University of Huddersfield Logo

Portrait of Dr Juliet MacDonald Dr Juliet MacDonald

J.Macdonald@hud.ac.uk | 01484 473520



Biography

Dr Juliet MacDonald is Research Fellow in Art in the School of Art, Design and Architecture.

Juliet has a BA (Hons) Graphic Design specialising in printmaking. She worked in the graphic design industry for ten years as an artworker, before returning to higher education to complete an MA Fine Art (awarded 2000) and re-develop an art practice centred on drawing. For several years she provided instruction to undergraduate and postgraduate students on the use of specialist art and design software, and she shared responsibility for the running of a large Mac computer lab and animation suite. During this period Juliet undertook research for a doctorate, also at Leeds Metropolitan University, and was awarded her PhD in 2010. She has since continued to develop her practice as an artist/researcher. Juliet has been appointed for ten months in 2014/15 as Leverhulme Artist in Residence with the Liddle Collection, an archive that includes letters and personal documents from the First World War, based at Leeds University Special Collections.

A Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, Juliet teaches on BA Contemporary Art and Illustration courses and the School’s taught Masters programme. She has completed PG Cert in Professional Development: Research Supervision and currently supervises three PhDs.

Research & Scholarship

Juliet MacDonald’s research interests are based on questions that emerge from her art practice. The focus is drawing, not only the traditional practice of pen/pencil marks on paper, but also understood in a broader sense. Expanded definitions of drawing might include for example: any visible trace of bodily movement (human or otherwise); and any action that delineates, divides or graphically differentiates. MacDonald’s PhD thesis is an investigation of her own practice of observational drawing, located within a Western academic tradition. She examines the humanist values attributed to metaphors of ‘the hand’ and ‘the eye’ as body parts instrumental in drawing. Informed by feminist writing, she also considers the knowledge constituted by practices of drawing bodies.

Another concern has been human/animal relations. One art project has centred on a particular chimpanzee, Alpha, whose drawings were studied by Gestalt psychologists in the 1940s. The story of Alpha provided the basis for an artist’s residency Alpha #4: Scheme for a Drawing Experiment at MEANTIME, Cheltenham in 2012, discussed in a recent article in the Journal of Artistic Research 5, 2014. MacDonald’s work questions the way in which drawing practices have served both to reinforce and to disrupt distinctions between human and animal, for example the use of diagrammatic forms to position nonhuman animals as objects of knowledge. A conference paper, ‘The Art of the Diagram’, 2013, examined illustrations of apparatus found in early twentieth century textbooks of Comparative Psychology. This developed into a journal article in Tierstudien, 2014, focussing on the graphic configuration of laboratory rats in mazes.

A further research interest is the digital reproduction of drawings. In a book chapter in the SAGE Handbook of Digital Dissertations and Theses, 2012), MacDonald considered the process by which figurative outcomes of drawing are reproduced via an elaborate sequence of material contacts, in the operations of scanning, digital storage and display on screen. She has pursued this further in her work for the exhibitions Drawology (2013) and Drawology II (2014), using cracked computer tablets to explore the surfaces of drawings.

