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Portrait of Professor Robert Cywinski Professor Robert Cywinski

r.cywinski@hud.ac.uk | 01484 472169



Biography

Bob was awarded a BSc in Physics from the University of Manchester in 1973, and gained a PhD from the University of Salford in 1976. He then continued his research at Imperial College, London, and Monash University, Melbourne, before returning to the UK in 1980 to join the team building the world’s most powerful pulsed neutron source, ISIS, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire. Following the official opening of ISIS in 1985, Bob was appointed as Lecturer in Physics at the University of Reading and in 1994 moved to the University of St Andrews as Professor of Natural Philosophy. In 2000 he became Professor of Physics and Dean of Research in the Faculty of Mathematics and Physical Sciences at the University of Leeds, finally joining the University of Huddersfield as research Professor in 2008.

Bob’s principal field of research is the application of neutron scattering, muon spin relaxation, and x-ray synchrotron techniques to the study of magnetic and superconducting properties of alloys and compounds, although he also uses similar techniques in the study of materials of biological, chemical, engineering, palaeontological and archaeological importance. He also is actively involved in the development of new particle accelerator technology for cancer therapy and for the generation of safe nuclear energy. Bob shares a current EPSRC and EU research grant portfolio of over £12M.

Bob has played a significant role in international science programmes: he has been Chairman of the European Neutron Scattering Association (ENSA), and President of the International Society for Muon Spectroscopy (ISMS-Europe, Russia and Africa), a position to which he has recently been re-elected. He acts as a scientific advisor to a number of national and international science facilities and institutions, including the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia, the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, France, and TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. He has also been a key figure in establishing and promoting the scientific and technical cases for the ongoing £1bn European Spallation Source (ESS) project. He is a board member of the British Accelerator Science and Radiation Oncology Consortium (BASROC) and a founder member of the Thorium Energy Amplifier Association (THOREA). He has been a member of the selection committee for three international science prizes (ie the Yamazaki, Kurti and Haelg prizes).

Bob actively promotes the public understanding of science and has made a number of science movies, two of which have featured Lord Robert Winston. He is currently a member of the team of Huddersfield Ambassadors.

Research & Scholarship

Area of current research activity include:

(i) The European Spallation Source project, the goal of which is to build the world’s most powerful source of neutrons for the study of materials across all disciplines, including physics, materials science, chemistry, biology, engineering, medicine, earth sciences and archaeology. The multinational £1b ESS project is now reaching its final design stages and entering a preparatory phase, funded by a 5M€ EU grant, 0.6M€ of which will be held by the University of Huddersfield.

(ii) The development of entirely new particle accelerators, known as non scaling fixed field alternating gradient (or ns-FFAG) accelerators, which may prove substantially cheaper and more flexible than existing synchrotrons and cyclotrons. This work is being carried out as part of the £8.5M RCUK Basic Technology funded CONFORM project under the umbrella of the British Association of Accelerator Science and Radiation Oncology (BASROC). CONFORM is also exploring the potential of ns-FFAGs as a drivers for proton and carbon ion beam cancer therapy. An early milestone will be the construction and testing of the world’s first ns-FFAG, the electron accelerator EMMA at STFC’s Daresbury Laboratory.

(iii) The design and evaluation of a thorium-based energy amplifier, or accelerator driven sub-critical reactor (ADSR) for energy generation. ADSR systems may provide a safer and cheaper alternative to conventional nuclear power. Unlike conventional nuclear reactors which have an enriched uranium, or plutonium, core to sustain a chain reaction, ADSRs are designed to have insufficient neutrons to become critical. The additional neutrons that are needed to maintain the fission process are provided by spallation, whereby approximately 10% of the electrical power from the ADSR is used to accelerate protons to high energies, the protons then collide with heavy metal targets within the reactor core to spall (or chip off) neutrons. If the accelerator is switched off the fission processes stop. Additional advantages of the ADSR system are that it uses thorium, which is four times more plentiful than uranium, as fuel; it doesn’t produce plutonium and therefore minimises the risk of proliferation; it can burn plutonium, rendering it safe by reducing the half life of the radiotoxic waste from thousands to hundreds of years. This work is being carried out in collaboration with Professor Roger Barlow at the University of Manchester under a £160K EPSRC grant.

