University of Huddersfield Logo

Portrait of Prof Martin Richards Prof Martin Richards

m.b.richards@hud.ac.uk | 01484 471676



Biography

Martin studied genetics at the Universities of Sheffield and Manchester, moving to Oxford University and into archaeogenetic research in 1990. From there, he developed collaborative links with a small group of like-minded colleagues who spearheaded the use of network diagrams in the phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). This enjoyable collaboration was to yield influential models for the settlement of both Europe and the Pacific, and for prehistoric dispersals in Africa. He subsequently moved to UCL, Huddersfield and then Leeds University, where he taught, amongst other topics, human evolution, molecular evolution and bioinformatics. He finally moved back to Huddersfield to take up a Research Chair in January 2012.

His research in the last decade has particularly sought to apply complete mtDNA genome variation to archaeogenetic questions, such as the route taken by modern humans dispersing out of Africa and the settlement of Southeast Asia and the Pacific – most recently returning his focus to the continuing controversy over the settlement of Europe.

He co-edited Mitochondrial DNA and the Evolution of Homo Sapiens (Springer-Verlag, 2006) with Hans-Jürgen Bandelt and Vincent Macaulay.

Research & Scholarship

Please see the Archaeogenetics Research Group website for details of Martin's current and recent research projects.

Publications and Other Research Outputs

$VAR1 = { '21376' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1408633336', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21376', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '39', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Book review: Genes, Language and Culture History in the Southwest Pacific', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/76', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '6', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.20723', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '21', 'publisher' => 'Wiley', 'pagerange' => '890-892', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'American Journal of Human Biology', 'lastmod_second' => '39', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '10420533', 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '39', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 11, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21376', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20071100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => '6', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '6', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '21', 'datestamp_day' => '21', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '6', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1002/ajhb.20723', 'volume' => '19', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2007', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '206' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => 'populations asia africa dispersal settlement mitochondrial genomes', 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1354191953', 'creatorlist' => { '11' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Shaari', 'eprintid' => '206', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '11', 'creators_name_given' => 'Norazila Kassim', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Semino', 'eprintid' => '206', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'Ornello', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Achilli', 'eprintid' => '206', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alessandro', 'creators_id' => undef }, '17' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bandelt', 'eprintid' => '206', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '17', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hans-Jurgen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hill', 'eprintid' => '206', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Catherine', 'creators_id' => undef }, '18' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Oppenheimer', 'eprintid' => '206', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '18', 'creators_name_given' => 'Stephen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '206', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'creators_id' => undef }, '16' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bulbeck', 'eprintid' => '206', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '16', 'creators_name_given' => 'David', 'creators_id' => undef }, '13' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Ismail', 'eprintid' => '206', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '13', 'creators_name_given' => 'Patimah', 'creators_id' => undef }, '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Blackburn', 'eprintid' => '206', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'James', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Rengo', 'eprintid' => '206', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Chiara', 'creators_id' => undef }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Cruciani', 'eprintid' => '206', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'Fulvio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '12' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Raja', 'eprintid' => '206', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '12', 'creators_name_given' => 'Joseph Maripa', 'creators_id' => undef }, '14' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Zainuddin', 'eprintid' => '206', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '14', 'creators_name_given' => 'Zafarina', 'creators_id' => undef }, '15' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Goodwin', 'eprintid' => '206', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '15', 'creators_name_given' => 'William', 'creators_id' => undef }, '20' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '206', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '20', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Scozzari', 'eprintid' => '206', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'Rosaria', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Clarke', 'eprintid' => '206', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Douglas', 'creators_id' => 'd.j.clarke@hud.ac.uk' }, '19' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Torroni', 'eprintid' => '206', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '19', 'creators_name_given' => 'Antonio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '10' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Taha', 'eprintid' => '206', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '10', 'creators_name_given' => 'Adi', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Meehan', 'eprintid' => '206', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'William', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '1', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2007', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/206/1/ClarkeSingle.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '9', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Single, rapid coastal settlement of Asia revealed by analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes ', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/02/06', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '26', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 13, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1109792', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '12', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '29', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => '1034-1036', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2008', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Science', 'lastmod_second' => '14', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0036-8075', 'datestamp_hour' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => undef, 'note' => 'c 2005 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science;', 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 5, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '206', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '11', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20050513', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '12', 'number' => '5724', 'rev_number' => '13', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'G1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '30', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '22', 'datestamp_day' => '20', 'abstract' => 'A recent dispersal of modern humans out of Africa is now widely accepted, but the routes taken across Eurasia are still disputed. We show that mitochondrial DNA variation in isolated "relict" populations in southeast Asia supports the view that there was only a single dispersal from Africa, most likely via a southern coastal route, through India and onward into southeast Asia and Australasia. There was an early offshoot, leading ultimately to the settlement of the Near East and Europe, but the main dispersal from India to Australia 65,000 years ago was rapid, most likely taking only a few thousand years', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => undef, 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1126/science.1109792', 'volume' => '308', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => '1. C. B. Stringer, P. Andrews, Science 239, 1263 (1988). 2. F. Prugnolle, A. Manica, F. Balloux, Curr. Biol. 15, R159 (2005). 3. L. L. Cavalli-Sforza, P. Menozzi, A. Piazza, The History and Geography of Human Genes (Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ, 1994). 4. M. M. Lahr, R. Foley, Evol. Anthropol. 3, 48 (1994). 5. L. Quintana-Murci et al., Nat. Genet. 23, 437 (1999). 6. N. Maca-Meyer, A. M. Gonza´lez, J. M. Larruga, C. Flores, V. M. Cabrera, BMC Genet. 2, 13 (2001). 7. M. Tanaka et al., Genome Res. 14, 1832 (2004). 8. R. Lewin, R. A. Foley, Principles of Human Evolution (Blackwell, Oxford, ed. 2, 2004). 9. M. Nei, A. K. Roychoudhury, Mol. Biol. Evol. 10, 927 (1993). 10. L. Vigilant, M. Stoneking, H. Harpending, K. Hawkes, A. C. Wilson, Science 253, 1503 (1991). 11. E. Watson, P. Forster, M. Richards, H.-J. Bandelt, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 61, 691 (1997). 12. P. Forster, A. Torroni, C. Renfrew, A. Ro¨hl, Mol. Biol. Evol. 18, 1864 (2001). 13. P. Endicott et al., Am. J. Hum. Genet. 72, 178 (2003). 14. P. Endicott, V. Macaulay, T. Kivisild, C. Stringer, A. Cooper, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 72, 1590 (2003). 15. T. Kivisild et al., Am. J. Hum. Genet. 72, 313 (2003). 16. M. Metspalu et al., BMC Genet. 5, 26 (2004). 17. R. C. Walter et al., Nature 405, 65 (2000). 18. R. Cordaux, M. Stoneking, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 72, 1586 (2003). 19. P. Bellwood, Asian Perspect. 32, 37 (1993). 20. P. Bellwood, Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago (Univ. of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1997). 21. D. Bulbeck, in Under the Canopy: The Archaeology of Tropical Rain Forests, J. Mercader, Ed. (Rutgers Univ. Press, New Brunswick, NJ, 2003), pp. 119–160. 22. D. Mishmar et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 171 (2003). 23. P. Forster, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 359, 255 (2004). 24. M. G. Palanichamy et al., Am. J. Hum. Genet. 75, 966 (2004). 25. Q.-P. Kong et al., Am. J. Hum. Genet. 73, 671 (2003); erratum, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 75, 157 (2004). 26. T. H. van Andel, P. C. Tzedakis, Quat. Sci. Rev. 15, 481 (1996). 27. See supporting data on Science Online. 28. Y.-G. Yao, Q.-P. Kong, H.-J. Bandelt, T. Kivisild, Y.-P. Zhang, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 70, 635 (2002). 29. M. Ingman, U. Gyllensten, Genome Res. 13, 1600 (2003). 30. C. S. M. Turney et al., Quat. Res. 55, 3 (2001). 31. G. Barker et al., Proc. Prehist. Soc. 68, 147 (2002). 32. L. Hazelwood, J. Steele, J. Archaeol. Sci. 31, 669 (2004). 33. R. A. Housley, C. S. Gamble, M. Street, P. Pettitt, Proc. Prehist. Soc. 63, 25 (1997). 34. M. Richards et al., Am. J. Hum. Genet. 67, 1251 (2000). 35. S. McBrearty, A. S. Brookes, J. Hum. Evol. 39, 453 (2000). 36. Supported by United Productions and the Discovery Channel, the British Academy, the Royal Society, the University of Huddersfield, the Wellcome Trust, the Italian Ministry of the University (Progetti Ricerca Interesse Nazionale 2003), Progetto CNR-MIUR Genomica Funzionale-Legge 449/97, Grandi Progetti di Ateneo (Universita` La Sapienza), the Muzium Negara Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur), and the Universiti Putra Malaysia. We thank the Malaysian participants for providing cheek-swab samples and J. Clegg and A. S. Sofro for Indonesian samples.', 'date_year' => '2005', 'status_changed_hour' => '18', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14422' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1343911003', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Costa', 'eprintid' => '14422', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'M. D.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '11' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Pereira', 'eprintid' => '14422', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '11', 'creators_name_given' => 'L.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Fernandes', 'eprintid' => '14422', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'V.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Musilova', 'eprintid' => '14422', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'E.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '14422', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Pereira', 'eprintid' => '14422', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'J. B.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '14422', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'V.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Alshamali', 'eprintid' => '14422', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'F.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Silva', 'eprintid' => '14422', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'N. M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Soares', 'eprintid' => '14422', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'P.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '10' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Cerny', 'eprintid' => '14422', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '10', 'creators_name_given' => 'V.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Afonso', 'eprintid' => '14422', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'C.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '12', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The Expansion of mtDNA Haplogroup L3 within and out of Africa', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/44/22', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '41', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msr245', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '2', 'publisher' => 'Oxford University Press', 'pagerange' => '915-927', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Molecular Biology and Evolution', 'lastmod_second' => '13', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0737-4038', 'datestamp_hour' => '12', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '13', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 3, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14422', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20120300', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '12', 'number' => '3', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '41', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '2', 'datestamp_day' => '2', 'abstract' => 'Although fossil remains show that anatomically modern humans dispersed out of Africa into the Near East ?100 to 130 ka, genetic evidence from extant populations has suggested that non-Africans descend primarily from a single successful later migration. Within the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) tree, haplogroup L3 encompasses not only many sub-Saharan Africans but also all ancient non-African lineages, and its age therefore provides an upper bound for the dispersal out of Africa. An analysis of 369 complete African L3 sequences places this maximum at ?70 ka, virtually ruling out a successful exit before 74 ka, the date of the Toba volcanic supereruption in Sumatra. The similarity of the age of L3 to its two non-African daughter haplogroups, M and N, suggests that the same process was likely responsible for both the L3 expansion in Eastern Africa and the dispersal of a small group of modern humans out of Africa to settle the rest of the world. The timing of the expansion of L3 suggests a link to improved climatic conditions after ?70 ka in Eastern and Central Africa rather than to symbolically mediated behavior, which evidently arose considerably earlier. The L3 mtDNA pool within Africa suggests a migration from Eastern Africa to Central Africa ?60 to 35 ka and major migrations in the immediate postglacial again linked to climate. The largest population size increase seen in the L3 data is 3–4 ka in Central Africa, corresponding to Bantu expansions, leading diverse L3 lineages to spread into Eastern and Southern Africa in the last 3–2 ka', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '41', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1093/molbev/msr245', 'volume' => '29', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2012', 'status_changed_hour' => '12', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14418' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1343749280', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Harich', 'eprintid' => '14418', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'N.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Costa', 'eprintid' => '14418', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'M.D.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Cerny', 'eprintid' => '14418', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'V.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '14418', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Alves', 'eprintid' => '14418', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Soares', 'eprintid' => '14418', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'P.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Pereira', 'eprintid' => '14418', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Joana B.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Alshamali', 'eprintid' => '14418', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'F.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Fernandes', 'eprintid' => '14418', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'V.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '10' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Pereira', 'eprintid' => '14418', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '10', 'creators_name_given' => 'Luísa', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Cherni', 'eprintid' => '14418', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'L.