Publications and Other Research Outputs

$VAR1 = { '14827' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => 'animal, trace, representation, drawing', 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1347462945', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '14827', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '9', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => 'Minding Animals Conference 2012', 'date_type' => 'completed', 'pres_type' => 'paper', 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'yes', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '37', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The Distinguishing Mark', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/48/27', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'unpub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '16', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 6, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.uu.nl/faculty/humanities/EN/congres/mindinganimals/programme/Pages/default.aspx', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '9', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => 'Utrecht University, the Netherlands', 'type' => 'conference_item', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '38', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '38', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 7, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14827', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '9', 'event_dates' => '4 to 6 July 2012', 'fulltimestamp' => '20120706', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '13', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'ADA_ICP', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'NX', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '16', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => 'conference', 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => 'Cave paintings have an almost mythic status in Western histories of art. Modernist texts charting the history of artistic progress refer to these ancient artworks as an origin point, the beginning of human self-awareness and the departure from animal contingency (Biederman, 1948; Huyghe, 1962). In particular, the ability to draw or paint other animals is taken as an indication that a threshold had been crossed; the cave artist was able to distinguish clear forms out of the “immense, crowded field of perception” (Huyghe, 1962) and to visually represent absent bodies. According to such narratives, the act of delineating the recognizable shape of an animal, marks a defining moment in which the figure of the human first emerges from the darkness of the cave. Scientific experiments conducted with chimpanzees in the twentieth century showed that non-human primates can take part in drawing and painting activities (Morris, 1962). In some of these cases it was reported that the configurations of marks produced did not constitute any recognizable depiction and remained at the level of ‘scribble’ (Schiller, 1951; Boysen et al. 1987). In contrast, The Gorilla Foundation website now declares that gorilla Koko paints ‘representationally’. In this paper I will compare the way in which the capacity to produce visual representations was treated as a marker of human/animal difference in both artistic and scientific contexts in the twentieth century and whether this is now changing. I will ask whether the distinction between representational and non-representational mark-making has any continuing relevance, or if meaning can be found in all acts of deliberate marking by animals.', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '16', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2012', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21745' => { 'funders' => 'Arts Council England', 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1414075455', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '21745', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '10', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => 'Drawology', 'date_type' => undef, 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'yes', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '/21745/1.hassmallThumbnailVersion/Composition_of_all_three.jpg;/21745/1/Composition_of_all_three.jpg', 'status_changed_second' => '46', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Marked Surfaces II', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => 'Online and print', 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/17/45', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => undef, 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '45', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 26, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://issuu.com/deborahharty/docs/drawology', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '10', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '23', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'yes', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => 'Lanchester Gallery, Coventry, UK', 'type' => 'exhibition', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '46', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '46', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 9, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21745', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => '978-0-9576009-7-3', 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '10', 'event_dates' => '26 September to 26 October 2014', 'fulltimestamp' => '20140926', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '14', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'ADA_ICP', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'N1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '45', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '23', 'datestamp_day' => '23', 'abstract' => 'For the exhibition Drawology, 2014, I have contributed a new version of the artwork 'Marked Surfaces'. In this series of works, attention is turned toward the surface qualities of drawings. For 'Drawology', I bought three used computer tablets with damaged screens, using the search term on Ebay 'tablet cracked'. These were used to photograph and display a number of pencil and paper drawings of faces. The cracked screens became part of the drawing, disrupting the image of the pencil marks and the appearance of depth, and bringing the digital constitution of the surface to the fore. In 'Drawology: one year on' there will be two tablets showing/producing a roving, magnified view of the surface of two drawings that are already layered by redrawing, one becoming the ground for another. Touch screen and texture of paper will both appear in the same marked surfaces. Drawology abstract: "This exhibition, originally seen at the Bonington Gallery at Nottingham Trent University in Autumn 2013, explores how drawing has the ability to record both its own making and the movement of the thoughts and body of the drawer. Bringing together the work of several artists with differing practices, Drawology aims to consider whether this premise is applicable to a specific process or genre of drawing or whether it is applicable to drawing generally. In this respect the works in the exhibition represent an expanded field of contemporary drawing in a Fine Art context to include: works on paper, performance, moving image, installation, projections and three-dimensional drawings. The exhibition is part of a larger research project currently being undertaken by Deborah Harty entitled ‘Drawing is phenomenology’." Other artists in Drawology are: Shaun Belcher, Siân Bowen, Patricia Cain, Rachael Colley, John Devane, Paul Fieldsend-Danks, Maryclare Foá and Birgitta Hosea, Paul Gough, Joe Graham, Simón Granell, Deborah Harty, Claude Heath, humhyphenhum, Jill Journeaux, Martin Lewis, Lucy O'Donnell, Andrew Pepper, Bill Prosser, Jonathan Waller, Karen Wallis, Kevin Love, Danica Maier, Marsha Meskimmon', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '45', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2014', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21574' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1411641115', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '21574', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '9', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/21574/1/148.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '55', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Drawing in the Collective', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/15/74', 'overlay_journal_id' => 'radar', 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '36', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.5920/radar.2014.1431', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '9', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '25', 'publisher' => 'University of Huddersfield', 'pagerange' => '31-35', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Radar', 'lastmod_second' => '10', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '2049-4327', 'datestamp_hour' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '55', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 9, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21574', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '9', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20140900', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '10', 'number' => '4', 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'art', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'NX', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '39', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '16', 'datestamp_day' => '16', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '116', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '39', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.5920/radar.2014.1431', 'volume' => '1', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2014', 'status_changed_hour' => '10', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '19724' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => 'drawing bodies movement urban environment', 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1402417239', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '19724', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '2', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'Permission 25/2/14', 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'yes', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/19724/1/Juliet_MacDonald%2DTRACEY%2DJournal%2DDIS%2D2014.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '20', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'In Passing', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/97/24', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '20', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.lboro.ac.uk/microsites/sota/tracey/journal/insit/2014/PDF/Juliet_MacDonald-TRACEY-Journal-DIS-2014.pdf', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '2', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '10', 'publisher' => 'Loughborough University', 'pagerange' => '1-11', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => ' TRACEY', 'lastmod_second' => '55', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1742-3570', 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '20', 'note' => 'This article appears in the 'drawing in-situ' themed edition of TRACEY, online journal of drawing research.', 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 2, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '19724', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '6', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20140200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '16', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '14', 'edit_lock_user' => '3494', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'art', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'N1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '1', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '25', 'datestamp_day' => '25', 'abstract' => 'Urban environments are sometimes seen as consisting of a static structure that encloses a space; the space is inherently empty unless temporarily occupied by objects or people. However, drawing in urban locations shifts attention to the processes and changes that are constantly take place: buildings subject to decay, weathering, damage, renovations and accretions; circulation of air, dust particles, litter, sounds and smells; movement of bodies (pigeons, humans, rats, flies etc.). Such movements and circulations are channelled and shaped by the structure of the constructed environment, but rather than being inside the place, bodies and dust particles are integral to the specific constitution of a place at any given time. Drawing in one spot, I make a highly selective response to the multiple interactions that go toward producing a specific place in a specific geographical location at a specific time. In the drawings shown here, I selected only to draw people who walked by, an anonymous crowd of individuals on divergent courses that I have drawn into a single collective figure. This was a planned and structured drawing project of 64 drawings in 4 public locations in Leeds, UK: the bus station, train station, market and a shopping area (only 4 from each location are shown here). The sites were all places of transit or commerce that a large number of people walked through. In most of these locations I was positioned within the crowd, as part of it, with the exception of the market drawings, which were made from above. Drawings were conducted over a period of half an hour, using ballpoint pen on tracing paper. Beyond this there were no other rules – a line could follow a perceived trajectory or an outline. This was not an accurate mapping exercise but an attempt to follow the perception of someone as they passed, a perceptual experience that was always slipping away. Each set of drawings has a characteristic shape that corresponds to the configuration of the environment and the perspective from which I encountered it.', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '1', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2014', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14080' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => '25', 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1342171926', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '14080', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '7', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'completed', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '52', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Drawn Over', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/40/80', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => undef, 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '33', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 1, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.axisartscentre.org.uk/about_us/archive.php?season_id=15&event_id=103', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '7', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '13', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => 'Axis Arts Centre, Alsager, UK', 'type' => 'exhibition', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '52', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '9', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '52', 'note' => 'Solo exhibition and public presentation', 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 10, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14080', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => '1 - 12 October 2007', 'fulltimestamp' => '20071001', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '9', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'art', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'NX', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '33', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '13', 'datestamp_day' => '13', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '33', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2007', 'status_changed_hour' => '9', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '22167' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => 