomography and he constantly develops and advocates the use of measurement best practice.  Paul is an active contributor to the American Society for Testing & Materials (ASTM), the British Standards Institute (BSI) and International Standards Organisation (ISO). Paul is an active member of ASTM committee F04 on Medical and Surgical Materials and Devices, the US TAG to ISO/TC150 and the BSI working group on XCT.

Current projects are in the area of characterization of retrieved orthopaedic implants, application of measurement uncertainty to industrial applications, application and critical appraisal of computed tomography, development of metrology for forensics, application of metrology to historical textiles and industrial metrology education.  The majority of Paul's work is in the area of form measurement, encompassing the measurement and specification of geometry and surface characterization.

Paul is an executive board member and UK lead for the EU wide metrology education 'driving licence' known as 'CMTrain' which is an industrially focused vocational blended training course in co-ordinate metrology and metrology best-practice.  The course has three levels from 'Operator' to 'Expert' and is performed with a combination of distance 'in-situ' learning and attendance based workshops. The course is run in partnership with a number of European universities.  Renishaw are a collaborative provider in the UK and Rolls Royce and Hewlett Packard have adopted the course as a component of their core training for a number of their engineering metrologists.

Paul currently has a number of interdisciplinary projects utilising industrial computed tomography encompassing areas of additive manufacturing, mechanical engineering, forensics, food science, textiles and archaeology. CT is a technology that is growing in use and performance having been adopted by a number of engineering companies.  Paul is a founder member of the BSI UK task force to define and build standards in this area and the aim is to encourage best practice based on a deeper understanding of the technology.

Paul is a key member of the Arms and Armour Research Group, a multidisciplinary team of academics involved in the discovery and analysis of historical artefacts, military weaponry and historical sites as well as contemporary firearms, with a particular emphasis on using cutting edge science and technology breakthroughs to carry out this research and offer a commercial service.

Research Affiliations

Particular areas of research include

  • Traceable metrology for characterisation of bearing and taper surfaces in retrieved medical implants
  • Application and assessment of measurement uncertainty
  • Co-ordinate metrology
  • Industrial application and best practice in micro-CT
  • Industrial metrology education (pedagogy)
  • Application of metrology to additive manufacturing
  • Characterisation and reconstruction of historical artefacts
  • Development of international standards

Current Collaborators

  • University College London
  • University of Leeds
  • Technical University of Denmark (DTU)
  • DePuy Synthes
  • Stryker
  • Rolls-Royce
  • Renishaw
  • Cummins
  • BorgWarner
  • Royal Armouries
  • Christie’s
  • English Heritage

Research Funding

  • European Commission, Leonardo da Vinci Programme ‘Blended Learning course on Measurement Uncertainty for advanced vocational training (MuVoT) 2012-2014, € 49,179

Publications and Other Research Outputs

2015

Calvert, S., Power, J., Ryall, H. and Bills, P. (2015) ‘Reconstructing textile heritageJournal of Writing in Creative Practice . ISSN 1753-5190

Blunt, L., Bills, P. and Fleming, L. (2015) ‘Metrology for Bio Systems’. In: 15th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, March 2-5 2015, Charlotte, NC, USA

Panagiotopoulos, A., Hothi, H., Whittaker, R., Meswania, J., Bills, P., Racasan, R., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2015) ‘Identifying The Pattern of Material Loss at the Head-Neck Junction Wear Helps Determine the Mechanism of Failure of Metal on Metal Total Hip Replacements’. In: Orthopaedic Research Society Annual Meeting, March 28-31 2015, Las Vegas, NV, USA

Whittaker, R., Hothi, H., Meswania, J., Bills, P., Racasan, R., Eskelinen, A., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2015) ‘36mm Metal-on-Metal Hips have Similar Taper Material Loss Rates as Larger Diameter Hips from the Same Manufacturer’. In: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting, March 24-28 2015, Las Vegas, NV, USA

Panagiotopoulos, A., Hothi, H., Whittaker, R., Matthies, A., Bills, P., Racasan, R., Blunt, L., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2015) ‘Charactering taper junction wear helps understand the mechanism of failure of metal on metal hip replacements.’. In: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting, March 24-28 2015, Las Vegas, NV, USA