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '7', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '59', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The Arabian Cradle: Mitochondrial Relicts of the First Steps along the Southern Route out of Africa', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/44/18', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '46', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 26, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.12.010', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '7', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '31', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '347-355', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'American Journal of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '59', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1537-6605', 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '59', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14418', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20120126', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => '2', 'rev_number' => '11', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'CC', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '46', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '31', 'datestamp_day' => '31', 'abstract' => 'A major unanswered question regarding the dispersal of modern humans around the world concerns the geographical site of the first human steps outside of Africa. The southern coastal route model predicts that the early stages of the dispersal took place when people crossed the Red Sea to southern Arabia, but genetic evidence has hitherto been tenuous. We have addressed this question by analyzing the three minor west-Eurasian haplogroups, N1, N2, and X. These lineages branch directly from the first non-African founder node, the root of haplogroup N, and coalesce to the time of the first successful movement of modern humans out of Africa, 60 thousand years (ka) ago. We sequenced complete mtDNA genomes from 85 Southwest Asian samples carrying these haplogroups and compared them with a database of 300 European examples. The results show that these minor haplogroups have a relict distribution that suggests an ancient ancestry within the Arabian Peninsula, and they most likely spread from the Gulf Oasis region toward the Near East and Europe during the pluvial period 5524 ka ago. This pattern suggests that Arabia was indeed the first staging post in the spread of modern humans around the world. ', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '46', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.12.010', 'volume' => '90', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2012', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14391' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1343301527', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hedges', 'eprintid' => '14391', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'R. E. M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '14391', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'James', 'eprintid' => '14391', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'I. T.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bailey', 'eprintid' => '14391', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'J. F.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Colson', 'eprintid' => '14391', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'I. B.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Sykes', 'eprintid' => '14391', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'B. C.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '14391', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'V. A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bradley', 'eprintid' => '14391', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'D. G.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '7', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '8', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Ancient DNA Suggests a Recent Expansion of European Cattle from a Diverse Wild Progenitor Species', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/43/91', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '23', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1996.0214', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '7', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '26', 'publisher' => 'The Royal Society', 'pagerange' => '1467-1473', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences', 'lastmod_second' => '8', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0962-8452', 'datestamp_hour' => '11', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '8', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 11, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14391', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '19961100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => '1376', 'rev_number' => '12', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH426', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '23', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '26', 'datestamp_day' => '26', 'abstract' => 'A total of 11 Bos primigenius and Bos taurus bones from archaeological sites between 500 and 12000 years old were examined for the presence of DNA. It was possible to amplify and sequence mitochondrial control region DNA extracted from seven of the 11 samples, including two Pleistocene B. primigenius samples. We compared the results with published data by constructing phylogenetic networks. The two B. primigenius samples clustered with the extant B. taurus samples in the networks. The similarity between B. primigenius and modern taurine cattle confirms that these should be considered members of a single species. The sequences obtained from the B. taurus specimens were either identical to the reference sequence for modern European cattle or closely related to it. They included two sequences not previously documented. The network analysis of the ancient data highlights the intermediary nature of the B. primigenius sequences between modern European and African B. taurus and the proximity of the ancient DNA B. taurus sequences to modern European B. taurus. Further analysis of the extant data in the light of the ancient DNA results suggests that a degree of Pleistocene diversity survives in the extant European Bos population that is mainly derived from a more recent population expansion. ', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '23', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1098/rspb.1996.0214', 'volume' => '263', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '1996', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21324' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407422043', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21324', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '34', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Comment: Foregone Conclusions? In Search of “Papuans” and “Austronesians”', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/24', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '34', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/318436', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '7', 'publisher' => 'University of Chicago Press', 'pagerange' => '117-118', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Current Anthropology', 'lastmod_second' => '34', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0011-3204', 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '34', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 2, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21324', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20010200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => '1', 'rev_number' => '11', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH426', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '34', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '7', 'datestamp_day' => '7', 'abstract' => 'Comment on: Foregone Conclusions? In Search of Papuans and Austronesians1 by John Edward Terrell, Kevin M. Kelly, and Paul Rainbird', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '34', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1086/318436', 'volume' => '42', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2001', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14388' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407252570', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Papiha', 'eprintid' => '14388', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'S.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '14388', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'V.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hedges', 'eprintid' => '14388', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'R.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Sykes', 'eprintid' => '14388', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'B.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Forster', 'eprintid' => '14388', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'P.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bandelt', 'eprintid' => '14388', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hans-Jurgen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Côrte-Real', 'eprintid' => '14388', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'H.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Wilkinson-Herbots', 'eprintid' => '14388', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'H.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '14388', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Demaine', 'eprintid' => '14388', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'A.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '7', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '5', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Paleolithic and neolithic lineages in the European mitochondrial gene pool', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/43/88', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '32', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1915109/', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '7', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '5', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '185-203', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'American Journal of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '22', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1537-6605', 'datestamp_hour' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '5', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 7, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14388', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '19960700', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => '1', 'rev_number' => '12', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'CC', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '55', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '26', 'datestamp_day' => '26', 'abstract' => 'Phylogenetic and diversity analysis of the mtDNA control region sequence variation of 821 individuals from Europe and the Middle East distinguishes five major lineage groups with different internal diversities and divergence times. Consideration of the diversities and geographic distribution of these groups within Europe and the Middle East leads to the conclusion that ancestors of the great majority of modern, extant lineages entered Europe during the Upper Paleolithic. A further set of lineages arrived from the Middle East much later, and their age and geographic distribution within Europe correlates well with archaeological evidence for two culturally and geographically distinct Neolithic colonization events that are associated with the spread of agriculture. It follows from this interpretation that the major extant lineages throughout Europe predate the Neolithic expansion and that the spread of agriculture was a substantially indigenous development accompanied by only a relatively minor component of contemporary Middle Eastern agriculturalists. There is no evidence of any surviving Neanderthal lineages among modern Europeans', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '55', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => '59', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '1996', 'status_changed_hour' => '10', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21348' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407852613', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Davies', 'eprintid' => '21348', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'William', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21348', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gamble', 'eprintid' => '21348', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Clive', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Pettitt', 'eprintid' => '21348', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Paul', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '36', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Climate change and evolving human diversity in Europe during the last glacial', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/48', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '16', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2003.1396', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => 'The Royal Society Publishing', 'pagerange' => '243-254', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences', 'lastmod_second' => '36', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0962-8436', 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '36', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 2, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21348', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20040200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => '1442', 'rev_number' => '13', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'D051', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '16', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => 'A link between climate change and human evolution during the Pleistocene has often been assumed but rarely tested. At the macro–evolutionary level Foley showed for hominids that extinction, rather than speciation, correlates with environmental change as recorded in the deep sea record. Our aim is to examine this finding at a smaller scale and with high–resolution environmental and archaeological archives. Our interest is in changing patterns of human dispersal under shifting Pleistocene climates during the last glacial period in Europe. Selecting this time frame and region allows us to observe how two hominid taxa, Neanderthals and Crô–Magnons, adapted to climatic conditions during oxygen isotope stage 3. These taxa are representative of two hominid adaptive radiations, termed terrestrial and aquatic, which exhibited different habitat preferences but similar tolerances to climatic factors. Their response to changing ecological conditions was predicated upon their ability to extend their societies in space and time. We examine this difference further using a database of all available radiocarbon determinations from western Europe in the late glacial. These data act as proxies for population history, and in particular the expansion and contraction of regional populations as climate changed rapidly. Independent assessment of these processes is obtained from the genetic history of Europeans. The results indicate that climate affects population contraction rather than expansion. We discuss the consequences for genetic and cultural diversity which led to the legacy of the Ice Age: a single hominid species, globally distributed', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '16', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1098/rstb.2003.1396', 'volume' => '359', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2004', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21338' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407842402', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '21338', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21338', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bandelt', 'eprintid' => '21338', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hans-Jürgen', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '40', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Analysing genetic data in a model-based framework: inferences about European prehistory', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/38', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '28', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => undef, 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => 'Cambridge University Press', 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => 'Examining the Farming/Language Dispersal Hypothesis ', 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'book_section', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '40', 'place_of_pub' => 'Cambridge, UK', 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '11', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '40', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 12, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21338', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => '978-1902937205', 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20021200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => 'McDonald Institute Monographs', 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'D051', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '28', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '28', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2002', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21371' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1408026036', 'creatorlist' => { '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21371', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Davies', 'eprintid' => '21371', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'William', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hazelwood', 'eprintid' => '21371', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Lee', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gamble', 'eprintid' => '21371', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Clive', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Pettitt', 'eprintid' => '21371', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Paul', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '1', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The Late Glacial ancestry of Europeans: combining genetic and archaeological evidence', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/71', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '23', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.4312/dp.33.1', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '14', 'publisher' => 'Ljubljana University Press', 'pagerange' => '1-10', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Documenta Praehistorica', 'lastmod_second' => '2', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1408-967X', 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '2', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21371', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20060100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'CC', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '23', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '14', 'datestamp_day' => '14', 'abstract' => 'Chronometric attention in the Late Glacial of Western Europe is turning from the dating of archaeological cultures to studying how the continent was re-populated at the end of the last ice age. We present results from a survey of all available radiocarbon determinations (the S2AGES database) which show that when calibrated, and compared to the GRIP stratotype of climatic events, the data can be interpreted as five population events in the 15ka prior to the onset of the Holocene. The fine-grained climate record provides an opportunity to study the impact of environmental factors on a human dispersal process that not only shaped subsequent European prehistory, but also the genetic makeup of modern Europeans. The population events have implications for archaeologists and molecular geneticists concerning the timing, direction, speed and scale of processes in Western European demographic history. The results also bear on the role of climatic forcing on the expansion and contraction of human populations and in particular the correlation of ice core and terrestrial records for the onset of warming in the North Atlantic. ', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '23', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.4312/dp.33.1', 'volume' => '33', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2006', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21367' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1408024210', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Behar', 'eprintid' => '21367', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'Doron M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '11' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '21367', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '11', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Alonso', 'eprintid' => '21367', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Antonio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gölge', 'eprintid' => '21367', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'Mukaddes', 'creators_id' => undef }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Al-Gazali', 'eprintid' => '21367', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'Lihadh', 'creators_id' => undef }, '12' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Amorim', 'eprintid' => '21367', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '12', 'creators_name_given' => 'António', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Goios', 'eprintid' => '21367', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Ana', 'creators_id' => undef }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hatina', 'eprintid' => '21367', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'Ji?i', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21367', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Albarrán', 'eprintid' => '21367', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Cristina', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Pereira', 'eprintid' => '21367', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Luísa', 'creators_id' => undef }, '10' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bradley', 'eprintid' => '21367', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '10', 'creators_name_given' => 'Daniel G.