'animal; maze; rat; diagram', 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1414681024', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '22167', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '10', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'Emailed permission 30/10/14', 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'yes', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Spuren im Labyrinth', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/21/67', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '57', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'https://www.neofelis-verlag.de/animal-studies/tierstudien/062014-tiere-und-raum/', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '10', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '30', 'publisher' => 'Neofelis Verlag', 'pagerange' => '28-40', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Tierstudien', 'lastmod_second' => '16', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '2193-8504', 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '14', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 6, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '22167', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '10', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20140600', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => '6', 'rev_number' => '15', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'art', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'BF', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '50', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '30', 'datestamp_day' => '30', 'abstract' => 'Spuren im Labyrinth Translated to German by Matthias Naumann. Tracks in the Maze In this article I discuss early experiments in Comparative Psychology that used mazes to test the route learning ability of animals, particularly rats and mice, in the first half of the twentieth century in the United States. The article will begin with a description of the first mazes designed to test the decision-making and "home-finding" ability of rats, conducted by psychologist Willard Small at Clark University in the 1890s. Small's diagram of the "Hampton Court Maze" was reprinted in subsequent textbooks of comparative psychology and became the starting point for a proliferation in maze experiments with increasingly elaborate configurations of corridors and chambers. Movements of the animals inside these devices were sometimes recorded as drawn lines, within the diagram of the maze. I intend to argue that the spatial configuration of the maze allowed limited scope for movement for the animals inside, whereas the overhead perspective of the scientist enabled a privileged view of the whole set up.  I indicate the epistemological implications of this, i.e. how such experiments act as devices of control and containment, by positioning animals as objects of knowledge surveyed from above rather than subjects of experience. The article highlights the changing attitudes in comparative psychology after Small (who was interested in the mental process of the rats he tested), toward the increasingly Behaviorist attitude of subsequent experimenters of the 1930s and 1940s. I also discuss the way in which spatial arrangements of the maze are depicted in two-dimensional form in diagrams and publications of the period. I particularly note the contrast between the tracks of the animals, and the outlines and geometry of the devices in which they are enclosed.', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '50', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2014', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '19259' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1386867391', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '19259', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '12', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'No Ft (images, needing permission) author will send when published in journal.', 'event_title' => 'Technoscientific developments and Critical Animal Studies, 3rd EU conference for Critical Animal Studies', 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => 'paper', 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'yes', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2013', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '22', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The Art of the Diagram: modes of depicting apparatus used in Comparative Psychology experiments', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/92/59', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '57', 'refereed' => 'FALSE', 'contact_email' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 29, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/6443497/boa.pdf', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '12', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2013', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => 'Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Germany', 'type' => 'conference_item', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '3', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '22', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 11, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '19259', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '12', 'event_dates' => '28-30 November 2013', 'fulltimestamp' => '20131129', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '16', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '16', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'art', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'BF', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '14', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => 'conference', 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => 'In the first half of the twentieth century a variety of devices were designed by psychologists to investigate the learning processes, discrimination and behavioral responses of nonhuman animals. From puzzle boxes and mazes to multiple-choice apparatus, scientists demonstrated ingenuity in the creation of elaborate devices to test the wits and stamina of other species of life. Stress generated by either fear or hunger was frequently designed into the experimental set up in order to present a limited choice of action to the animals who were tested. This paper focuses on the manner in which such devices were depicted in the scientific literature using diagrams, drawings and plans. I will take a critical approach to the discipline of Comparative Psychology, viewing it from an external perspective (that of an artist-researcher). I seek to investigate how these diagrams both recorded and 15produced the miniature environments that were created by experimenters, how they acted to enclose animals and structure the knowledge produced. Analysis of the diagrams will address the conventions of depiction used, the geometry of the designs, the perspective from which the apparatus are shown (presenting the view of the experimenter as both spectator and overseer), the modes of visuality and theatricality in operation, and the way in which configurations were reiterated in different experiments. Using a number of visual examples, I will argue that diagrams are powerful in enabling the reproduction of architectural forms that function to contain animal subjects. The proliferation of such diagrams in the early twentieth century can be viewed in the context of an increasing drive to utilize nonhuman animals for experimental purposes. The apparatus of psychological experiment has now become more standardized. Such devices as the ‘passive avoidance box’ and ‘open field arena’ can be purchased from commercial suppliers, eliminating the need for detailed visual descriptions in the scientific literature. The legacy of this technoscientific innovation is the continuing usage of a variety of disorientating mazes and chambers designed in the interests of furthering psychological, neurological and pharmaceutical knowledge. ', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '14', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2013', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '11524' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1325586534', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '11524', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '12', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'Emailed permission SJT 13/12/11 Permission rec'd - author asked us to contact publisher for pdf - emailed 20/12/11', 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'yes', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2011', 'fileinfo' => '/11524/1.hassmallThumbnailVersion/MacDonald_busstation_25percent.jpg;/11524/1/MacDonald_busstation_25percent.jpg|/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/11524/6/INDA_6_proof7(jf)_114.pdfpublished.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '32', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Bus station ', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => 'Printed book', 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/15/24', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'inpress', 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '29', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.manifestgallery.org/nda/inda6/', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '12', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '3', 'publisher' => 'Manifest Creative Research Gallery and Drawing Center', 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2011', 'book_title' => 'INDA 6: International Drawing Annual', 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'book_section', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '52', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '9', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '32', 'note' => 'This item is a drawing (original media: digital inkjet print) selected for inclusion in 6th International Drawing Annual published by Manifest Creative Research Gallery and Drawing Center, Cincinnati, Ohio. Selection by jury of eleven professional and academic advisors qualified in the fields of art, design, criticism, and art history. Anonymous blind jury, with each jury member assigning a quality rating for artistic merit to each work submitted. Entries receiving the highest average combined score were included in this publication.', 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => undef, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '11524', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '1', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20120000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '10', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '27', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'art', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'N1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '57', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '13', 'datestamp_day' => '13', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '57', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => '6', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2012', 'status_changed_hour' => '9', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '19258' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1389109000', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '19258', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '1', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => 'Drawology', 'date_type' => undef, 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'yes', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '/19258/12.hassmallThumbnailVersion/Marked_Surfaces_in_development_low.jpg;/19258/12/Marked_Surfaces_in_development_low.jpg|/19258/13.hassmallThumbnailVersion/Marked_Surfaces_in_development2low.jpg;/19258/13/Marked_Surfaces_in_development2low.jpg|/19258/14.hassmallThumbnailVersion/Marked_Surfaces1.jpg;/19258/14/Marked_Surfaces1.jpg|/19258/15.hassmallThumbnailVersion/Marked_Surfaces2.jpg;/19258/15/Marked_Surfaces2.jpg', 'status_changed_second' => '26', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Marked Surfaces', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => 'Computer tablet drawings', 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/92/58', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => undef, 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '48', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.boningtongallery.co.uk/exhibitions', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '1', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '7', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => 'Bonington Gallery, Nottingham, UK', 'type' => 'exhibition', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '26', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '26', 'note' => 'The artwork 'Marked Surfaces' was produced for Drawology, a group exhibition at the Bonington Gallery. ', 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 11, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '19258', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '1', 'event_dates' => '18 Nov - 6 Dec 2013', 'fulltimestamp' => '20131100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '45', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'ADA_ICP', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'NC', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '48', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '7', 'datestamp_day' => '7', 'abstract' => 'Marked Surfaces The artwork is a triptych of three computer tablets mounted on the wall with power cables hanging from them. Each of the tablets was purchased on Ebay.co.uk using the search term 'tablet cracked'. The tablets show signs of previous use and all have damaged screens. Each device shows a sequence of drawings of faces (human and other animals) roughly categorised as full face, profile and sleeping. The drawings, initially made using pencil or pen on paper, were photographed/digitised using the camera of another computer tablet at close range, so that the texture of marks and paper are visible. The sensory modes of seeing and touching are brought together in the touch screen. These modes are also combined in the act of drawing. If seeing is a process of actively seeking out meaningful configurations (sometimes barely glimpsed), then drawing is a means of marking them in all their uncertainty, from a point of contact. The figure/background structure produced in drawing can be reproduced digitally and made visible in multiple devices of display. Each time a figure is materially reconstituted as part of a device, its meaning is contingent on this specific context. In this artwork, the physical properties of smooth or cracked screens, and plastic or metal bodies, manifest histories of previous ownership and commercial imperatives of hardware design and manufacture. They show evidence of the social, economic and technological developments that have resulted in handheld devices acting as prostheses of embodied relationships. Gallery statement: 'Drawology' exhibition: Drawing is said to have the ability to record both its own making and the movement of the thoughts and body of the drawer. Bringing together the work of several artists with differing practices Drawology aims to consider whether this premise is applicable to a specific process or genre of drawing or whether it is applicable to drawing generally. In this respect the works in the exhibition represent an expanded field of contemporary drawing in a Fine Art context to include: works on paper, performance, moving image, installation, projections and three-dimensional drawings. The exhibition is part of a larger research project currently being undertaken by Deborah Harty entitled ‘Drawing is phenomenology’. Artists include: » Shaun Belcher » Sian Bowen » Rachael Colley » David Connearn » Paul Fieldsend-Danks » Maryclare Foa » Paul Gough » Joe Graham » Deborah Harty » Claude Heath » humhyphenhum » Juliet MacDonald » Jordan McKenzie » Lucy O’Donnell » Bill Prosser » Karen Wallis » Martin Lewis » Patricia Cain » Simón Granell » humhyphenhumha » David Connearn » Andrew