Hothi, H., Whittaker, R., Meswania, J., Bills, P., Blunt, L., Racasan, R., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2015) ‘Material Loss at the Head Taper Junction of the Metal-on-Metal Pinnacle Total Hip Replacement’. In: Orthopaedic Research Society Annual Meeting, March 28-31 2015, Las Vegas, NV, USA

Hothi, H., Berber, R., Whittaker, R., Bills, P., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2015) ‘Detailed Inspection of Metal Hip ImplantsHip International . ISSN 1120-7000

Bills, P., Racasan, R., Tessier, P. and Blunt, L. (2015) ‘Assessing the material loss of the modular taper interface in retrieved metal on metal hip replacementsSurface Topography: Metrology and Properties . ISSN 2051-672X

2014

Calvert, S., Power, J., Ryall, H. and Bills, P. (2014) ‘Presentation of Digital 3D reconstruction of historical textile fragment’. In: The 89th Textile Institute World Conference 2014, 2-6th November 2014, Wuhan, China

Calvert, S., Power, J., Bills, P. and Ryall, H. (2014) ‘Digital 3D Reconstruction of Historical Textile Fragment’. In: Transition: Re-thinking Textiles and Surfaces, 26th-27th November 2014, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, United Kingdom

Calvert, S., Ryall, H., Power, J. and Bills, P. (2014) ‘Digital 3D reconstruction of historical textile fragment’. In: Proceedings of The 89th Textile Institute World Conference. Wuhan, China: The Textile Institute. . ISBN 978-1-84626-xxx-x

Whittaker, R., Hexter, A., Hothi, H., Panagiotidou, A., Bills, P., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2014) ‘Component Size Mismatch of Metal on Metal Hip Arthroplasty: An Avoidable Never Event.Journal of Arthroplasty , 29 (8), pp. 1629-1634. ISSN 0883-5403

Hothi, H., Bills, P., Racasan, R., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2014) ‘Bearing Surface Changes Of Retrieved MOM Hips Predict Factors Associated With Failure’. In: 15th European Federation of National Associations of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (EFORT) Congress, 4-6 June 2014, London, UK

Whittaker, R., Hothi, H., Hexter, A., Henckel, J., Panagiotidou, A., Bills, P., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2014) ‘Component Size Mismatch Of Metal On Metal Hip Arthroplasty: An Avoidable Never Event’. In: 15th European Federation of National Associations of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (EFORT) Congress, 4-6 June 2014, London, UK

Groschl, A., Gotz, J., Loderer, A., Bills, P. and Hausotte, T. (2014) ‘Measures of improvement MUVoT, a Blended Learning course on the topic of Measurement Uncertainty for advanced Vocational TrainingProcedia CIRP . ISSN 2212-8271

Hothi, H., Matthies, A., Berber, R., Whittaker, R., Bills, P., Racasan, R., Blunt, L., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2014) ‘The reproducibility of a semi-quantitative scoring method for taper corrosion and fretting, and its usefulness for predicting the volume of material loss’. In: Orthopaedic Research Society - 60th Annual Meeting, March 15-18 2014, New Orleans, LA, USA

Matthies, A., Cro, S., Bills, P., Racasan, R., Blunt, L., Blunn, G., Henckel, J., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2014) ‘Which factors determine the volume of material lost from the taper junction of metal-on-metal hip replacements?’. In: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting, March 11-15 2014, New Orleans, LA, USA

Matthies, A., Bills, P., Racasan, R., Blunt, L., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2014) ‘Analysis of the taper supports retention of a well-fixed stem in revision surgery of metal-on-metal hip replacements’. In: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting, March 11-15 2014, New Orleans, LA, USA

2013

Matthies, A., Racasan, R., Bills, P., Blunt, L., Cro, S., Panagiotidou, A., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2013) ‘Material Loss at the Taper Junction of Retrieved Large Head Metal-on-Metal Total Hip ReplacementsJournal of Orthopaedic Research , 31 (11), pp. 1677-1685. ISSN 0736-0266

Hothi, H., Matthies, A., Berber, R., Whittaker, R., Bills, P., Racasan, R., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2013) ‘The reliability of a semi-quantitative scoring method for taper corrosion and fretting, and its usefulness for predicting the volume of material loss’. In: International Society for Technology in Arthroplasty 26th Annual Congress, 16-19 October 2013, Palm Beach, Florida, USA