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Garcia', 'eprintid' => '21367', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'Oscar', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '23', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Evaluating the forensic informativeness of mtDNA haplogroup H sub-typing on a Eurasian scale', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/67', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '52', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.06.008', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '14', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '43-50', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Forensic Science International', 'lastmod_second' => '23', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '03790738', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '23', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 5, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21367', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20060500', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '1', 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH426', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '52', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '14', 'datestamp_day' => '14', 'abstract' => 'The impact of phylogeographic information on mtDNA forensics has been limited to the quality control of published sequences and databases. In this work we use the information already available on Eurasian mtDNA phylogeography to guide the choice of coding-region SNPs for haplogroup H. This sub-typing is particularly important in forensics since, even when sequencing both HVRI and HVRII, the discriminating power is low in some Eurasian populations. We show that a small set (eight) of coding-region SNPs resolves a substantial proportion of the identical haplotypes, as defined by control-region variation alone. Moreover, this SNP set, while substantially increasing the discriminating efficiency in most Eurasian populations by roughly equal amounts, discloses population-specific profiles.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '52', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.06.008', 'volume' => '159', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2006', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '20391' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1401186467', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kloss-Brandstätter', 'eprintid' => '20391', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Anita', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Logan', 'eprintid' => '20391', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Ian', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bandelt', 'eprintid' => '20391', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hans-Jürgen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Yao', 'eprintid' => '20391', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Yong-Gang', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '20391', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '5', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '36', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The case for the continuing use of the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) and the standardization of notation in human mitochondrial DNA studies', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/03/91', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '31', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2013.120', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '5', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '27', 'publisher' => 'Nature Publishing Group', 'pagerange' => '66-77', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Journal of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '37', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1434-5161', 'datestamp_hour' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '37', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 2, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '20391', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '5', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20140200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '10', 'number' => '2', 'rev_number' => '11', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '31', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '27', 'datestamp_day' => '27', 'abstract' => 'Since the determination in 1981 of the sequence of the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome, the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS), has been used as the reference sequence to annotate mtDNA in molecular anthropology, forensic science and medical genetics. The CRS was eventually upgraded to the revised version (rCRS) in 1999. This reference sequence is a convenient device for recording mtDNA variation, although it has often been misunderstood as a wild-type (WT) or consensus sequence by medical geneticists. Recently, there has been a proposal to replace the rCRS with the so-called Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS). Even if it had been estimated accurately, the RSRS would be a cumbersome substitute for the rCRS, as the new proposal fuses—and thus confuses—the two distinct concepts of ancestral lineage and reference point for human mtDNA. Instead, we prefer to maintain the rCRS and to report mtDNA profiles by employing the hitherto predominant circumfix style. Tree diagrams could display mutations by using either the profile notation (in conventional short forms where appropriate) or in a root-upwards way with two suffixes indicating ancestral and derived nucleotides. This would guard against misunderstandings about reporting mtDNA variation. It is therefore neither necessary nor sensible to change the present reference sequence, the rCRS, in any way. The proposed switch to RSRS would inevitably lead to notational chaos, mistakes and misinterpretations.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '31', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.120', 'volume' => '59', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2014', 'status_changed_hour' => '10', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '20394' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1401188502', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '20394', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Barker', 'eprintid' => '20394', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Graeme', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '5', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '3', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Foraging–Farming Transitions in Island Southeast Asia', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/03/94', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '3', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10816-012-9150-7', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '5', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '27', 'publisher' => 'Springer', 'pagerange' => '256-280', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory', 'lastmod_second' => '3', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1072-5369', 'datestamp_hour' => '11', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '3', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 6, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '20394', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '5', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20130600', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => '2', 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'DS', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '3', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '27', 'datestamp_day' => '27', 'abstract' => 'The origins of agriculture have been debated by archaeologists for most of the discipline’s history, no more so than in Island Southeast Asia. The orthodox view is that Neolithic farmers spread south by sea from mainland China to Taiwan and thence to Island Southeast Asia, taking with them a new material culture and domestic rice and pigs and speaking the precursor of the Austronesian languages that are spoken in the region today. Opponents of this ‘farming/language dispersal’ theory have proposed models of acculturation, in which foragers acquired new material culture and food resources by trading with farmers. However, new work in archaeology, palaeoecology, palynology and anthropology, especially in Borneo, and in genetics and linguistics for the region as a whole, is suggesting that foraging/farming transitions in Southeast Asia were far more complex than either of these opposing ‘grand narratives’ of discontinuity (population colonisation) or continuity (acculturation) allows. Through the course of the Early/Mid-Holocene new material culture, technologies and foods were variously taken up, promoted or resisted in order to provision changes in the social and ideological constitution of societies. Whilst new readings of the data for foraging–farming transitions in the region vary, a consensus is emerging that it is more useful to focus on how materials and modes of life were used to underwrite changes in social networks than to seek to explain the archaeological record in terms of migrating farmers or acculturating foragers.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '3', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1007/s10816-012-9150-7', 'volume' => '20', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2013', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21305' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407403221', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Sykes', 'eprintid' => '21305', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bryan', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21305', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '49', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Reply to Barbujani et al.', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/05', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '33', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/301733', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '7', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '491-492', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'The American Journal of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '49', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0002-9297', 'datestamp_hour' => '9', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '49', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 2, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21305', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '19980200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '9', 'number' => '2', 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '33', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '7', 'datestamp_day' => '7', 'abstract' => 'We agree entirely with Barbujani et al. (1998 [in this issue]) that the age of a group of haplotypes cannot be mechanically equated to the age of the population from which they come and that such an uncritical equation would artificially elevate the estimated age of the population under study...', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '33', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1086/301733', 'volume' => '62', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '1998', 'status_changed_hour' => '9', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21301' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407250868', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21301', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '7', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Mitochondrial DNA and the Frisians', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/01', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '8', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => undef, 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '5', 'publisher' => 'John Benjamins Publishing', 'pagerange' => '141-163', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'NOWELE: North-Western European Language Evolution', 'lastmod_second' => '8', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0108-8416', 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '8', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21301', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '19950100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '6', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH426', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '8', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '5', 'datestamp_day' => '5', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '8', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => '12', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '1995', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14440' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407833138', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Finlay', 'eprintid' => '14440', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'Emma K.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '11' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Loftus', 'eprintid' => '14440', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '11', 'creators_name_given' => 'Brendan J.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'McGettigan', 'eprintid' => '14440', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Paul A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Shapiro', 'eprintid' => '14440', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'Beth', 'creators_id' => undef }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '14440', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Park', 'eprintid' => '14440', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Stephen D. E.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '12' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'MacHugh', 'eprintid' => '14440', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '12', 'creators_name_given' => 'David E.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Chamberlain', 'eprintid' => '14440', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'Andrew T.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Magee', 'eprintid' => '14440', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'David A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Lohan', 'eprintid' => '14440', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Amanda J.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Edwards', 'eprintid' => '14440', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Ceiridwen J.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '10' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bradley', 'eprintid' => '14440', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '10', 'creators_name_given' => 'Daniel G.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Murphy', 'eprintid' => '14440', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alison', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/14440/1/RichardsCompletejournal.pone.0009255.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '40', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'A Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence from a Mesolithic Wild Aurochs (Bos primigenius)', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/44/40', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '46', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009255', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => 'PLoS ONE', 'pagerange' => 'e9255', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'PLoS ONE', 'lastmod_second' => '21', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1932-6203', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '40', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 2, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14440', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20100200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '8', 'number' => '2', 'rev_number' => '12', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QL', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '17', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '2', 'datestamp_day' => '2', 'abstract' => 'Background The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs) from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. Methodology DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738±68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer). In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48%) of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. Conclusions For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously identified aurochsen haplogroup (haplogroup P), thus providing novel insights into pre-domestic patterns of variation. The high proportion of authentic, endogenous aurochs DNA preserved in this sample bodes well for future efforts to determine the complete genome sequence of a wild ancestor of domestic cattle. ', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '17', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009255', 'volume' => '5', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2010', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21322' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407420374', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Lahermo', 'eprintid' => '21322', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'P.