Pepper', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '48', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2013', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '11982' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => 'drawing corporeality movement bodies face materiality', 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1323783543', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '11982', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '12', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => 'Bodies in Movement: Intersecting Discourses of Materiality in the Sciences and the Arts', 'date_type' => 'completed', 'pres_type' => 'paper', 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'yes', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2011', 'fileinfo' => '/11982/1.hassmallThumbnailVersion/landslane_wk14.jpg;/11982/1/landslane_wk14.jpg|/11982/6.hassmallThumbnailVersion/xdead_bird_saturated_crop.jpg;/11982/6/xdead_bird_saturated_crop.jpg', 'status_changed_second' => '3', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Lines of movement, points of stillness: drawing and the figuration of bodies', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/19/82', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'unpub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '42', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 29, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://bodiesinmovement.blogspot.com/', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '12', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '13', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2011', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => 'University of Edinburgh', 'type' => 'conference_item', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '3', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '3', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 5, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '11982', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2011', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '12', 'event_dates' => '28-29 May 2011', 'fulltimestamp' => '20110529', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '18', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'ADA_ICP', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'NX', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '42', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => 'conference', 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '13', 'datestamp_day' => '13', 'abstract' => 'This paper develops one aspect of my PhD thesis. The research project, which I briefly summarise, is an investigation into drawing as a process of enquiry, and a consideration of its figurative operations as knowledge-making. The primary method and object of this practice-based study is the manual/visual practice of ‘observational drawing’. The drawings conducted are descriptions of bodies and embodied experience, and the fluency of bodily action and sensory experience in the act of drawing is central to the investigation of corporeality that underpins the research. The thesis calls on Merleau-Ponty’s description of the chiasmic relation between seeing and being seen, and on feminist understandings of the volatility of matter. Initially drawings were of still bodies – posed models or animal corpses – allowing a concentration on particularity and physiognomy but denying the shifts and changes that take place over time even in comparative stillness. Subsequent drawings attempted to figure moving bodies, responding to changes of position, to fleeting glimpses, to trajectories and perceived intentionality. My presentation includes a number of drawings, my own and those of other practitioners, to illustrate the difference between these two approaches to the drawing and perception of bodies. I summarise the tendency within current art discourse to characterise drawing by its provisionality, and to regard the drawn mark as a direct means of making visible a gesture, an instant record of bodily movement. Drawing seems to offer an immediacy and fluidity to the figuration of bodies in movement. However, my research also addresses the inherited apparatus of my drawing practice, passed down through academic discourse. I will discus the way in which the tropes of hand and eye as human attributes of control and judgment continue to inhabit the practice of observational drawing and affect its knowledge outcomes. ', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '42', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2011', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '15782' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1373887541', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '15782', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '10', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'yes', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/15782/1/RADAR_3.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '41', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Creative activism found locally', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/57/82', 'overlay_journal_id' => 'radar', 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '25', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.5920/radar.2012.1322', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '10', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '15', 'publisher' => 'University of Huddersfield', 'pagerange' => '22-25', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Radar', 'lastmod_second' => '56', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '2049-4327', 'datestamp_hour' => '17', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '41', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 9, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '15782', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20120900', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => '3', 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'art', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'N1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '28', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '29', 'datestamp_day' => '29', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '3494', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '28', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.5920/radar.2012.1322', 'volume' => '1', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2012', 'status_changed_hour' => '17', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '11983' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => 'drawing observation face affect', 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1337092113', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '11983', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '5', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'Emailed author for copy of paper SJT 15/5/12', 'event_title' => 'Observation : Mapping : Dialogue, Drawing Research Network Annual Conference', 'date_type' => 'completed', 'pres_type' => 'paper', 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'yes', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/11983/2/DRN%2D2010%2DConference%2DProgramme.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '8', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Drawing as a form of enquiry: paradoxical aspects', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/19/83', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'unpub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '33', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 14, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => undef, 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '5', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '15', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => 'University of Brighton, UK', 'type' => 'conference_item', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '8', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '8', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 9, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '11983', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '5', 'event_dates' => '14 Sep 2010', 'fulltimestamp' => '20100914', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '14', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'ADA_ICP', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'N1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '33', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => 'conference', 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '15', 'datestamp_day' => '15', 'abstract' => 'This paper is based on my recently completed PhD, a practice-led investigation into drawing as a form of enquiry. The thesis identified a number of knowledge-making operations enacted within the figuring process of drawing: delineating or negotiating boundaries; marking experiences; registering differences; describing relationships. The main focus of study was observational drawing, particularly of the body. The word ‘observation’ carries connotations of detachment. The practice passed on through Western academic tradition, sometimes utilises a distancing mode of perception: the eyes are focussed in such a way as to flatten the visual field, map spatial relationships and make judgements of dark and light. On the other hand, drawing from visual perception can also invoke an attitude of involvement and attentiveness. It can be a means of drawing closer. It is a direct, bodily engagement calling on animal sensation and gestural action. Drawing from the visual can be confusing, challenging and affecting. The paper summarises some of the contradictions and oscillations found within my own practice, to generate discussion. It can be argued that drawing produces knowledge grounded in the materiality and specificity of bodily experience, but how does a concentration on vision, to the exclusion of other senses, skew such experience? ', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '33', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2010', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '20879' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => '3', 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => 'walking; art; drawing; journeys; ', 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1414679528', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Emmanouil ', 'eprintid' => '20879', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Sophia', 'creators_id' => 's.emmanouil@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Lycett', 'eprintid' => '20879', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Robert', 'creators_id' => 'r.s.lycett@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '20879', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '10', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => 'trace.[instructions for mapping space]', 'date_type' => undef, 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'yes', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '/20879/1.hassmallThumbnailVersion/TRACE.jpg;/20879/1/TRACE.jpg|/20879/2.hassmallThumbnailVersion/TownBenchDrawings01.jpg;/20879/2/TownBenchDrawings01.jpg|/20879/3.hassmallThumbnailVersion/TownBenchDrawings02.jpg;/20879/3/TownBenchDrawings02.jpg|/20879/4.hassmallThumbnailVersion/Landslane_still_B.jpg;/20879/4/Landslane_still_B.jpg', 'status_changed_second' => '34', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'trace.[instructions for mapping space]', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => 'Exhibition', 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/08/79', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => undef, 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '38', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => 'r.s.lycett@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => undef, 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '10', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '30', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => 'Huddersfield Art Gallery', 'type' => 'exhibition', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '34', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '34', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 2, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '20879', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '10', 'event_dates' => '8 February to 3 May 2014', 'fulltimestamp' => '20140200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '21', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'ADA_ICP', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'N1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '38', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '30', 'datestamp_day' => '30', 'abstract' => '‘trace.’ is an exhibition of maps and non-maps (drawings, films, photographs, texts) that emerge from an ad-hoc, multi- disciplinary research group formed to explore modes of mapping based on personal experience and memory. The group investigates movements such as walks, as means of enacting a sense of belonging and re-location. Central to the development of this research will be a series of dialogues and collaborations between the artists, and directly with different kinds of ‘public’, some encountered briefly and by chance, others via structured and lengthy interactions. These public encounters will take place on location during the research period, and within the gallery space during the exhibition.', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '38', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2014', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14081' => { 'funders' => 'Hydroponica, Wakefield', 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1347463018', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '14081', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '9', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => 'The Drawing Shed', 'date_type' => 'completed', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'yes', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '/14081/1.hassmallThumbnailVersion/The_Drawing_Shed_tools.jpg;/14081/1/The_Drawing_Shed_tools.jpg', 'status_changed_second' => '20', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The Drawing Shed: Inverted Garden', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/40/81', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => undef, 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '19', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 18, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.projectspaceleeds.org.uk/juliet_macdonald_unid000f_page.aspx', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '9', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => 'Project Space Leeds', 'type' => 'exhibition', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '20', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '20', 'note' => 'Solo project as part of Drawing Shed series', 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 8, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14081', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '9', 'event_dates' => '18 - 21 August 2010', 'fulltimestamp' => '20100818', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '16', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'ADA_ICP', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'N1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '19', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => 'Ten artists took over the Drawing Shed for a week each. For 'Inverted Garden' Juliet MacDonald filled the inside of the shed with plants and drew perspective chalk drawings of imagined gardens on the outside. A workshop for members of the public invited people to draw on plots of paper using garden tools adapted to become drawing implements.', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '19', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2010', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '11506' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => 'School of Contemporary Art & Graphic Design', 