(iv) A feasibility study for a next generation muon facility for muon beam research in condensed matter science. Implanted muons are a uniquely sensitive probe of magnetic field distributions and dynamics in magnets, superconductors and semiconductors. Current facilities at PSI in Switzerland, ISIS in Oxfordshire. TRIUMF in Canada, and J-PARC in Japan, share the proton drivers that are used to create the muons with other users. The characteristics of the muon source are at best sub-optimal and at worst severly compromised. Within the CONFORM project we are exploring whether a stand-alone fully optimised FFAG-driven muon source is feasible and cost effective

(v) The exploration of the fundamental physics of glass and the glass transition through the study of spin correlations and dynamics in the magnetic analogue of glasses – spin glasses. Neutron and muon beam studies of the evolution of slow dynamics of interacting magnetic spins as the glass transition is approached are revealing complex (stretched exponential) relaxation which may be understood within the framework of sub-extensive entropy theory and point to a universal law for glassy relaxation. This work is supported by a £250K EPSRC grant and involves the use of neutron spin echo studies at ILL, Grenoble and HMI, Berlin (in collaboration with Dr Katia Pappas), and muon spin relaxation studies at ISIS in Oxfordshire.

(vi) The development of neutron radiography and tomography techniques. Neutron beams, although weaker than X-ray beams, are deeply penetrating and can be used to collect images, 3d reconstructions and even movies of the internal structure of complex objects (eg car engines, fossils preserved in rocks, the flow of water through stone, etc). This work has been carried out by Dr Martin Dawson, whilst a research student at ILL in Grenoble, and will continue through collaboration with Martin at HMI in Berlin.

Publications and Other Research Outputs

2014

Bungau, C., Bungau, A., Cywinski, R., Barlow, R., Edgecock, R., Carlsson, P., Danared, H., Mezei, F., Holm, A., Møller, S. and Thomsen, H. (2014) ‘Induced activation in accelerator componentsPhysical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams , 17 (8). ISSN 1098-4402

Bungau, C., Bungau, A., Barlow, R., Cywinski, R. and Edgecock, R. (2014) ‘Studies of magnet activation due to beam losses and back-scattered neutrons’. In: ICANS XXI: International Collaboration on Advanced Neutron Sources, 29th September - 3rd October 2014, Mito, Ibaraki, Japan

Bungau, C., Bungau, A., Cywinski, R., Edgecock, R. and Fletcher, M. (2014) ‘Alternative target designs for power upgrade of the TS1 target at the ISIS Neutron Facility’. In: ICANS XXI: International Collaboration on Advanced Neutron Sources, 29th September - 3rd October 2014, Mito, Ibaraki, Japan

Bungau, C., Bungau, A., Cywinski, R. and Edgecock, R. (2014) ‘Power Upgrade Studies for the ISIS-TS1 Spallation Target’. In: 5th International Particle Accelerator Conference IPAC 2014, 15th - 20th June 2014, Dresden, Germany

Barlow, R., Cywinski, R., Edgecock, R. and Toafer, A. (2014) ‘PIP: a compact recirculating accelerator for medical isotopes ’. In: 23rd Conference on Accelerators in Research and Industry, May 25-30 2014, San Antonio Texas, USA

Van den Berg, J., Bailey, P., Barlow, R., Noakes, T., Kilcoyne, S. and Cywinski, R. (2014) ‘The UK MEIS facility: a new future at the IIAA, Huddersfield’. In: 23rd Conference on Accelerators in Research and Industry, , 25-30 May 2014, San Antonio, Texas, USA

Bungau, A., Cywinski, R., Bungau, C., King, P. and Lord, J. (2014) ‘Target Optimisation Studies for Surface Muon ProductionPhysical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams , 17 (3), p. 034701. ISSN 1098-4402

2013

Radcliffe, N., Barlow, R., Cywinski, R. and Beasley, P. (2013) ‘Development of lowenergy accelerator-based production of medical isotopes’. In: Proceedings of the NA - PAC 2013 Conference. Geneva: JACoW. pp. 1131-1133. ISBN 978-3-95450-138-0

Ratcliffe, N., Barlow, R., Bungau, A., Bungau, C. and Cywinski, R. (2013) ‘GEANT4 Target Simulations for Low Energy Medical Applications’. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Particle Accelerator Conference. Shanghai, China: JACoW. pp. 3717-3719. ISBN 978-3-95450-122-9