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '21322', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bandelt', 'eprintid' => '21322', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hans-Jürgen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21322', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '1', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Detecting errors in mtDNA data by phylogenetic analysis', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/22', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '6', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004140100228', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '7', 'publisher' => 'Springer', 'pagerange' => '64-69', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'International Journal of Legal Medicine', 'lastmod_second' => '1', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0937-9827', 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '1', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 10, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21322', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20011000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => '2', 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH426', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '6', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '7', 'datestamp_day' => '7', 'abstract' => 'Sequencing and documenting a sample of homologous DNA stretches is prone to copying errors in a way rather analogous to the biological replication process. Previous attempts at obtaining representative mtDNA sequences, typically of the control region, for evolutionary studies or forensic purposes have yielded rather unsatisfactory results in many cases. The key ingredient in pinpointing problems with given data is the phylogenetic analysis of closely related mtDNAs within the framework of an established worldwide phylogeny that is supported by coding region information. We develop some general rules by which likely errors in data tables can readily be detected without rereading whole sequences repeatedly. Following these guidelines, one can expect to lower the error rate by at least an order of magnitude, although it will still be hard to beat the mitochondrial gamma polymerase in precision', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '6', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1007/s004140100228', 'volume' => '115', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2001', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '1836' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407851278', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '1836', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '9', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2008', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '30', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The Neolithic invasion of Europe', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/18/36', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '48', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.32.061002.093207', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '9', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => 'Annual Reviews', 'pagerange' => '135-162', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2008', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Annual Review of Anthropology', 'lastmod_second' => '57', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '00846570', 'datestamp_hour' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '30', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 10, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '1836', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20031000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '1', 'rev_number' => '11', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '31', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '11', 'datestamp_day' => '11', 'abstract' => 'Who are Europeans? Both prehistoric archaeology and, subsequently, classical population genetics have attempted to trace the ancestry of modern Europeans back to the first appearance of agriculture in the continent; however, the question has remained controversial. Classical population geneticists attributed the major pattern in the European gene pool to the demographic impact of Neolithic farmers dispersing from the Near East, but archaeological research has failed to uncover substantial evidence for the population growth that is supposed to have driven this process. Recently, molecular approaches, using non-recombining genetic marker systems, have introduced a chronological dimension by both allowing the tracing of lineages back through time and dating using the molecular clock. Both mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome analyses have indicated a contribution of Neolithic Near Eastern lineages to the gene pool of modern Europeans of around a quarter or less. This suggests that dispersals bringing the Neolithic to Europe may have been demographically minor and that contact and assimilation had an important role. ', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '31', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.32.061002.093207', 'volume' => '32', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2003', 'status_changed_hour' => '10', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21370' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1408025359', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Amorim', 'eprintid' => '21370', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21370', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Pereira', 'eprintid' => '21370', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'F.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Alves', 'eprintid' => '21370', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'C.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Soares', 'eprintid' => '21370', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'P.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gusmão', 'eprintid' => '21370', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'L.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brion', 'eprintid' => '21370', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Carracedo', 'eprintid' => '21370', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'A.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '52', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Relative Y-STR mutation rates estimated from the variance inside SNP defined lineages', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/70', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '12', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ics.2005.09.173', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '14', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '82-84', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Progress in Forensic Genetics: International Congress Series', 'lastmod_second' => '53', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '05315131', 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '53', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 4, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21370', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20060400', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH426', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '12', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '14', 'datestamp_day' => '14', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '12', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.ics.2005.09.173', 'volume' => '1288', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2006', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '10342' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1343297181', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Braid', 'eprintid' => '10342', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'Michelle', 'creators_id' => undef }, '11' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Donohue', 'eprintid' => '10342', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '11', 'creators_name_given' => 'Mark', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Mormina', 'eprintid' => '10342', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Maru', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Clarke', 'eprintid' => '10342', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'Douglas', 'creators_id' => 'd.j.clarke@hud.ac.uk' }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Thomson', 'eprintid' => '10342', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'Noel', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Trejaut', 'eprintid' => '10342', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Jean', 'creators_id' => undef }, '12' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '10342', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '12', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'creators_id' => undef }, '14' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Oppenheimer', 'eprintid' => '10342', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '14', 'creators_name_given' => 'Stephen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '15' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '10342', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '15', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Loo', 'eprintid' => '10342', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'Jun-Hun', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Rito', 'eprintid' => '10342', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Teresa', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hill', 'eprintid' => '10342', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Catherine', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Soares', 'eprintid' => '10342', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Pedro', 'creators_id' => undef }, '13' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Lin', 'eprintid' => '10342', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '13', 'creators_name_given' => 'Marie', 'creators_id' => undef }, '10' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Denham', 'eprintid' => '10342', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '10', 'creators_name_given' => 'Tim', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Tinkler-Hundal', 'eprintid' => '10342', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'Emma', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '5', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'Emailed author for PP SJT 10/5/11', 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2011', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '47', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Ancient Voyaging and Polynesian Origins', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/03/42', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '6', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.01.009', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '5', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '26', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '239-247', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2011', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'The American Journal of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '40', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '00029297', 'datestamp_hour' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '47', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 2, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '10342', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20110200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '10', 'number' => '2', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'GF', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '53', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '10', 'datestamp_day' => '10', 'abstract' => 'The Polynesian motif defines a lineage of human mtDNA that is restricted to Austronesian-speaking populations and is almost fixed in Polynesians. It is widely thought to support a rapid dispersal of maternal lineages from Taiwan 4000 years ago (4 ka), but the chronological resolution of existing control-region data is poor, and an East Indonesian origin has also been proposed. By analyzing 157 complete mtDNA genomes, we show that the motif itself most likely originated >6 ka in the vicinity of the Bismarck Archipelago, and its immediate ancestor is >8 ka old and virtually restricted to Near Oceania. This indicates that Polynesian maternal lineages from Island Southeast Asia gained a foothold in Near Oceania much earlier than dispersal from either Taiwan or Indonesia 34 ka would predict. However, we find evidence in minor lineages for more recent two-way maternal gene flow between Island Southeast Asia and Near Oceania, likely reflecting movements along a voyaging corridor between them, as previously proposed on archaeological grounds. Small-scale mid-Holocene movements from Island Southeast Asia likely transmitted Austronesian languages to the long-established Southeast Asian colonies in the Bismarcks carrying the Polynesian motif, perhaps also providing the impetus for the expansion into Polynesia. ', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '53', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.01.009', 'volume' => '88', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2011', 'status_changed_hour' => '10', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21349' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407853199', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Scozzari', 'eprintid' => '21349', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'R.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '11' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Torroni', 'eprintid' => '21349', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '11', 'creators_name_given' => 'A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kong', 'eprintid' => '21349', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Q.-P.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21349', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '21349', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'V.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '12' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Zhang', 'eprintid' => '21349', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '12', 'creators_name_given' => 'Y.-P.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Yao', 'eprintid' => '21349', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Y.-G.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Villems', 'eprintid' => '21349', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'R.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Herrnstadt', 'eprintid' => '21349', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'C.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kivisild', 'eprintid' => '21349', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'T.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bandelt', 'eprintid' => '21349', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hans-Jürgen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '10' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Howell', 'eprintid' => '21349', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '10', 'creators_name_given' => 'N.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Rengo', 'eprintid' => '21349', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'C.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '6', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Identification of Native American Founder mtDNAs Through the Analysis of Complete mtDNA Sequences: Some Caveats', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/49', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '22', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-1809.2003.00049.x', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => 'Wiley', 'pagerange' => '512-524', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Annals of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '6', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '00034800', 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '6', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 11, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21349', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20031100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => '6', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'E11', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '22', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => 'In this study, a detailed analysis of both previously published and new data was performed to determine whether complete, or almost complete, mtDNA sequences can resolve the long-debated issue of which Asian mtDNAs were founder sequences for the Native American mtDNA pool. Unfortunately, we now know that coding region data and their analysis are not without problems. To obtain and report reasonably correct sequences does not seem to be a trivial task, and to discriminate between Asian and Native American mtDNA ancestries may be more complex than previously believed. It is essential to take into account the effects of mutational hot spots in both the control and coding regions, so that the number of apparent Native American mtDNA founder sequences is not erroneously inflated. As we report here, a careful analysis of all available data indicates that there is very little evidence that more than five founder mtDNA sequences entered Beringia before the Last Glacial Maximum and left their traces in the current Native American mtDNA pool.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '22', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1046/j.1469-1809.2003.00049.x', 'volume' => '67', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2003', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14389' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1343300248', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Papiha', 'eprintid' => '14389', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'S.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hariti', 'eprintid' => '14389', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'G.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bertranpetit', 'eprintid' => '14389', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'J.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '14389', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Sykes', 'eprintid' => '14389', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'B.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '14389', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'V.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Issad', 'eprintid' => '14389', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Côrte-Real', 'eprintid' => '14389', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'H.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Cambon-Thomsen', 'eprintid' => '14389', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'A', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '7', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '52', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Genetic diversity in the Iberian Peninsula determined from mitochondrial sequence analysis', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/43/89', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '3', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1809.1996.tb01196.x', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '7', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '26', 'publisher' => 'Wiley', 'pagerange' => '331-350', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Annals of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '52', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '00034800', 'datestamp_hour' => '11', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '52', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 7, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14389', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '19960700', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => '4', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH301', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '3', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '26', 'datestamp_day' => '26', 'abstract' => 'We have analysed 302 bp of the first hypervariable region of the mitochondrial D-loop in 271 individuals from different regions of the Iberian Peninsula and 85 individuals from Algeria. The Basque population is significantly different from neighbouring populations in terms of overall levels of diversity. This is because the majority of sequences in the Basques are restricted to the lineage group defined by the CRS (Cambridge Reference Sequence) and its derivatives although, like other Iberian populations, they showed a unimodal distribution of pairwise sequence differences. The timing of divergence of populations within Iberia points to a shared ancestry of all populations in the Upper Palaeolithic. Further genetic subdivision is apparent in Catalonia and Andalusia, with increased genetic diversity in the latter. Lineage diversity comparisons of Iberian populations with European (Tuscan) and North African (Algerian) populations shows the Iberian Peninsula to be more similar to other European populations, although a small number of Iberian lineages can be traced to North Africa. ', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '3', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.1996.tb01196.x', 'volume' => '60', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '1996', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21364' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1408021736', 'creatorlist' => { '11' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Shaari', 'eprintid' => '21364', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '11', 'creators_name_given' => 'Norazila Kassim', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Semino', 'eprintid' => '21364', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'Ornella', 'creators_id' => undef }, '17' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bandelt', 'eprintid' => '21364', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '17', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hans-Jürgen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Achilli', 'eprintid' => '21364', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alessandro', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hill', 'eprintid' => '21364', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Catherine', 'creators_id' => undef }, '18' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Oppenheimer', 'eprintid' => '21364', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '18', 'creators_name_given' => 'Stephen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '21364', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'creators_id' => undef }, '16' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bulbeck', 'eprintid' => '21364', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '16', 'creators_name_given' => 'David', 'creators_id' => undef }, '13' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Ismail', 'eprintid' => '21364', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '13', 'creators_name_given' => 'Patimah', 'creators_id' => undef }, '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Blackburn', 'eprintid' => '21364', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'James', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Rengo', 'eprintid' => '21364', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Chiara', 'creators_id' => undef }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Cruciani', 'eprintid' => '21364', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'Fulvio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '12' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Raja', 'eprintid' => '21364', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '12', 'creators_name_given' => 'Joseph Maripa', 'creators_id' => undef }, '20' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21364', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '20', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '14' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Zainuddin', 'eprintid' => '21364', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '14', 'creators_name_given' => 'Zafarina', 'creators_id' => undef }, '15' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Goodwin', 'eprintid' => '21364', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '15', 'creators_name_given' => 'William', 'creators_id' => undef }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Scozzari', 'eprintid' => '21364', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'Rosaria', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Clarke', 'eprintid' => '21364', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Douglas', 'creators_id' => 'd.j.clarke@hud.ac.uk' }, '19' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Torroni', 'eprintid' => '21364', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '19', 'creators_name_given' => 'Antonio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '10' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Taha', 'eprintid' => '21364', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '10', 'creators_name_given' => 'Adi', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Meehan', 'eprintid' => '21364', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'William', 'creators_id' => 'w.j.meehan@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '17', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'A Response to Tracing Modern Human Origins', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/64', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '14', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 23, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.309.5743.1995b', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '14', 'publisher' => 'American Association for the Advancement of Science', 'pagerange' => '1995b-1997b', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Science', 'lastmod_second' => '17', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0036-8075', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '17', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 9, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21364', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20050923', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '5743', 'rev_number' => '11', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '14', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '14', 'datestamp_day' => '14', 'abstract' => 'Both modern human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the male-specific part of the modern human Y chromosome have a recent origin in Africa and were dispersed throughout the rest of the world less than 100,000 years ago (1, 2). This is not to say that there was no (limited) interbreeding of anatomically modern humans with archaic humans, which might be reflected in some autosomal and X-chromosome genes—a possibility that our Report did not address. The current evidence from these loci, however, remains equivocal.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '14', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1126/science.309.5743.1995b', 'volume' => '309', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2005', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21315' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407416257', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Savontaus', 'eprintid' => '21315', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'Marja-Liisa', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Forster', 'eprintid' => '21315', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Peter', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Huoponen', 'eprintid' => '21315', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'Kirsi', 'creators_id' => undef }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bandelt', 'eprintid' => '21315', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hans-Jürgen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '21315', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'creators_id' => undef }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Scozzari', 'eprintid' => '21315', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'Rosaria', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21315', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Villems', 'eprintid' => '21315', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Richard', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Torroni', 'eprintid' => '21315', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Antonio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Nørby', 'eprintid' => '21315', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'Søren', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '54', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'mtDNA Haplogroups and Frequency Patterns in Europe', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/15', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '0', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/302789', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '7', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '1173-1177', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'The American Journal of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '54', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0002-9297', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '54', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 3, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21315', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20000300', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '3', 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'D901', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '0', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '7', 'datestamp_day' => '7', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '0', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1086/302789', 'volume' => '66', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2000', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14383' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1343296824', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bauer', 'eprintid' => '14383', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'K', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kilger', 'eprintid' => '14383', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'C', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Stone', 'eprintid' => '14383', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'A', 'creators_id' => undef }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Schaffner', 'eprintid' => '14383', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'W', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Trommsdorff', 'eprintid' => '14383', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'M', 'creators_id' => undef }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hedges', 'eprintid' => '14383', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'R', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Simanainen', 'eprintid' => '14383', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'J', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '14383', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Handt', 'eprintid' => '14383', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'O', 'creators_id' => undef }, '10' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'et', 'eprintid' => '14383', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '10', 'creators_name_given' => 'al.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Georgiev', 'eprintid' => '14383', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'O', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '7', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '24', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Molecular genetic analyses of the Tyrolean Ice Man', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/43/83', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '4', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 17, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.8209259', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '7', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '26', 'publisher' => 'American Associatiion for the Advancement of Science AAAS', 'pagerange' => '1775-1778', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Science', 'lastmod_second' => '24', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0036-8075', 'datestamp_hour' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '24', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 6, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14383', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '19940617', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '10', 'number' => '5166', 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'CS', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '4', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '26', 'datestamp_day' => '26', 'abstract' => 'An approximately 5000-year-old mummified human body was recently found in the Tyrolean Alps. The DNA from tissue samples of this Late Neolithic individual, the so-called "Ice Man," has been extracted and analyzed. The number of DNA molecules surviving in the tissue was on the order of 10 genome equivalents per gram of tissue, which meant the only multi-copy sequences could be analyzed. The degradation of the DNA made the enzymatic amplification of mitochondrial DNA fragments of more than 100 to 200 base pairs difficult. One DNA sequence of a hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial control region was determined independently in two different laboratories from internal samples of the body. This sequence showed that the mitochondrial type of the Ice Man fits into the genetic variation of contemporary Europeans and that it was most closely related to mitochondrial types determined from central and northern European populations', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '4', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1126/science.8209259', 'volume' => '264', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '1994', 'status_changed_hour' => '10', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21351' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407853887', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '21351', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Coppa', 'eprintid' => '21351', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alfredo', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21351', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Scozzari', 'eprintid' => '21351', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Rosaria', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Salas', 'eprintid' => '21351', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Antonio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Carracedo', 'eprintid' => '21351', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'Ángel', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Lareu', 'eprintid' => '21351', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'María Victoria', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Torroni', 'eprintid' => '21351', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'Antonio', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '55', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The African Diaspora: Mitochondrial DNA and the Atlantic Slave Trade', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/51', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '32', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/382194', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '454-465', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'The American Journal of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '55', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0002-9297', 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '55', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 3, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21351', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20040300', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => '3', 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'DT', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '32', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => 'Between the 15th and 19th centuries ad, the Atlantic slave trade resulted in the forced movement of ?13 million people from Africa, mainly to the Americas. Only ?11 million survived the passage, and many more died in the early years of captivity. We have studied 481 mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of recent African ancestry in the Americas and in Eurasia, in an attempt to trace them back to particular regions of Africa. Our results show that mtDNAs in America and Eurasia can, in many cases, be traced to broad geographical regions within Africa, largely in accordance with historical evidence, and raise the possibility that a greater resolution may be possible in the future. However, they also indicate that, at least for the moment, considerable caution is warranted when assessing claims to be able to trace the ancestry of particular lineages to a particular locality within modern-day Africa.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '32', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1086/382194', 'volume' => '74', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2004', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21335' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407840916', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Torroni', 'eprintid' => '21335', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'Antonio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '11' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Capelli', 'eprintid' => '21335', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '11', 'creators_name_given' => 'Cristian', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21335', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Scozzari', 'eprintid' => '21335', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'Rosaria', 'creators_id' => undef }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Tarekegn', 'eprintid' => '21335', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'Ayele', 'creators_id' => undef }, '12' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bradman', 'eprintid' => '21335', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '12', 'creators_name_given' => 'Neil', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Jones', 'eprintid' => '21335', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Abigail L.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gratrix', 'eprintid' => '21335', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'Fiona', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Weale', 'eprintid' => '21335', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Michael E.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'eprintid' => '21335', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alice', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Thomas', 'eprintid' => '21335', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Mark G.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '13' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Goldstein', 'eprintid' => '21335', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '13', 'creators_name_given' => 'David B.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '10' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Wilson', 'eprintid' => '21335', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '10', 'creators_name_given' => 'James F.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Redhead', 'eprintid' => '21335', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'Nicola', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '52', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Founding Mothers of Jewish Communities: Geographically Separated Jewish Groups Were Independently Founded by Very Few Female Ancestors', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/35', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '56', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/340609', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '1411-1420', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'The American Journal of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '52', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0002-9297', 'datestamp_hour' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '52', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 6, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21335', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20020600', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '10', 'number' => '6', 'rev_number' => '11', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '56', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => 'We have analyzed the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA from each of nine geographically separated Jewish groups, eight non-Jewish host populations, and an Israeli Arab/Palestinian population, and we have compared the differences found in Jews and non-Jews with those found using Y-chromosome data that were obtained, in most cases, from the same population samples. The results suggest that most Jewish communities were founded by relatively few women, that the founding process was independent in different geographic areas, and that subsequent genetic input from surrounding populations was limited on the female side. In sharp contrast to this, the paternally inherited Y chromosome shows diversity similar to that of neighboring populations and shows no evidence of founder effects. These sex-specific differences demonstrate an important role for culture in shaping patterns of genetic variation and are likely to have significant epidemiological implications for studies involving these populations. We illustrate this by presenting data from a panel of X-chromosome microsatellites, which indicates that, in the case of the Georgian Jews, the female-specific founder event appears to have resulted in elevated levels of linkage disequilibrium.