Groschl, A., Akkasoglu, G., Loderer, A., Plowucha, W., Werner, T., Bills, P. and Hausotte, T. (2013) ‘MUVOT - Establishing an International Vocational Training Program on the Topic of Measurement Uncertainty’. In: 11th International Symposium on Measurement and Quality Control, 11-13 September 2013, Cracow-Kielce, Poland

McHugh, M., Bills, P. and Vanin, S. (2013) ‘PMI estimation in submerged bones: a new strategy’. In: International Conference on Forensic Sciences, 8th-9th July 2013, London

Hothi, H., Cro, S., Bills, P., Blunt, L., Racasan, R., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2013) ‘Correlation between the detailed visual inspection of retrieved metal-on-metal hips and their volumetric wear’. In: International Society for Technology in Arthroplasty 26th Annual Congress, 16-19 October 2013, Palm Beach, Florida, USA

Fleming, L., Racasan, R., Bills, P., Skinner, J., Hart, A. and Blunt, L. (2013) ‘Characterisation of wear morphology at the head-cup bearing interface in retrieved metal-on-metal hip replacements’. In: International Society for Technology in Arthroplasty 26th Annual Congress, 16-19 October 2013, Palm Beach, Florida, USA

Lou, S., Jiang, X., Bills, P. and Scott, P. (2013) ‘Defining True Tribological Contact Through Application of the Morphological Method to Surface TopographyTribology Letters , 50 (2), pp. 185-193. ISSN 1023-8883

Racasan, R., Bills, P., Blunt, L. and Xiao, S. (2013) ‘Measurement of material loss’. In: Are Modular Hip Junctions An Issue?, 29th April 2013, The Royal Society of Medicine, London

Bills, P., Blunt, L., Racasan, R., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2013) ‘Accurate determination of material loss at the taper interface of retrieved metal-on-metal hip replacements’. In: 19th International Conference on Wear of Materials, 14-18th April 2013, Portland, Oregon USA

Bills, P., Racasan, R., Tessier, P. and Blunt, L. (2013) ‘Assessing the wear of the modular taper interface in retrieved metal-on-metal hip replacements’. In: 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013) , June 17-21, 2013, Taipei, Taiwan

Hart, A., Matthies, A., Bills, P., Racasan, R., Blunn, G., Blunt, L. and Skinner, J. (2013) ‘The taper junction contributes one third of the total volumetric material loss in large diameter metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties’. In: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting, March 19-23 2013, Chicago, IL, USA

2012

Hart, A., Matthies, A., Racasan, R., Bills, P., Panagiotidou, A., Blunt, L., Blunn, G. and Skinner, J. (2012) ‘Taper wear contributes only a third of the total volumetirc material loss in large head metal on metal hip replacement’. In: British Orthopaedic Research Society Annual Meeting, September 24th-25th 2012, London, UK

Matthies, A., Racasan, R., Bills, P., Panagiotidou, A., Blunt, L., Skinner, J., Blunn, G. and Hart, A. (2012) ‘Corrosion is the main mechanism of material loss at the taper junction of large head metal on metal hip replacements’. In: British Orthopaedic Society Annual Meeting, September 24th-25th 2012, London, UK

Bills, P., Racasan, R., Hart, A., Skinner, J., Jiang, X. and Blunt, L. (2012) ‘Using metrology to bridge the gap in understanding between engineering and biological failure: the case of metal-on-metal hip replacements’. In: 1st Annual EPSRC Manufacturing the Future Conference, 19th-20th September 2012, Loughborough, UK

Bills, P., Racasan, R., Hart, A., Skinner, J. and Blunt, L. (2012) ‘Accurate determination of clinical wear in retrieved metal-on-metal hip replacement joints’. In: Euro-Mediterranean Conference on Bioengineering and Biomaterials, 4th-6th July 2012, Fes, Morocco

Bills, P. and Blunt, L. (2012) ‘Measurement of Bearing Surfaces’. In: Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacements: Re-solving The Uncertainties, 28th May 2012, Royal College of Surgeons of England, London

Blunt, L., Bills, P. and Racasan, R. (2012) ‘Measurement of Tapers’. In: Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacements: Re-solving The Uncertainties, 28th May 2012, Royal College of Surgeons of England, London