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1316703701', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '11506', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '9', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'completed', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2011', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '52', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Drawing around the body: the manual and visual practice of drawing and the embodiment of knowledge', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/15/06', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'unpub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '3', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.julietmacdonald.co.uk/phd_files/', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '9', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '22', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2011', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => 'phd', 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'thesis', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '52', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '52', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 4, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '11506', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => 'doctoral', 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2011', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '9', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20100400', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '11', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'ADA_ICP', 'institution' => 'Leeds Metropolitan University', 'subjects' => 'NX', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '3', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '22', 'datestamp_day' => '22', 'abstract' => 'This thesis concerns drawing as a form of enquiry, figuration and knowledge, specifically relating to perceptions of the body and embodied experience. The primary method and object of research is the practice of direct mark-making in response to perceptual experience, here termed observational drawing. The skills and habits of this learnt practice have been destabilised: by attempting a phenomenological approach; by drawing faces and bodies in conditions of movement and change; by progressively subtracting elements of manual and visual control. Following from observational drawing, the creative research methodology incorporates other modes of drawing, re-working of scanned drawings, note-making, reading and writing. The thesis includes a written overview (Part I), and a digital archive of drawings (Part II), jointly comprising a narrative of the research process. The study starts by considering drawing as a cognitive process; as a means of understanding corporeality; and as constitutive of embodied knowledge. Through drawing, issues are raised regarding the contingencies and contexts of my own observational practice, and the histories that inhabit it. A retrospective investigation through reading and writing has produced twelve texts, interconnected to become one website/diagram (Part III). This research contributes to the growing recognition of art practice as enquiry. Part III of the thesis locates the manual/visual operations of drawing, and the rhetoric of the hand, eye and mind used to describe them, within an epistemological and historical context. This is done from the specific perspective of the creative practitioner. Reference is made to philosophical, art historical and feminist texts; to delineations of the animal and critiques of anthropocentric accounts of knowledge. The conclusion identifies paradoxes within my practice, and oscillations in modes of looking, that characterise its knowledge-making operations. It is suggested such provisionality enables a multiplicity of figurative outcomes that can contribute to understandings of corporeal experience. ', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '3', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2010', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '12139' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => '100', 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1337258029', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '12139', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '5', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => 'De-Skill, Re-Skill', 'date_type' => undef, 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'yes', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '/12139/1.hassmallThumbnailVersion/5413279_orig.jpg;/12139/1/5413279_orig.jpg|/12139/2.hassmallThumbnailVersion/7666360_orig.jpg;/12139/2/7666360_orig.jpg|/12139/3.hassmallThumbnailVersion/9170171_orig.jpg;/12139/3/9170171_orig.jpg', 'status_changed_second' => '24', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'De-Skill, Re-Skill', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => 'Exhibition', 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/21/39', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => undef, 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '37', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://drawingspacesen.weebly.com/archives.html', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '5', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '17', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => 'Drawing Spaces, Lisbon, Portugal', 'type' => 'exhibition', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '24', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '12', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '24', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 11, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '12139', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '5', 'event_dates' => '05-23 Nov 2008', 'fulltimestamp' => '20081100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '12', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '18', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'ADA_ICP', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'N1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '37', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '17', 'datestamp_day' => '17', 'abstract' => 'De-skill Re-skill was a project by Juliet MacDonald involving an exhibition and a residency. It took place between the 5th and the 23rd of November at Drawing Spaces. The exhibition consisted on a series of drawings produced over a number of years representing a continuous line of enquiry. This investigation was concerned with the status of the body and the activity of drawing as a mode of embodied knowledge. In this way, the exhibited works showed an increasing concern with the body as an entanglement rather than a singular entity. They included drawings made in the street in response to the movement of people walking past and, also, a number of notes, diagrams, workings and doodles extracted from numerous files. Among the notes and diagrams there were also many drawings made quickly from glimpses of faces. Through these multiple approaches, carefully learned drawing skills were confounded by fleeting perceptual experiences. During her residency, Juliet developed a new series of drawings which were aimed to examine the manual, visual and tool-using elements that constitute drawing as a skilled practice. Her intention was to experiment with ways in which a drawing practice can incorporate dexterity and clumsiness, vision and blindness, figurative conventionality and animal immediacy. On the 13th of November Juliet delivered a presentation of her project, which was followed by the 2nd Drawing Lesson delivered by Paulo Luís Almeida with the title Faked Acts: Aspects of the performative dimension of drawing. ', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '37', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2008', 'status_changed_hour' => '12', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '19584' => { 'funders' => 'Higher Education Academy', 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1393335981', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '19584', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '2', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'Emailed author for FT 25/2/14', 'event_title' => 'Interdisciplinary Imaginations: using creative methodologies to solve 'wicked problems'', 'date_type' => undef, 'pres_type' => 'paper', 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'yes', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '18', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Drawing Methods as Tools for the Interdisciplinary Imagination', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/95/84', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'unpub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '53', 'refereed' => 'FALSE', 'contact_email' => '.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => undef, 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '2', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '25', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'yes', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => 'University of Huddersfield', 'type' => 'conference_item', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '18', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '18', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '19584', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '2', 'event_dates' => '14 January 2014', 'fulltimestamp' => '20140100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '12', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'art', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'N1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '53', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => 'workshop', 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '25', 'datestamp_day' => '25', 'abstract' => 'The topic of this presentation was drawing methods and their application in thinking through 'wicked problems'. The presentation focussed on three aspects of drawing and diagramming: drawing as observation; drawing as imagination/speculation; drawing and 'rich pictures'. The presentation was delivered as part of the HEA-funded workshop 'Interdisciplinary Imaginations: using creative methodologies to solve 'wicked problems'. Organisers were Rowan Bailey, Katie Beverley, Karen Shah and Juliet MacDonald. This presentation and workshop event sought to foster new knowledge and understanding of creative methodologies in the context of interdisciplinary problem solving. ‘Wicked problems’, broadly defined, are social or cultural issues that are almost impossible to solve, due to their complexity. Humanitarian issues are familiar wicked problems: poverty, education, health, sustainability and equality are all indeterminate in scope and scale and thus never resolvable with one clear-cut solution. The magnitude of these complex global issues highlights a growing demand for interdisciplinary teams to come together to effect social change through collaboration. At the core of this growing cultural and social phenomenon is an understanding of the value and benefits of working collectively and creatively, divergently and discursively. This event set out to promote the idea that the condition of the interdisciplinary imagination has the potential to create new learning experiences. Participants at the workshop were encouraged, through designed tasks, to explore different disciplinary perspectives and world-views, actively engage in dialogical processes to produce new dynamics, deploy and invent creative approaches to wicked problems, and experience first-hand, interdisciplinary learning across the disciplines. ', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '53', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2014', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14079' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1342171764', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '14079', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '7', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => 'Creative Practice Creative Research', 'date_type' => 'completed', 'pres_type' => 'paper', 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '41', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Drawing as Embodied Knowledge', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/40/79', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'unpub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '31', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 15, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.artandeducation.net/announcement/creative-practicecreative-research-at-york-st-john-university/', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '7', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '13', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => 'York St John University, UK', 'type' => 'conference_item', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '41', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '9', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '41', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 4, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14079', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => '15th - 17th April 2009', 'fulltimestamp' => '20090415', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '9', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'ADA_ICP', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'NX', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '31', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => 'conference', 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '13', 'datestamp_day' => '13', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '31', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2009', 'status_changed_hour' => '9', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '16543' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => 'Drawing; chimpanzee; comparative psychology; gesture; Yerkes', 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1372859396', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '16543', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '4', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'Emailed permission sjt 25/4/13', 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => undef, 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2013', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/16543/1/Juliet_MacDonald%2C_Alpha_the_figure_in_the_cage%2C_2013.