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '56', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1086/340609', 'volume' => '70', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2002', 'status_changed_hour' => '10', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21341' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407846647', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21341', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '36', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'On the ancestral trail. Review of Mapping Human History by Steve Olson, Bloomsbury,ISBN 07475606', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/41', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '38', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 3, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg17523547.500-mapping-human-history-by-steve-olson.html#.U-oI6PldXzg', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => 'Reed Business Information', 'pagerange' => '52', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'New Scientist', 'lastmod_second' => '37', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0262-4079', 'datestamp_hour' => '12', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '37', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 8, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21341', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20020803', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '12', 'number' => '2354', 'rev_number' => '6', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH426', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '38', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => 'EXCAVATING the human genome for clues to human evolution and migrations is a something of a battlefield. The ground rules of this new science - known as historical genetics or archaeogenetics - are still being worked out, and there is vigorous disagreement about which approaches are best. So where can you find a balanced overview of what has been achieved?', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '38', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2002', 'status_changed_hour' => '12', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '17730' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1381398629', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Capelli', 'eprintid' => '17730', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Cristian', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '17730', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Wilson', 'eprintid' => '17730', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'James F', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '10', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2013', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '56', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Genetics and the Origins of the British Population', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/77/30', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '16', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470015902.a0020804', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '10', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '10', 'publisher' => 'Wiley', 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2013', 'book_title' => 'eLS: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences', 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'book_section', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '56', 'place_of_pub' => 'London, UK', 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '56', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '17730', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => '9780470015902', 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '10', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20080100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '10', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '15', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '16', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '10', 'datestamp_day' => '10', 'abstract' => 'One might imagine that the new discipline of archaeogenetics has essentially mapped out the demographic history of the British Isles, given the spate of books that have aimed to use genetic variation in the people of the British Isles to depict the population history of the islands, but in fact this is far frombeing the case. The claims of these works are based to a large extent on unpublished data analyses that have not been checked by the peer review process, and are considered too challenging to be feasible by many colleagues. Thus they should be regarded as primarily speculative reconstructions at present. However, the authors of peer-reviewed literature themselves are hardly immune from criticism on methodological grounds. Among the academic literature there has been some fierce debate, which we must pick through by examining some of the assumptions that have underpinned the research.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '16', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1002/9780470015902.a0020804', 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2008', 'status_changed_hour' => '10', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21310' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1410251021', 'creatorlist' => { '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Stanley', 'eprintid' => '21310', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'H.F.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kadwell', 'eprintid' => '21310', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21310', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Lister', 'eprintid' => '21310', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kaagen', 'eprintid' => '21310', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'L.M.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'Now out of print. Emailed author for copy 7/8/14 Obtained via Research Gate. Emailed T&F to clarify copyright? 21/8/14 Permission received 8/9/14', 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/21310/1/RichardsHorse.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '0', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Ancient and modern DNA in a study of horse domestication', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/10', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '25', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => undef, 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '9', 'publisher' => 'Taylor & Francis', 'pagerange' => '267-280', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Ancient Biomolecules', 'lastmod_second' => '33', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1358-6122', 'datestamp_hour' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '0', 'note' => 'This is an electronic version of an article that was published in Ancient Biomolecules © 1998 Copyright; Taylor and Francis.', 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 12, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21310', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '9', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '19981200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '8', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '14', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'D051', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '42', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '7', 'datestamp_day' => '7', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '42', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => '2', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '1998', 'status_changed_hour' => '10', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21342' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1409843565', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21342', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'Permission 3/9/14', 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/21342/1/richards2202%2D3553%2D1%2DPB_(1).pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '30', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The Neolithic transition in Europe: archaeological models and genetic evidence', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/42', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '13', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.4312/dp.30.10', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '4', 'publisher' => 'Ljubljana University Press', 'pagerange' => '159-167', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Documenta Praehistorica', 'lastmod_second' => '23', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1408-967X', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '30', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21342', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '9', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20030100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => '0', 'rev_number' => '13', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'D051', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '5', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => ' The major pattern in the European gene pool is a southeast-northwest frequency gradient of classic genetic markers such as blood groups, which population geneticists initially attributed to the demographic impact of Neolithic farmers dispersing from the Near East. Molecular genetics has enriched this picture, with analyses of mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome allowing a more detailed exploration of alternative models for the spread of the Neolithic into Europe. This paper considers a range of possible models in the light of the detailed information now emerging from genetic studies.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '5', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.4312/dp.30.10', 'volume' => '30', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2003', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '20395' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1401188933', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '20395', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '20395', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '5', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '3', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Mitochondrial Genome Sequences and Their Phylogeographic Interpretation', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/03/95', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '24', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 19, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470015902.20843.pub2', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '5', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '27', 'publisher' => 'Wiley', 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => 'eLS', 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Encyclopaedia of LIfe Sciences eLS', 'lastmod_second' => '3', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '11', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '3', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 9, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '20395', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '5', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20130919', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'G1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '24', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '27', 'datestamp_day' => '27', 'abstract' => 'The strong phylogenetic signal provided by mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) sequences within species is being exploited to reconstruct the maternal genealogy and anchor it in space and time. This is the starting point for interpretations of the processes in population history that led to those patterns, as illustrated here for humans. Mitochondrial phylogeography began by revolutionising our view of modern human origins, with the demonstration that modern humans dispersed from Africa approximately 60?000 years ago. Now benefitting from the high genealogical and chronological resolution afforded by whole?mtDNA sequences, and despite the advent of genome?wide analyses, mtDNA continues to illuminate prehistoric settlement and dispersal history. It has often led to challenges to received wisdom, such as the stress on pre?Neolithic dispersals at the end of the Ice Age in many parts of the world, and the database of contemporary variation is currently being augmented by rapidly increasing information from ancient DNA.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '24', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1002/9780470015902.20843.pub2', 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2013', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14438' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1343912335', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Jóhannesdóttir', 'eprintid' => '14438', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'F.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Searle', 'eprintid' => '14438', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'J. B.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Jones', 'eprintid' => '14438', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'E. P.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '14438', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gündüz', 'eprintid' => '14438', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => '?.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '1', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The expansion of the house mouse into north-western Europe', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/44/38', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '2', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2010.00767.x', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '2', 'publisher' => 'Wiley', 'pagerange' => '257-268', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Journal of Zoology', 'lastmod_second' => '1', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '09528369', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '1', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 4, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14438', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20100400', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '4', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '2', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '2', 'datestamp_day' => '2', 'abstract' => 'The western house mouse Mus musculus domesticus is a human commensal, and as such, its phylogeography relates to historical human settlement patterns and movements. We investigate the phylogeography of house mice in northern France and the British Isles (particularly Ireland and the Scottish islands) using microsatellite data and mitochondrial (mt) control region sequences from modern and museum material, placing these in a Europe-wide context. The majority of mtDNA sequences from northern France belong to a clade widespread across the British mainland and Germany, supporting an earlier suggestion that this clade distribution represents colonization by house mice in the Iron Age. The presence of the clade in south-western Ireland indicates possible Iron Age colonization there as well. However, the majority of the Irish sequences belong to a clade elsewhere associated with Norwegian Viking activity, and likely represent the main wave of house mouse colonization of Ireland, arriving from the Scottish islands during the Viking period and linked to urbanization. The St Kilda sequences (from 100-year-old museum samples of the extinct form ‘Mus muralis’ of Barrett-Hamilton) and sequences from South Uist and Lewis also belong to this clade. The clustering of populations shown by the microsatellite data is distinctly different from the mtDNA phylogeny, with populations grouping by geographic proximity, possibly reflecting the genetic effects of secondary colonization. When the mtDNA sequence data are placed in a Europe-wide context, it is clear that the distributions of the two prevalent clades from the vicinity of the British Isles are essentially limited to north-western Europe. These two clades show no evidence of expansion through central Europe, and may therefore reflect maritime colonization. ', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '2', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2010.00767.x', 'volume' => '283', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2010', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14444' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1343915548', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Salas', 'eprintid' => '14444', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'Antonio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Mormina', 'eprintid' => '14444', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Maru', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Oppenheimer', 'eprintid' => '14444', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'Stephen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '14444', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Thomson', 'eprintid' => '14444', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Noel', 'creators_id' => undef }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '14444', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Rito', 'eprintid' => '14444', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Teresa', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Ermini', 'eprintid' => '14444', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Luca', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Soares', 'eprintid' => '14444', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Pedro', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Röhl', 'eprintid' => '14444', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'Arne', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '16', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/44/44', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '56', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.001', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '2', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '740-759', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'The American Journal of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '16', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '00029297', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '16', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 6, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14444', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20090600', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '6', 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '56', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '2', 'datestamp_day' => '2', 'abstract' => 'There is currently no calibration available for the whole human mtDNA genome, incorporating both coding and control regions. Furthermore, as several authors have pointed out recently, linear molecular clocks that incorporate selectable characters are in any case problematic. We here confirm a modest effect of purifying selection on the mtDNA coding region and propose an improved molecular clock for dating human mtDNA, based on a worldwide phylogeny of > 2000 complete mtDNA genomes and calibrating against recent evidence for the divergence time of humans and chimpanzees. We focus on a time-dependent mutation rate based on the entire mtDNA genome and supported by a neutral clock based on synonymous mutations alone. We show that the corrected rate is further corroborated by archaeological dating for the settlement of the Canary Islands and Remote Oceania and also, given certain phylogeographic assumptions, by the timing of the first modern human settlement of Europe and resettlement after the Last Glacial Maximum. The corrected rate yields an age of modern human expansion in the Americas at 15 kya thatunlike the uncorrected clockmatches the archaeological evidence, but continues to indicate an out-of-Africa dispersal at around 5570 kya, 520 ky before any clear archaeological record, suggesting the need for archaeological research efforts focusing on this time window. We also present improved rates for the mtDNA control region, and the first comprehensive estimates of positional mutation rates for human mtDNA, which are essential for defining mutation models in phylogenetic analyses. ', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '56', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.001', 'volume' => '84', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2009', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '17728' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1370360117', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Metspalu', 'eprintid' => '17728', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Mait', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Villems', 'eprintid' => '17728', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Richard', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kivisild', 'eprintid' => '17728', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Toomas', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '17728', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bandelt', 'eprintid' => '17728', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hans-Jürgen', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '6', 'editors_name_honourific' => '', 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2013', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '44', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The