Bungau, C., Barlow, R., Bungau, A., Cywinski, R., Edgecock, R., Carlsson, P., Danared, H., Mezei, F., Holm, A., Møller, S. and Thomsen, H. (2013) ‘GEANT4 Studies of Magnets Activation in the HEBT Line for the European Spallation Source’. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Particle Accelerator Conference. Shanghai, China: JACoW. pp. 3714-3716. ISBN 978-3-95450-122-9

Bungau, A., Cywinski, R., Lord, J., King, P. and Bungau, C. (2013) ‘Simulations of Surface Muon Production in Graphite TargetsPhysical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams , 16 (1), p. 014701. ISSN 1098-4402

2012

Martin, P., Cooke, D. and Cywinski, R. (2012) ‘A molecular dynamics study of the thermal properties of thorium oxideJournal of Applied Physics , 112 (7), p. 073507. ISSN 0021-8979

Peggs, S., Seviour, R. and Cywinski, R. (2012) ‘Thorium energy’. In: LINAC 12, 9th-14th September 2012, Tel-Aviv, Israel

Ellis, K., Cywinski, R., Pratt, F. and Telling, M. (2012) ‘Pressure Dependent Magnetism in Y1.05(Mn0.95Al0.05)2Physics Procedia , 30, pp. 198-201. ISSN 1875-3892

Barlow, R., Ratcliffe, N., Cywinski, R., Bungau, A. and Edgecock, R. (2012) ‘Optimising neutron production from compact low energy accelerators’. In: Proceedings of the Third International Particle Accelerator Conference. New Orleans, Louisiana, USA: JACoW. pp. 4154-4156. ISBN 978-3-95450-115-1

Bungau, C., Barlow, R. and Cywinski, R. (2012) ‘Optimisation Studies of Accelerator Driven Fertile to Fissile Conversion Rates in Thorium Fuel Cycle ’. In: Proceedings of IPAC2012, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. London: IEEE. pp. 4112-4114. ISBN 978-3-95450-115-1

Bungau, A., Cywinski, R., Lord, J., King, P. and Bungau, C. (2012) ‘GEANT4 Target Simulations for the ISIS Muon FacilityPhysics Procedia , 30, pp. 12-15. ISSN 1875-3892

Ellis, K., Cywinski, R., Kilcoyne, S. and Hillier, A. (2012) ‘Au4V – Moment Stability and Spin Fluctuations in the Ordered PhasePhysics Procedia , 30, pp. 121-124. ISSN 1875-3892

Peggs, S., Horak, W., Roser, T., Ashley, V., Ashworth, R., Barlow, R., Cywinski, R., Seviour, R., Biarrotte, J., Henderson, S., Hutton, A., Kelly, J., Lindroos, M., McIntyre, P., Norlin, A., Owen, H. and Parks, G. (2012) ‘Thorium Energy Futures’. In: Proceedings of the International Particle Accelerator Conference IPAC 2012. New Orleans, Louisiana, USA: JACoW. pp. 29-33. ISBN 978-3-95450-115-1

2011

Comyn, T., Stevenson, T., Al-Jawad, M., André, G., Bell, A. and Cywinski, R. (2011) ‘Antiferromagnetic order in tetragonal bismuth ferrite–lead titanateJournal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials , 323 (21), pp. 2533-2535. ISSN 03048853

Bungau, A., Bungau, C., Cywinski, R., King, P. and Lord, J. (2011) ‘Target Optimisation Studies for MuSR Applications’. In: IPAC2011 - Proceedings of the 2nd International Particle Accelerator Conference. San Sebastian, Spain: IPAC'11/EPS-AG. pp. 1641-1643. ISBN 978-92-9083-366-6

Stewart, J., Hillier, J., Manuel, P. and Cywinski, R. (2011) ‘A neutron polarization analysis study of moment correlations in (Dy0.4Y0.6)T2(T = Mn, Al)Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter , 23 (16), p. 164205. ISSN 0953-8984

Bungau, C., Barlow, R., Bungau, A. and Cywinski, R. (2011) ‘GEANT4 Studies of the Thorium Fuel Cycle’. In: PAC 2011 Particle Accelerator Conference Proceedings. New York, USA: PAC'11 OC / IEEE. pp. 2178-2180.

Bungau, A., Cywinski, R., Barlow, R., Bungau, C., King, P. and Lord, J. (2011) ‘GEANT4 Modelling of Heat Deposition into the ISIS Muon Target’. In: PAC 2011 Particle Accelerator Conference Proceedings. New York, USA: PAC'11 OC / IEEE. pp. 814-816.