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Alpha: the figure in the cage', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/65/43', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'inpress', 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '51', 'refereed' => 'FALSE', 'contact_email' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.ledonline.it/relations/', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '4', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '3', 'publisher' => 'Led on Line', 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2013', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism ', 'lastmod_second' => '14', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '2280-9643', 'datestamp_hour' => '9', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '10', 'note' => 'Conference paper selected for published proceedings of Minding Animals 2012 International conference, Utrecht. Publication of journal article is expected in special edition of 'Relations'. ', 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => undef, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '16543', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20130000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '14', 'edit_lock_user' => '11133', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'art', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'NC', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '23', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '25', 'datestamp_day' => '25', 'abstract' => 'Drawing is sometimes referred to as a definitively human activity. In this article drawings by nonhuman animals, particularly primates, are discussed as evidence that the activity is not essentially or exclusively human. In particular the research focuses on one chimpanzee, Alpha, whose drawings were the subject of an experiment in Gestalt psychology published in 1951. The article traces her early life as the first chimpanzee to be born as part of a breeding program established by Robert Yerkes, whose scientific project has been critically examined by Donna Haraway (1989, 1991). Alpha was cared for in the home of two scientists in infancy but later moved to an enclosure with other chimpanzees, indicating that her desire to draw developed in the context of both human contact and physical captivity. Subsequent citations of the drawing experiment with Alpha are discussed as evidence that drawings by nonhuman primates have provoked academic interest, although commentators are cautious in attributing significance to them. With reference to Birke, Bryld and Lykke (2004), the continuing potential of Alpha’s drawings to generate discussion and disrupt anthropocentric assumptions is suggested as a sign of the agency of this particular laboratory animal within the process of knowledge production. ', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '23', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2013', 'status_changed_hour' => '9', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '20880' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => 'animal; drawing; chimpanzee; art practice research', 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1406024434', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '20880', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '6', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'See copyright email from author dated 21/7/14 via GS', 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'yes', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '/20880/1.hassmallThumbnailVersion/JulietMacDonald_image.jpg;/20880/1/JulietMacDonald_image.jpg', 'status_changed_second' => '16', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Alpha', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/08/80', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '21', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.jar-online.net/', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '6', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '22', 'publisher' => 'Society for Artistic Research', 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Journal for Artistic Research', 'lastmod_second' => '30', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '2235-0225', 'datestamp_hour' => '7', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '16', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 5, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '20880', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20140500', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '10', 'number' => '5', 'rev_number' => '21', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'ADA_ICP', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'NX', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '16', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '23', 'datestamp_day' => '23', 'abstract' => 'This is a report of an art-research project that started over four years ago. It concerns drawings made by a chimpanzee as part of a scientific experiment conducted in the 1940s. On the first page I summarise the background to my project, the discussion of drawing that provides a context, and the areas of enquiry that are exposed. On three further pages of the exposition I discuss the methods by which I conducted the research. 'Collecting' describes the acquisition of second-hand books dating from the first half of the twentieth century. In 'Tracing' I discuss the retracing of drawings made by the chimpanzee named Alpha. The third of these pages, 'Experimenting', shows the development of this research during an artist's residency at MEANTIME in 2012. ', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '16', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'http://www.researchcatalogue.net/view/49782/49783', 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2014', 'status_changed_hour' => '7', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '16137' => { 'funders' => 'Arts Council England', 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => 'drawing, animal, chimpanzee, comparative psychology', 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1366638565', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '16137', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '1', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => 'Alpha #4: scheme for a drawing experiment', 'date_type' => undef, 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'yes', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2013', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/16137/1/Invite_to_closing_Alpha.pdf|/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/16137/4/Juliet_MacDonald__Alpha_Meantime_images.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '23', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Alpha # 4: scheme for a drawing experiment', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => 'Website', 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/61/37', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => undef, 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '51', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 29, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://alphadrawing.wordpress.com/', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '1', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '22', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2013', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => 'MEANTIME, Cheltenham, UK', 'type' => 'exhibition', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '43', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '23', 'note' => 'This was a funded art residency for the month of September 2012, at MEANTIME project space. MEANTIME is supported by the following organisations: Arts Council England; Cheltenham Art Gallery & Museum; Cheltenham Borough Council; University of Gloucestershire.', 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 9, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '16137', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '4', 'event_dates' => '1-29 September 2012', 'fulltimestamp' => '20120929', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '19', 'edit_lock_user' => '11133', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'ADA_ICP', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'N1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '54', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '2', 'datestamp_day' => '2', 'abstract' => 'Alpha #4 is part of a continuing project to investigate and retrace a drawing experiment. Hunched over a desk, studying publications gathered from the ‘withdrawn’ stock of libraries, the artist/researcher delves into the history of comparative psychology. The aim is to unearth the records of one particular test subject, a female chimpanzee named Alpha, born in the 1930s. During her life in captivity Alpha developed a drawing habit that became the topic of experiment, written up and published in 1951. In this retrieval project, traces of Alpha including scientific texts, photographs, charts, diagrams and, strangest of all, reproductions of the marks drawn by the animal herself, are brought to light and re-examined. Alpha becomes a figure with which to investigate the liminal status, instrumental value and captive existence of generations of laboratory animals, bred and raised to serve as surrogates in the quest for human self-knowledge. The act of retracing Alpha’s marks becomes an obsessive labour of biography.', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '54', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2012', 'status_changed_hour' => '10', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '8416' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => '2', 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => 'contemporary art drawing', 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1283431336', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '8416', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '9', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => 'Delineate', 'date_type' => undef, 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2010', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Delineate: an exhibition exploring line', 'corp_creators' => 'East Street Arts', 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => 'Drawings', 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/84/16', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => undef, 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '41', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => undef, 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '9', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '2', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2010', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => 'Crossley Gallery, Dean Clough, Halifax, UK', 'type' => 'exhibition', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '10', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '12', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '10', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '8416', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2010', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '9', 'event_dates' => '20 Jan – 31 Mar 2007', 'fulltimestamp' => '20070100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '12', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '15', 'edit_lock_user' => '3494', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'art', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'N1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '41', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '2', 'datestamp_day' => '2', 'abstract' => ''Delineate is an exhibition that explores boundary-making as it enables expressive and formal innovation. It is also an attempt to showcase a number of artists working across a wide range of mediums and processes, in which line becomes a particularly strong element. This is not to say that the subject matter in all of the works are informed by the element of line itself, only that what we believe to be strong examples of linearity follow through the selected works, whether within their concept, composition, process, or representation. In all of these works, from two-dimensional drawings to durational performances, we are interested in the way the presence of line traces the edges of thought and artistic impulse. In this way we have tried to present a collection of work in relation to the artists’ mapping of creative space through the use of line.' ', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '41', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2007', 'status_changed_hour' => '12', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '8420' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => '3', 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1283431562', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '8420', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Tsegmid', 'eprintid' => '8420', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Tsendpurev', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '9', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => 'Odoo/Current', 'date_type' => undef, 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2010', 'fileinfo' => '/8420/1.hassmallThumbnailVersion/OdooCurrent_website.jpg;/8420/1/OdooCurrent_website.jpg', 'status_changed_second' => '48', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Odoo/Current', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/84/20', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => undef, 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '49', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => undef, 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '9', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '2', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2010', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => 'Genghis Art Gallery, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia', 'type' => 'exhibition', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '48', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '12', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '48', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 4, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '8420', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2010', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '9', 'event_dates' => '10-30 April 2007', 'fulltimestamp' => '20070400', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '12', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '59', 'edit_lock_user' => '3494', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'art', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'N1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '49', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '2', 'datestamp_day' => '2', 'abstract' => 'An exhibition of work by 12 UK based artists', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '49', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2007', 'status_changed_hour' => '12', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '19580' => { 'funders' => 'Higher Education Academy', 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1392306305', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '19580', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bailey', 'eprintid' => '19580', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Rowan', 'creators_id' => 'r.bailey@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Beverley', 'eprintid' => '19580', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Katharine J.', 'creators_id' => 'k.j.beverley@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '2', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'Emailed for FT 13/2/14', 'event_title' => 'Interdisciplinary Imaginations: Using Creative Methodologies to solve ‘Wicked Problems’.', 'date_type' => undef, 'pres_type' => 'paper', 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'yes', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '40', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Interdisciplinary Imaginations: Using Creative Methodologies to Solve 'Wicked Problems' ', 'corp_creators' => 'HEA', 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/95/80', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'unpub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '50', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => 'r.bailey@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 14, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => undef, 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '2', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '13', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'yes', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => 'University of Huddersfield, UK', 'type' => 'conference_item', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '40', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '40', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '19580', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '2', 'event_dates' => '14th January 2014', 'fulltimestamp' => '20140114', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'art', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'LC', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '50', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => 'workshop', 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '13', 'datestamp_day' => '13', 'abstract' => 'Creative methodologies are often used to facilitate interdisciplinary solutions for ‘wicked problems’. But can these divergent thinking tools aid interdisciplinary learning in the arts and humanities and with what benefits? This group workshop invites delegates to creative collaborative solutions by testing different art and design approaches to problem-solving. This workshop intends to generate new knowledge and understanding of creative methodologies in the context of interdisciplinary problem solving. Delegates will be introduced to what constitutes a ‘wicked problem’ and how one might tackle it within a teaching and learning context. It will contextualise different approaches to the use of creative methodologies in postgraduate education, through art and design methodologies and more widely through interdisciplinary networks of social entrepreneurship. The workshop activities will equip delegates with the skills of practicing soft systems methodologies (rich pictures), Edward de Bono’s six thinking hats approach, inference based actions and design thinking models (empathy building and divergent thinking). These skills will be applied to different problems with the purpose of delegates experiencing first-hand interdisciplinary learning across the disciplines. This event promotes the idea that the condition of the interdisciplinary imagination has the potential to create new learning experiences. The interdisciplinary group can facilitate differing perspectives, deploy and invent new methodologies, actively engage in dialogical processes to produce different dynamics from that of the established disciplines. In this context, the interdisciplinary imagination is also a cross-, trans-. multi-, and intra-creative process to be experienced within the group. ‘Wicked problems’, broadly defined, are social or cultural issues that are almost impossible to solve, due to their complexity. Humanitarian issues are familiar wicked problems: poverty, education, health, sustainability and equality are all indeterminate in scope and scale and thus never resolvable with one clear-cut solution. In the 1970s, Horst Rittel and Melvin M. Webber identified ten characteristics that make problems ‘wicked’ (Rittel and Webber, 1973). These features soon became the benchmark for identifying new and innovative ways to address to the complex barriers of large-scale issues. Bell and Morse (1999), Brown, Harris and Russell (2012), Crouch and Pearce (2012) present current theories and debates within which wicked problems sit, including the positive effects design thinking can bring to these dilemmas. Calls to actively tackle wicked problems have become a popular feature of macro research trends in design and social entrepreneurship (see Austin Center for Design, Studio H and RSA – Ideas and Actions for a 21st Century enlightenment). The magnitude of complex global issues highlights a growing demand for interdisciplinary teams to come together to effect social change through collaboration. At the core of this growing cultural and social phenomenon is an understanding of the value and benefits of working collectively and creatively, divergently and discursively. Such approaches provide opportunities to tap into interdisciplinary learning experiences, and can be used to actively problem-solve specific issues (see De Bono, 1985; Checkland and Poulter, 2006). http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/events/detail/2014/Seminars/AH/GEN939_University_of_Huddersfield', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5172', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '50', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2014', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '11441' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => 'drawing materiality figure knowledge corporeality body digital analogue ', 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1380708620', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '11441', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '11', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'Emailed author, query embargo, publisher permission? SJT 24/11/11', 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'yes', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2011', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/11441/1/Juliet_MacDonald_Digits_and_Figures_2012.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Digits and Figures: a manual drawing practice and its modes of reproduction', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/14/41', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '10', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.uk.sagepub.com/books/Book235745#tabview=toc', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '11', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '2', 'publisher' => 'SAGE Publications Ltd', 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2011', 'book_title' => 'SAGE Handbook of Digital Dissertations and Theses', 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'book_section', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '31', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '16', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '10', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 6, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '11441', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => '9780857027399', 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '10', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20120600', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => '548', 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '10', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '22', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'ADA_ICP', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'N1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '34', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '24', 'datestamp_day' => '24', 'abstract' => 'In this chapter I describe the digital outcomes of my PhD research into drawing. The thesis addresses drawing as a form of enquiry, the primary method and object of research being my own observational drawing practice. The digital format of the thesis supports the display of scans and moving image content, and texts are connected in a non-linear structure. I discus this format and contextualize the project in relation to recent drawing research and the use of the internet as a forum for dissemination. This chapter highlights those aspects of drawing practice that are made accessible to researchers and examiners by digital formats and those that are rendered more obscure. I consider three aspects: drawing as process; drawing as the artifact of process; and drawing as configuration or figure. I then describe the material reproduction of the figure in the analogue/digital process of scanning, and the subsequent manifestation of the drawing as an image on screen. The creative desire for a complete integration of text and image is set against the objectives of accessibility. Finally, I consider the longevity of the digital thesis as internet platforms evolve and universities and libraries attempt to establish consistent and lasting modes of storage. ', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '34', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2012', 'status_changed_hour' => '16', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14599' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => 'Chimpanzee, drawing, trace, animal', 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1372847225', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '14599', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '9', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => 'Minding Animals Conference 2012', 'date_type' => 'completed', 'pres_type' => 'paper', 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'yes', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '19', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Alpha: the figure in the cage', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/45/99', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'unpub', 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '42', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 6, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.uu.nl/faculty/humanities/EN/congres/mindinganimals/programme/Pages/default.aspx', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '9', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '3', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => 'Utrecht University, the Netherlands', 'type' => 'conference_item', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '27', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '19', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 7, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14599', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => '4 to 6 July 2012', 'fulltimestamp' => '20120706', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '10', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '11', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'ADA_ICP', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '13', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => 'conference', 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => ''For at least the past 10 years her behaviour with pencil and paper has been essentially as at present. During this time she has never been directly rewarded for drawing, and it is quite evident that the activity does not involve social rewards. If possible she retires with her paper to a far side of the cage (in pre-experimental period), turns her back to the observer, works for a time with complete preoccupation, and eventually tears up the paper. If caged with another animal that watches her drawing, she shoulders the other aside or turns away to work in a corner. The motivation is intense. She will disregard food when she sees someone with pencil and paper and will beg for these' Schiller, P. (1951) 'Figural preferences in the drawings of a chimpanzee'. In: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, Vol.44, pp.101-111. The above appears in a report of an experiment, the subject of which was an 18-year-old female chimpanzee, named Alpha. I came across the passage, quoted by Desmond Morris in his 1962 publication, The Biology of Art, while conducting practice-based research into drawing for my doctorate. I was struck by the contradictions raised by this apparently impartial scientific report of observed behaviour. Drawing is often referred to as definitively human activity that connects modern humans with the earliest producers of cave art, 'to draw is to be human' (Dexter, 2005). The desire to leave a mark of one's presence is presumed to be indicative of a 'simple human intentionality' (Renfrew, 2003). However, from the evidence of Schiller’s report, here is an example of an individual whose caged existence testifies to her status as animal, and yet who exhibits characteristics defined as uniquely human. Alpha was neither the first nor the last non-human primate whose drawing habits have been studied in a scientific context, Morris lists a number of other examples dating from the early part of the twentieth century. Recent examples include a study at the Primate Research Institute in Kyoto (Tanaka, Tomonaga & Matsuzawa, 2003), investigating finger drawing by infant chimpanzees. However, Alpha's situation as a caged animal raises particular questions concerning the reliability of human/animal distinctions and their ethical implications. In this paper I report on the outcome of my attempts to retrace the marks left by this particular chimpanzee. The question I address here is: How did this drawing practice come about, and what is the significance of the cage as its context? The methods for doing this include a literal retracing of the drawings made by Alpha during the experiment, not from originals but from printed copies of the experimenter's tracings. I also retrace the scientific texts quoted by Schiller in order to locate his research within the context of comparative psychology of the early 20th Century. This chain of textual reference leads back to Alpha's early life as an infant at the Yale Anthropoid Experiment Station, Orange Park, Florida, where she was born in 1930. These laboratories, founded by Robert M. Yerkes, have been the subject of critique by Donna Haraway (1989). Alpha's status as the first animal to be born at the facility made her a particularly important experimental subject to Yerkes, who described her in infancy as 'continuously available for physical, physiological, behavioral, and other observations and special experiments' (1932). In the light of this significant history I conclude that Alpha’s drawing practice can only be understood in the context of captivity and constant observation in which it took place.', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '13', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2012', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '22168' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => 'animal; maze; rat; diagram', 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1414677571', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'eprintid' => '22168', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '10', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => 'Centre for Human Animal Studies (CfHAS) Inaugural Conference and Launch: Animals: ethics, sustainability, sentience ', 'date_type' => undef, 'pres_type' => 'paper', 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'yes', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '16', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Running the maze: animal sentience as a variable in the psychology of early maze experiments', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/21/68', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'unpub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '2', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => undef, 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '10', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '30', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => 'Edge Hill University, UK', 'type' => 'conference_item', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '16', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'MacDonald', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '16', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 10, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '22168', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '10', 'event_dates' => '25 October 2014', 'fulltimestamp' => '20141000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juliet', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'ADA_ICP', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'BF', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '2', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => 'conference', 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '30', 'datestamp_day' => '30', 'abstract' => 'In this paper I trace the development of maze experiments and the start of mass breeding of rats and mice for laboratory use in the early twentieth century. I will take a critical approach to the discipline of Comparative Psychology, in which mazes were developed, viewing it from an external perspective (that of an artist-researcher). Beginning with the first mazes designed to demonstrate the intelligence of rats (Small, 1901) I will describe how this led to proliferation and then standardisation of mazes as devices to test theories of learning. The spatial configuration of mazes allowed limited scope for movement for the animals inside whereas the observer was able to view the whole set up and track the 'errors' of the disorientated occupant. I aim to show the epistemological implications of this, how such experiments act as devices of control and containment by positioning animals as objects of knowledge surveyed from above. Movements of the animals inside these devices were sometimes recorded as drawn lines within the organising diagram of the maze. Over the next thirty years, mazes became such a standard part of laboratory equipment in U.S. experimental psychology that the maze began to be described in terms of a computational device, with such factors as hunger, thirst, fear or desire being set as controllable variables (Tolman, 1937). I will argue that the sentience of the animals tested was regarded as a component in the maze apparatus, and continues to be a resource in such experiments.', 'creators_id' => 'j.macdonald@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5212', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '2', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2014', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef } };

2014

MacDonald, J (2014) ‘Running the maze: animal sentience as a variable in the psychology of early maze experiments’. In: Centre for Human Animal Studies (CfHAS) Inaugural Conference and Launch: Animals: ethics, sustainability, sentience , 25 October 2014, Edge Hill University, UK

MacDonald, J (2014) Marked Surfaces II [Show/Exhibition]

MacDonald, J (2014) ‘Drawing in the CollectiveRadar , 1 (4), pp. 31-35. ISSN 2049-4327

MacDonald, J (2014) ‘Spuren im LabyrinthTierstudien (6), pp. 28-40. ISSN 2193-8504

MacDonald, J (2014) ‘AlphaJournal for Artistic Research (5). ISSN 2235-0225

MacDonald, J (2014) ‘In Passing TRACEY , pp. 1-11. ISSN 1742-3570

Lycett, R., Emmanouil , S. and MacDonald, J.(2014) trace.[instructions for mapping space] [Show/Exhibition]

Bailey, R., MacDonald, J. and Beverley, K. (2014) ‘Interdisciplinary Imaginations: Using Creative Methodologies to Solve 'Wicked Problems' ’. In: Interdisciplinary Imaginations: Using Creative Methodologies to solve ‘Wicked Problems’., 14th January 2014, University of Huddersfield, UK

MacDonald, J (2014) ‘Drawing Methods as Tools for the Interdisciplinary Imagination’. In: Interdisciplinary Imaginations: using creative methodologies to solve 'wicked problems', 14 January 2014, University of Huddersfield

2013

MacDonald, J (2013) ‘The Art of the Diagram: modes of depicting apparatus used in Comparative Psychology experiments’. In: Technoscientific developments and Critical Animal Studies, 3rd EU conference for Critical Animal Studies, 28-30 November 2013, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Germany

MacDonald, J (2013) Marked Surfaces [Show/Exhibition]

MacDonald, J (2013) ‘Alpha: the figure in the cageRelations: Beyond Anthropocentrism . ISSN 2280-9643

2012

MacDonald, J (2012) Alpha # 4: scheme for a drawing experiment [Show/Exhibition]

MacDonald, J (2012) ‘Creative activism found locallyRadar , 1 (3), pp. 22-25. ISSN 2049-4327

MacDonald, J (2012) ‘The Distinguishing Mark’. In: Minding Animals Conference 2012, 4 to 6 July 2012, Utrecht University, the Netherlands

MacDonald, J (2012) ‘Alpha: the figure in the cage’. In: Minding Animals Conference 2012, 4 to 6 July 2012, Utrecht University, the Netherlands

MacDonald, J (2012) ‘Digits and Figures: a manual drawing practice and its modes of reproduction’. In: SAGE Handbook of Digital Dissertations and Theses. : SAGE Publications Ltd. . ISBN 9780857027399

MacDonald, J (2012) ‘Bus station ’. In: INDA 6: International Drawing Annual. : Manifest Creative Research Gallery and Drawing Center. .

2011

MacDonald, J (2011) ‘Lines of movement, points of stillness: drawing and the figuration of bodies’. In: Bodies in Movement: Intersecting Discourses of Materiality in the Sciences and the Arts, 28-29 May 2011, University of Edinburgh

2010

MacDonald, J (2010) ‘Drawing as a form of enquiry: paradoxical aspects’. In: Observation : Mapping : Dialogue, Drawing Research Network Annual Conference, 14 Sep 2010, University of Brighton, UK

MacDonald, J (2010) The Drawing Shed: Inverted Garden [Show/Exhibition]

MacDonald, J (2010) Drawing around the body: the manual and visual practice of drawing and the embodiment of knowledge Doctoral thesis, Leeds Metropolitan University.

2009

MacDonald, J (2009) ‘Drawing as Embodied Knowledge’. In: Creative Practice Creative Research, 15th - 17th April 2009, York St John University, UK

2008

MacDonald, J (2008) De-Skill, Re-Skill [Show/Exhibition]

2007

MacDonald, J (2007) Drawn Over [Show/Exhibition]

Tsegmid, T. and MacDonald, J.(2007) Odoo/Current [Show/Exhibition]

MacDonald, J (2007) Delineate: an exhibition exploring line [Show/Exhibition]

Esteem

Co-editor of TRACEY | journal

Peer reviewer for Journal for Artistic Research

Artist's talks at the University of Lancaster and University of Leeds

Research Degree Supervision

• Art practice as enquiry
• Drawing as reflective process
• Traditional skills and techniques in drawing
• Performative aspects of drawing

Last updated Thursday 6 March 2014
Thank you for your feedback.

Your feedback has been sent to the University Web/E-Marketing Team.

Excellent
Good
Satisfactory
Needs improvement

Excellent
Good
Satisfactory
Needs improvement

Excellent
Good
Satisfactory
Needs improvement

VAT registration number 516 3101 90

All rights reserved ©