World mtDNA Phylogeny', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => '', 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/77/28', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '36', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-31789-9_7', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '6', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '4', 'publisher' => 'Springer Verlag', 'pagerange' => '149-179', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2013', 'book_title' => 'Human Mitochondrial DNA and the Evolution of Homo sapiens', 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'book_section', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '44', 'place_of_pub' => 'Berlin, Germany', 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '44', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '17728', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'isbn' => '978-3-540-31788-3 ', 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'lastmod_month' => '6', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20060100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '5', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'G1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '36', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '4', 'datestamp_day' => '4', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '36', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi10.1007/3-540-31789-9_7', 'volume' => '18', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2006', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21350' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407853530', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gurwitz', 'eprintid' => '21350', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'David', 'creators_id' => undef }, '11' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Skorecki', 'eprintid' => '21350', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '11', 'creators_name_given' => 'Karl', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Villems', 'eprintid' => '21350', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Richard', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Rosengarten', 'eprintid' => '21350', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'Dror', 'creators_id' => undef }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Pergola', 'eprintid' => '21350', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'Sergio Della', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Garrigan', 'eprintid' => '21350', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Daniel', 'creators_id' => undef }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kaplan', 'eprintid' => '21350', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'Matthew', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hammer', 'eprintid' => '21350', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Michael F', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bonne-Tamir', 'eprintid' => '21350', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Batsheva', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Behar', 'eprintid' => '21350', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Doron M', 'creators_id' => undef }, '10' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Quintana-Murci', 'eprintid' => '21350', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '10', 'creators_name_given' => 'Lluis', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21350', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '22', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'MtDNA evidence for a genetic bottleneck in the early history of the Ashkenazi Jewish population', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/50', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '28', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201156', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => 'Nature Publishing Group', 'pagerange' => '355-364', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'European Journal of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '22', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1018-4813', 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '22', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 5, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21350', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20040500', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => '5', 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '28', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => 'The relative roles of natural selection and accentuated genetic drift as explanations for the high frequency of more than 20 Ashkenazi Jewish disease alleles remain controversial. To test for the effects of a maternal bottleneck on the Ashkenazi Jewish population, we performed an extensive analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment 1 (HVS-1) sequence and restriction site polymorphisms in 565 Ashkenazi Jews from different parts of Europe. These patterns of variation were compared with those of five Near Eastern (n=327) and 10 host European (n=849) non-Jewish populations. Only four mtDNA haplogroups (Hgs) (defined on the basis of diagnostic coding region RFLPs and HVS-1 sequence variants) account for approx70% of Ashkenazi mtDNA variation. While several Ashkenazi Jewish mtDNA Hgs appear to derive from the Near East, there is also evidence for a low level of introgression from host European non-Jewish populations. HVS-1 sequence analysis revealed increased frequencies of Ashkenazi Jewish haplotypes that are rare or absent in other populations, and a reduced number of singletons in the Ashkenazi Jewish sample. These diversity patterns provide evidence for a prolonged period of low effective size in the history of the Ashkenazi population. The data best fit a model of an early bottleneck (approx100 generations ago), perhaps corresponding to initial migrations of ancestral Ashkenazim in the Near East or to Europe. A genetic bottleneck followed by the recent phenomenon of rapid population growth are likely to have produced the conditions that led to the high frequency of many genetic disease alleles in the Ashkenazi population.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '28', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201156', 'volume' => '12', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2004', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14439' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1343912791', 'creatorlist' => { '11' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Karmin', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '11', 'creators_name_given' => 'M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '21' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Remm', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '21', 'creators_name_given' => 'M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Behar', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'D. M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '26' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kivisild', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '26', 'creators_name_given' => 'T.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Choi', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Y.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '17' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Xue', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '17', 'creators_name_given' => 'Y.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '22' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '22', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Metspalu', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '18' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Tyler-Smith', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '18', 'creators_name_given' => 'C.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Chaubey', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'G.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '13' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Parik', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '13', 'creators_name_given' => 'J.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '16' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'van Driem', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '16', 'creators_name_given' => 'G.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '23' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Lahr', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '23', 'creators_name_given' => 'M. M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'van Oven', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '25' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Villems', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '25', 'creators_name_given' => 'R.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Magi', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'R.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hudjashov', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'G.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '12' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Nelis', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '12', 'creators_name_given' => 'M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '20' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Singh', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '20', 'creators_name_given' => 'L.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '15' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Metspalu', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '15', 'creators_name_given' => 'E.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '14' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Reddy', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '14', 'creators_name_given' => 'A. G.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Rootsi', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'S.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Romero', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'I. G.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '24' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kayser', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '24', 'creators_name_given' => 'M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '19' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Thangaraj', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '19', 'creators_name_given' => 'K.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '10' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Mallick', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '10', 'creators_name_given' => 'C. B.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Soares', 'eprintid' => '14439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'P.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '57', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Population Genetic Structure in Indian Austroasiatic Speakers: The Role of Landscape Barriers and Sex-Specific Admixture', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/44/39', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '8', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msq288', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '2', 'publisher' => 'Oxford University Press', 'pagerange' => '1013-1024', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Molecular Biology and Evolution', 'lastmod_second' => '57', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0737-4038', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '57', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 2, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14439', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20110200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '2', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '8', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '2', 'datestamp_day' => '2', 'abstract' => 'The geographic origin and time of dispersal of Austroasiatic (AA) speakers, presently settled in south and southeast Asia, remains disputed. Two rival hypotheses, both assuming a demic component to the language dispersal, have been proposed. The first of these places the origin of Austroasiatic speakers in southeast Asia with a later dispersal to south Asia during the Neolithic, whereas the second hypothesis advocates pre-Neolithic origins and dispersal of this language family from south Asia. To test the two alternative models, this study combines the analysis of uniparentally inherited markers with 610,000 common single nucleotide polymorphism loci from the nuclear genome. Indian AA speakers have high frequencies of Y chromosome haplogroup O2a; our results show that this haplogroup has significantly higher diversity and coalescent time (17–28 thousand years ago) in southeast Asia, strongly supporting the first of the two hypotheses. Nevertheless, the results of principal component and “structure-like” analyses on autosomal loci also show that the population history of AA speakers in India is more complex, being characterized by two ancestral components—one represented in the pattern of Y chromosomal and EDAR results and the other by mitochondrial DNA diversity and genomic structure. We propose that AA speakers in India today are derived from dispersal from southeast Asia, followed by extensive sex-specific admixture with local Indian populations. ', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '8', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1093/molbev/msq288', 'volume' => '28', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2011', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21318' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407417577', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Underhill', 'eprintid' => '21318', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'Peter', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Stumpf', 'eprintid' => '21318', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Michael P.H.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Pascali', 'eprintid' => '21318', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincenzo L.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Goldstein', 'eprintid' => '21318', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'David B.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21318', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Ko', 'eprintid' => '21318', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'Tsang-Ming', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Wilson', 'eprintid' => '21318', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'James F.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gratrix', 'eprintid' => '21318', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Fiona', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Capelli', 'eprintid' => '21318', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Cristian', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Oppenheimer', 'eprintid' => '21318', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'Stephen', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '47', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'A Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the Austronesian-Speaking Peoples of Insular Southeast Asia and Oceania', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/18', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '22', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.kagioglou@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/318205', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '7', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '432-443', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'The American Journal of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '47', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0002-9297', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '47', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 2, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21318', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20010200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '2', 'rev_number' => '12', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'CS', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '22', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '7', 'datestamp_day' => '7', 'abstract' => 'Modern humans reached Southeast Asia and Oceania in one of the first dispersals out of Africa. The resulting temporal overlap of modern and archaic humans—and the apparent morphological continuity between them—has led to claims of gene flow between Homo sapiens and H. erectus. Much more recently, an agricultural technology from mainland Asia spread into the region, possibly in association with Austronesian languages. Using detailed genealogical study of Y chromosome variation, we show that the majority of current Austronesian speakers trace their paternal heritage to Pleistocene settlers in the region, as opposed to more-recent agricultural immigrants. A fraction of the paternal heritage, however, appears to be associated with more-recent immigrants from northern populations. We also show that the northern Neolithic component is very unevenly dispersed through the region, with a higher contribution in Southeast Asia and a nearly complete absence in Melanesia. Contrary to claims of gene flow (under regional continuity) between H. erectus and H. sapiens, we found no ancestral Y chromosome lineages in a set of 1,209 samples. The finding excludes the possibility that early hominids contributed significantly to the paternal heritage of the region.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '22', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1086/318205', 'volume' => '68', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2001', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21319' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407418625', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21319', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Oppenheimer', 'eprintid' => '21319', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Stephen J.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '53', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Polynesian origins: Slow boat to Melanesia?', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/19', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '36', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 8, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35065520', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '7', 'publisher' => 'Nature Publishing Group', 'pagerange' => '166-167', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Nature', 'lastmod_second' => '53', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '00280836', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '53', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 3, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21319', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20010308', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '6825', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'DU', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '36', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '7', 'datestamp_day' => '7', 'abstract' => 'The origin of the Polynesian islanders and of the Austronesian languages that they speak has been debated for more than 200 years. Diamond has presented the predominantly held modern viewpoint, described as the 'express train to Polynesia' model, which proposes that the ancestors of the Polynesians were early farmers who dispersed south from a homeland in South China/Taiwan, through Island Southeast Asia (replacing an indigenous 'Australoid' hunter-gatherer population), and then on east, out into the Pacific — all within the past 6,000 years1. However, evidence is accumulating from several genetic markers that Polynesian lineages have a much deeper ancestry within tropical Island Southeast Asia than this hypothesis would suggest. The new evidence implies that the Polynesians originated not in China/Taiwan, but in eastern Indonesia, somewhere between Wallace's line and the island of New Guinea.