2010

Quintanilla, J., Hillier, A., Annett, J. and Cywinski, R. (2010) ‘Relativistic analysis of the pairing symmetry of the noncentrosymmetric superconductor LaNiC_{2}Physical Review B , 82 (17), p. 174511. ISSN 1098-0121

Stewart, J., Hillier, A., Hillier, J. and Cywinski, R. (2010) ‘Structural and dynamical study of moment localization in ?-Mn_{1?x}In_{x}Physical Review B , 82 (14), p. 144439. ISSN 1098-0121

Bungau, A., Cywinski, R., Bungau, C., King, P. and Lord, J. (2010) ‘GEANT4 Validation Studies at the ISIS Muon Facility’. In: IPAC'10 - Proceedings of the 1st International Particle Accelerator Conference. Kyoto, Japan: IPAC 10 OC/ACFA. pp. 247-249. ISBN 9789290833529

Bungau, A., Cywinski, R., Bungau, C., King, P. and Lord, J. (2010) ‘Impact of the Energy of the Proton Driver on Muon Production ’. In: IPAC'10 - Proceedings of the 1st International Particle Accelerator Conference. Kyoto, Japan: IPAC 10 OC/ACFA. pp. 259-261. ISBN 9789290833529

Bungau, C., Barlow, R. and Cywinski, R. (2010) ‘Study on Neutronics Design of an Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactor ’. In: IPAC'10 - Proceedings of the 1st International Particle Accelerator Conference. Kyoto, Japan: IPAC 10 OC/ACFA. pp. 160-162. ISBN 9789290833529

Bungau, A., Cywinski, R., Bungau, C., King, P. and Lord, J. (2010) ‘Geometry Optimization of the ISIS Muon Target ’. In: IPAC'10 - Proceedings of the 1st International Particle Accelerator Conference. Kyoto, Japan: IPAC 10 OC/ACFA. pp. 250-252. ISBN 9789290833529

Bungau, A., Cywinski, R., Bungau, C., King, P. and Lord, J. (2010) ‘Material Studies for the ISIS Muon Target ’. In: IPAC'10 - Proceedings of the 1st International Particle Accelerator Conference. Kyoto, Japan: IPAC 10 OC/ACFA. pp. 253-255. ISBN 9789290833529

Bungau, A., Cywinski, R. and Bungau, C. (2010) ‘Target Optimisation Studies for the European Spallation Source ’. In: IPAC'10 - Proceedings of the 1st International Particle Accelerator Conference. Kyoto, Japan: IPAC 10 OC/ACFA. pp. 256-258. ISBN 9789290833529

2009

Comyn, T., Stevenson, T., Al-Jawad, M., Turner, S., Smith, R., Bell, A. and Cywinski, R. (2009) ‘High temperature neutron diffraction studies of 0.9BiFeO[sub 3]–0.1PbTiO[sub 3]Journal of Applied Physics , 105 (9), p. 094108. ISSN 00218979

Bungau, A., Cywinski, R. and Lord, J. (2009) ‘Development and Optimisation of the Muon Target at the ISIS-RAL Muon Facility ’. In: Proceedings of the 23rd Particle Accelerator Conference 4 – 8 May 2009 Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada . Vancouver, Canada: PAC 09. pp. 1397-1399.

Bungau, C., Barlow, R., Bungau, A. and Cywinski, R. (2009) ‘Neutron Spallation Studies for an Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactor ’. In: Proceedings of the 23rd Particle Accelerator Conference. Vancouver, Canada: JACOW. pp. 1351-1353.

Cywinski, R., Bungau, A., Poole, M., Smith, S., Dalmas de Reotier, P., Barlow, R., Edgecock, R., King, P., Lord, J., Pratt, F., Clausen, K. and Shiroka, T. (2009) ‘Towards a dedicated high-intensity muon facilityPhysica B: Condensed Matter , 404 (5-7), pp. 1024-1027. ISSN 0921-4526

Hillier, A., Quintanilla, J. and Cywinski, R. (2009) ‘Evidence for Time-Reversal Symmetry Breaking in the Noncentrosymmetric Superconductor LaNiC2Physical Review Letters , 102 (11), p. 117007. ISSN 0031-9007

Pickup, R., Cywinski, R., Pappas, C., Farago, B. and Fouquet, P. (2009) ‘Generalized Spin-Glass RelaxationPhysical Review Letters , 102 (9), p. 097202. ISSN 0031-9007