Bills, P., Racasan, R., Skinner, J., Hart, A. and Blunt, L. (2012) ‘Effect of Uncertainty on Wear Measurement of Metal-on-metal Total Hip Replacement Components’. In: ASTM Symposium on Metal-on-Metal Total hip Replacement Devices, 8th May 2012, Phoenix, AZ, USA

Hexter, A., Blunn, G., Bills, P., Panagiotidou, A., Matthies, A., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2012) ‘The Definition of Taper Failure in Metal-On-Metal Modular Total Hip Replacement’. In: ASTM Symposium on Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Replacement Devices, 8th May 2012, Phoenix, AZ, USA

Bills, P., Lou, S. and Jiang, X. (2012) ‘Development of morphological filtering method for specification and characterisation of hip replacement taper junctions’. In: 12th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, 4th-8th June 2012, Stockholm, Sweden

Bills, P., Racasan, R., Underwood, R., Cann, P., Skinner, J., Hart, A., Jiang, X. and Blunt, L. (2012) ‘Volumetric wear assessment of retrieved metal-on-metal hip prostheses and the impact of measurement uncertaintyWear , 274, pp. 212-219. ISSN 0043-1648

2011

Bills, P. and Blunt, L. (2011) ‘Wear Measurement of MoM Hips’. In: Orthopaedic Research UK Meeting – Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacements: Solving The Uncertainties, 14th December 2011, Royal College of Surgeons, London, UK

Bills, P., Underwood, R., Sayles, R., Cann, P., Hart, A., Blunt, L. and Jiang, X. (2011) ‘Taper Wear in Large Head Metal-on-Metal Hips’. In: International Conference on BioTribology 2011, 18th - 21th September 2011, Imperial College

2010

Zeng, S., Blunt, L., Jiang, X. and Bills, P. (2010) ‘Investigation of the material removal characteristic for polishing CoCr alloy’. In: Future Technologies in Computing and Engineering: Proceedings of Computing and Engineering Annual Researchers' Conference 2010: CEARC’10. Huddersfield: University of Huddersfield. pp. 177-182. ISBN 9781862180932

Bills, P., Underwood, R., Cann, P., Hart, A., Jiang, X. and Blunt, L. (2010) ‘What is required to measure the wear of explanted metal-on-metal hips?’. In: British Orthopaedic Research Society Annual Meeting, 12th-13th July 2010, Cardiff University

2009

Bills, P. and Cunningham, J. (2009) ‘Determination of clinical wear in retrieved total hip replacement joints using shadowgraph and co-ordinate measurement methods’. In: Internatiional Conference on Bioengineering and Biomaterials, 18 - 20 March 2009, ENSAM, Meknes, Morocco

Blunt, L., Bills, P., Jiang, X., Hardacker, C. and Chakrararty, G. (2009) ‘The role of tribology and metrology in the latest development of bio-materialsWear , 266 (3-4), pp. 424-431. ISSN 0043-1648

2008

Blunt, L., Bills, P., Jiang, X. and Chakrabarty, G. (2008) ‘Improvement in the assessment of wear of total knee replacements using coordinate-measuring machine techniquesProceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine , 222 (3), pp. 309-318. ISSN 0954-4119

Bills, P., Blunt, L. and Chakrabarty, G. (2008) ‘Developing techniques for the dimensional assessment of true clinical wear in retrieved total joint replacements’. In: Materials for Improved Wear Resistance of Total Artificial Joints. Eibar, Spain: Tekniker. pp. 109-118. ISBN 978-84-932064-4-4

2007

Bills, P., Blunt, L. and Jiang, X. (2007) ‘Development of a technique for accurately determining clinical wear in explanted total hip replacementsWear , 263 (7-12), pp. 1133-1137. ISSN 0043-1648

Bills, P (2007) The development of a geometric methodology for the determination of volumetric wear in total joint replacements & development of a total knee replacement joint using new and novel measurement techniques. Doctoral thesis, University of Huddersfield.

2006

Bills, P., Blunt, L. and Jiang, X. (2006) ‘A metrology solution for determination of form deviation and wear in orthopaedic joint replacements’. In: 33rd Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Tuesday 12th - Friday 15th September 2006, Trinity and all Saints College, Leeds

Blunt, L., Bills, P., Hardaker, C. and Pantelis, C. (2006) ‘The use of CMM techniques to assess the wear of total knee replacements ’. In: Nodtrib 2006 - The 12th Nordic Symposium on Tribology. Lyngby, Denmark: DTU Tryk. p. 61. ISBN 87-90416-17-1

2005

Bills, P., Brown, L., Jiang, X. and Blunt, L. (2005) ‘A metrology solution for the orthopaedic industryJournal of Physics , Series 13, pp. 316-319. ISSN 1742-6596

2004

Bills, P., Blunt, L. and Hardaker, C. (2004) ‘The use of CMM techniques to assess the functionality of total knee replacements’. In: 8th International Symposium on Measurement and Quality Control in Production. Dusseldorf, Germany: VDI Verlag GmbH. pp. 73-80. ISBN 3-18-091860-8

Esteem

Journal Reviewer

  • Wear
  • Tribology International
  • Precision Engineering
  • Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics

Membership of professional bodies

  • Member of Institution of Engineering & Technology (MIET)
  • Fellow of Higher Education Academy (FHEA)
  • Member of Orthopaedic Research Society (ORS)
  • Member of American Society for Testing & Materials (ASTM)

Invited external public lectures and seminars

  • Orthopaedic Research UK ‘Metal-on-metal hip replacements: Solving the uncertainties’, Royal College of Surgeons of England, 14th December 2011
  • Orthopaedic Research UK ‘Metal-on-metal hip replacements: Re-Solving the uncertainties’, Royal College of Surgeons of England, 28th May 2012.
  • Orthopaedic Research UK ‘Are Modular Hip Junctions An Issue?’, The Royal Society of Medicine, London, 29th April 2013.

Research Degree Supervision

Current research students

Main supervisor

  • Paras Shah (Dimensional Metrology for Additive Manufacturing)
  • Darshil Kapadia (Orthopaedic wear measurement)
  • Simon McKenna (Historical artefact characterisation)

Co-supervisor

  • Katie Foster (Metrology for ballistics and tool mark identification)
  • Andrew Townsend (Surface Metrology for Additive Manufacturing)
  • Shams E Tabriz (Turbocharger Fatigue Analysis)
  • Sophie Calvert (Reconstruction of historical textiles)

Potential postgraduate/doctoral research projects

  • Development of evaluation framework for assessment of retrieved bearing measurement protocols
  • Software development – Data fusion leading to development of 3D visualisation tools.
  • Industrial metrology blended learning tools
  • Optimisation and verification of CT for industrial applications

Further details on EPSRC Centre PhD opportunities at http://www.hud.ac.uk/news/allstories/fundedphdopportunities.php.
Please contact this member of staff to discuss other possible opportunities aligned to current research areas.

  • Please contact this member of staff to discuss possible opportunities.

Enterprise Activities

Paul is an executive board member and UK lead for the EU wide metrology education 'driving licence' known as 'CMTrain' which is an industrially focused vocational blended training course in co-ordinate metrology and metrology best-practice. 

The course has three levels from 'Operator' to 'Expert' to meet the demands of different types of CMM users and is performed with a combination of distance 'in-situ' learning with appropriate tutorial support and attendance based ‘hands-on’ workshops.  The content of the course covers aspects of general metrology good practice, geometry,  co-ordinate metrology, quality management and statistical process control.

The course is aimed at anyone who is likely to interact with dimensional and co-ordinate metrology, specifically:

  • Inspection Planners
  • Measurement engineers
  • CMM programmers
  • Machine operators
  • Designers

CMTrain has been specifically developed to be complementary to the training offered by instrument manufacturers and can be integrated into an existing quality systems training programme.

Administrative Responsibilities

  • Course Leader BEng/MEng  Mechanical Engineering
  • Course Leader BEng/MEng Energy Engineering
  • Admissions Tutor – Mechanical Engineering subject area
  • Member of School Teaching & Learning Committee

Teaching and Professional Activities

Module Leader

  • NFA2168 – Mechanical Engineering & Science
  • NHM2408 – Eco-Design & IPR
  • NMM3588 – Dimensional Measurement Systems
Last updated Thursday 6 March 2014
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