Stewart, J. and Cywinski, R. (2009) ‘Magnetic short-range order in ?-Mn1?xCoxJournal of Physics: Condensed Matter , 21 (12), p. 124216. ISSN 0953-8984

2008

Comyn, T., Stevenson, T., Al-Jawad, M., Turner, S., Smith, R., Marshall, W., Bell, A. and Cywinski, R. (2008) ‘Phase-specific magnetic ordering in BiFeO[sub 3]?PbTiO[sub 3]Applied Physics Letters , 93 (23), p. 232901. ISSN 0003-6951

Bentley, P. and Cywinski, R. (2008) ‘Evidence for a Spin EmulsionPhysical Review Letters , 101 (22), pp. 227202-22706. ISSN 00319007

Al-Jawad, M., Simmons, L., Steuwer, A., Kilcoyne, S., Shore, R., Cywinski, R. and Wood, D. (2008) ‘Three Dimensional Mapping of Texture in Dental EnamelKey Engineering Materials , 361-36, pp. 877-880. ISSN 1013-9826

Bungau, C., Tygier, S., Barlow, R. and Cywinski, R. (2008) ‘Accelerator Driven Systems for Energy Production and Waste Transmutation’. In: Proceedings of EPAC08, Genoa, Italy. : EPAC. pp. 1854-1856. ISBN 978-92-9083-315-4

Stewart, J. and Cywinski, R. (2008) ‘Neutron polarization analysis study of the frustrated magnetic ground state of ?-Mn_{1?x}Al_{x} Physical Review B , 78 (1), pp. 014428-014437. ISSN 10980121

2007

Peach, K., Cobb, J., Yokoi, T., Gardner, I., Edgecock, R., Poole, M., Pozinski, J., Cywinski, R., Jones, B. and McKenna, G. (2007) ‘PAMELA - A model for an FFAG based hadron therapy machine’. In: Proceedings of the 22nd Particle Accelerator Conference . Albuquerque, New Mexico: IEEE. pp. 2880-2882. ISBN 1424409179

Al-Jawad, M., Steuwer, A., Kilcoyne, S., Shore, R., Cywinski, R. and Wood, D. (2007) ‘2D mapping of texture and lattice parameters of dental enamelBiomaterials , 28 (18), pp. 2908-2914. ISSN 01429612

Stewart, J., Hillier, A. and Cywinski, R. (2007) ‘A zero-field ??SR study of glassy spin dynamics in ??-MnCuJournal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials , 310 (2), p. 1520. ISSN 03048853

Research Degree Supervision

Neutron studies of crystallographic and magnetic structures

The use of neutron diffraction to determine the interplay between crystallographic structure and magnetic moment localisation and order in a range of intermetallic alloys, alloys and compounds based on 3d transition metals and 4f rare earths. the project will involve visits to the Institut Laue Langevin in Grenoble, ISIS at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and other international neutron facilities.

Neutron and muon beam studies of spin dynamics in magnetic materials

Spin fluctuations in magnetic materials cover a wide range of time scales from pico-seconds to microseconds. Inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering, and muon beam relaxation methods provide an ideal time window to observe the evolution of these spin fluctuations as a function of temperature, of composition, or of configurational environment, providing crucial information on the fundamental mechanisms of spin relaxation, moment formation and electron iterancy in a wide range of magnetic systems. neutron and muon beam experiments will be carried out at international facilities

Muon studies of exotic superconductors

Muon spin relaxation provides an accurate determination of the field distribution arising from the vortex lattice within the mixed stated of a superconductor. From this distribution fundamental parameters of the superconducting state, such as penetration depth, effective superelectron mass and carrier density can be estimated. It has been suggested that some of these parameters indicate that some superconductors, such as the high-Tc cuprates, the heavy fermions, and organic superconductors should be classed as "unconventional" or "exotic", and that the electron pairing mechanism may be a hybrid of BCS and Bose condensate processes. This project will use MuSR to probe new families of superconductors and test this conjecture.

Thorium-based energy amplifiers

The energy amplifier (EA), also known as the accelerator driven sub critical reactor (ADSR) may provide a safe alternative to conventional nuclear power. Moreover as the ADSR can burn relatively plentiful thorium as fuel they have a longer sustainability than U-based conventional nuclear reactors. However no ADSR has yet been built. Several projects based on the EA or ADSR concept could be offered, covering aspects such as thoria chemistry, materials properties, and computer simulations of possible core designs.

Last updated Thursday 6 March 2014
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