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '36', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1038/35065520', 'volume' => '410', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2001', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14441' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1343913994', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Torroni', 'eprintid' => '14441', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'Antonio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Davies', 'eprintid' => '14441', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'William', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '14441', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Semino', 'eprintid' => '14441', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Ornella', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '14441', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Achilli', 'eprintid' => '14441', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alessandro', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Soares', 'eprintid' => '14441', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Pedro', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bandelt', 'eprintid' => '14441', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hans-Jürgen', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '38', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The Archaeogenetics of Europe', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/44/41', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '28', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2009.11.054', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '2', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier Science', 'pagerange' => 'R174-R183', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Current Biology', 'lastmod_second' => '38', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '09609822', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '38', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 2, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14441', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20100200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '4', 'rev_number' => '11', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'CC', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '28', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '2', 'datestamp_day' => '2', 'abstract' => 'A new timescale has recently been established for human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages, making mtDNA at present the most informative genetic marker system for studying European prehistory. Here, we review the new chronology and compare mtDNA with Y-chromosome patterns, in order to summarize what we have learnt from archaeogenetics concerning five episodes over the past 50,000 years which significantly contributed to the settlement history of Europe: the pioneer colonisation of the Upper Palaeolithic, the Late Glacial re-colonisation of the continent from southern refugia after the Last Glacial Maximum, the postglacial re-colonization of deserted areas after the Younger Dryas cold snap, the arrival of Near Easterners with an incipient Neolithic package, and the small-scale migrations along continent-wide economic exchange networks beginning with the Copper Age. The available data from uniparental genetic systems have already transformed our view of the prehistory of Europe, but our knowledge of these processes remains limited. Nevertheless, their legacy remains as sedimentary layers in the gene pool of modern Europeans, and our understanding of them will improve substantially when more mtDNAs are completely sequenced, the Y chromosome more thoroughly analysed, and haplotype blocks of the autosomal genome become amenable to phylogeographic studies', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '28', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.11.054', 'volume' => '20', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2010', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21345' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407850134', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hervig', 'eprintid' => '21345', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'Tor', 'creators_id' => undef }, '11' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Shaha', 'eprintid' => '21345', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '11', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alom', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gratrix', 'eprintid' => '21345', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Fiona', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21345', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Underhill', 'eprintid' => '21345', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'Peter A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '12' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Thomas', 'eprintid' => '21345', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '12', 'creators_name_given' => 'Mark G.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Abernethy', 'eprintid' => '21345', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Julia K.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '14' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Goldstein', 'eprintid' => '21345', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '14', 'creators_name_given' => 'David B.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Stumpf', 'eprintid' => '21345', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'Michael P.H.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Redhead', 'eprintid' => '21345', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Nicola', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Wilson', 'eprintid' => '21345', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'James F.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Capelli', 'eprintid' => '21345', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Cristian', 'creators_id' => undef }, '13' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bradman', 'eprintid' => '21345', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '13', 'creators_name_given' => 'Neal', 'creators_id' => undef }, '10' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bradshaw', 'eprintid' => '21345', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '10', 'creators_name_given' => 'Paul', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Moen', 'eprintid' => '21345', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'Torolf', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '8', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/45', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '34', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00373-7', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier Science', 'pagerange' => '979-984', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Current Biology', 'lastmod_second' => '8', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '09609822', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '8', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 5, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21345', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20030500', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '11', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'DA', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '34', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => 'The degree of population replacement in the British Isles associated with cultural changes has been extensively debated [1–3] . Recent work has demonstrated that comparisons of genetic variation in the British Isles and on the European Continent can illuminate specific demographic processes in the history of the British Isles. For example, Wilson et al. [4] used the similarity of Basque and Celtic Y chromosomes to argue for genetic continuity from the Upper Palaeolithic to the present in the paternal history of these populations (see also [5] ). Differences in the Y chromosome composition of these groups also suggested genetic signatures of Norwegian influence in the Orkney Islands north of the Scottish mainland, an important center of Viking activities between 800 and 1300 A.D. [6] . More recently, Weale et al. [7] argued for substantial Anglo-Saxon male migration into central England based on the analysis of eight British sample sets collected on an east-west transect across England and Wales. To provide a more complete assessment of the paternal genetic history of the British Isles, we have compared the Y chromosome composition of multiple geographically distant British sample sets with collections from Norway (two sites), Denmark, and Germany and with collections from central Ireland, representing, respectively, the putative invading and the indigenous populations. By analyzing 1772 Y chromosomes from 25 predominantly small urban locations, we found that different parts of the British Isles have sharply different paternal histories; the degree of population replacement and genetic continuity shows systematic variation across the sampled areas.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '34', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00373-7', 'volume' => '13', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2003', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21320' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407418984', 'creatorlist' => { '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bradman', 'eprintid' => '21320', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Neil', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Weiss', 'eprintid' => '21320', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Deborah A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Thomas', 'eprintid' => '21320', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Mark G.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Wilson', 'eprintid' => '21320', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'James F.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21320', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Goldstein', 'eprintid' => '21320', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'David B.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '16', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Genetic evidence for different male and female roles during cultural transitions in the British Isles', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/20', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '47', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.071036898', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '7', 'publisher' => 'National Academy of Sciences', 'pagerange' => '5078-5083', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences', 'lastmod_second' => '16', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '00278424', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '16', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 4, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21320', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20010400', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '9', 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'DA', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '47', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '7', 'datestamp_day' => '7', 'abstract' => 'Human history is punctuated by periods of rapid cultural change. Although archeologists have developed a range of models to describe cultural transitions, in most real examples we do not know whether the processes involved the movement of people or the movement of culture only. With a series of relatively well defined cultural transitions, the British Isles present an ideal opportunity to assess the demographic context of cultural change. Important transitions after the first Paleolithic settlements include the Neolithic, the development of Iron Age cultures, and various historical invasions from continental Europe. Here we show that patterns of Y-chromosome variation indicate that the Neolithic and Iron Age transitions in the British Isles occurred without large-scale male movements. The more recent invasions from Scandinavia, on the other hand, appear to have left a significant paternal genetic legacy. In contrast, patterns of mtDNA and X-chromosome variation indicate that one or more of these pre-Anglo-Saxon cultural revolutions had a major effect on the maternal genetic heritage of the British Isles.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '47', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1073/pnas.071036898', 'volume' => '98', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2001', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '17729' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1370360480', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kong', 'eprintid' => '17729', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Qing-Peng', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bandelt', 'eprintid' => '17729', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hans-Jürgen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '17729', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '17729', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '6', 'editors_name_honourific' => '', 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2013', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '28', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Estimation of Mutation Rates and Coalescence Times: Some Caveats', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => '', 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/77/29', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '41', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-31789-9_4', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '6', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '4', 'publisher' => 'Springer Verlag', 'pagerange' => '47-90', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2013', 'book_title' => 'Human Mitochondrial DNA and the Evolution of Homo sapiens', 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'book_section', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '28', 'place_of_pub' => 'Berlin, Germany', 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '28', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '17729', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'isbn' => '978-3-540-31788-3 ', 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'lastmod_month' => '6', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20060100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '7', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'G1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '41', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '4', 'datestamp_day' => '4', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '41', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1007/3-540-31789-9_4', 'volume' => '18', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2006', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14442' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407833034', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '14442', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Cerezo', 'eprintid' => '14442', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'María', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Carracedo', 'eprintid' => '14442', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'Ángel', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Álvarez-Iglesias', 'eprintid' => '14442', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vanesa', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Lareu', 'eprintid' => '14442', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'María Victoria', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Lovo-Gómez', 'eprintid' => '14442', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'José', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Salas', 'eprintid' => '14442', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Antonio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '14442', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/14442/1/RichardsMitochondrialjournal.pone.0006882.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '2', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Mitochondrial Echoes of First Settlement and Genetic Continuity in El Salvador', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/44/42', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '44', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => 'PLoS ONE', 'pagerange' => 'e6882', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'PLoS ONE', 'lastmod_second' => '30', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1932-6203', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '2', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 9, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14442', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20090900', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '8', 'number' => '9', 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '38', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '2', 'datestamp_day' => '2', 'abstract' => 'Background From Paleo-Indian times to recent historical episodes, the Mesoamerican isthmus played an important role in the distribution and patterns of variability all around the double American continent. However, the amount of genetic information currently available on Central American continental populations is very scarce. In order to shed light on the role of Mesoamerica in the peopling of the New World, the present study focuses on the analysis of the mtDNA variation in a population sample from El Salvador. Methodology/Principal Findings We have carried out DNA sequencing of the entire control region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome in 90 individuals from El Salvador. We have also compiled more than 3,985 control region profiles from the public domain and the literature in order to carry out inter-population comparisons. The results reveal a predominant Native American component in this region: by far, the most prevalent mtDNA haplogroup in this country (at ~90%) is A2, in contrast with other North, Meso- and South American populations. Haplogroup A2 shows a star-like phylogeny and is very diverse with a substantial proportion of mtDNAs (45%; sequence range 16090–16365) still unobserved in other American populations. Two different Bayesian approaches used to estimate admixture proportions in El Salvador shows that the majority of the mtDNAs observed come from North America. A preliminary founder analysis indicates that the settlement of El Salvador occurred about 13,400±5,200 Y.B.P.. The founder age of A2 in El Salvador is close to the overall age of A2 in America, which suggests that the colonization of this region occurred within a few thousand years of the initial expansion into the Americas. Conclusions/Significance As a whole, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that today's A2 variability in El Salvador represents to a large extent the indigenous component of the region. Concordant with this hypothesis is also the observation of a very limited contribution from European and African women (~5%). This implies that the Atlantic slave trade had a very small demographic impact in El Salvador in contrast to its transformation of the gene pool in neighbouring populations from the Caribbean facade. ', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '38', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006882', 'volume' => '4', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2009', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '18707' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1401782916', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Grugni', 'eprintid' => '18707', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'Viola', 'creators_id' => undef }, '11' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Torroni', 'eprintid' => '18707', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '11', 'creators_name_given' => 'Antonio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kashani', 'eprintid' => '18707', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Baharak Hooshiar', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Battaglia', 'eprintid' => '18707', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincenza', 'creators_id' => undef }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Achilli', 'eprintid' => '18707', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alessandro', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gandini', 'eprintid' => '18707', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Francesca', 'creators_id' => undef }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Semino', 'eprintid' => '18707', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'Ornella', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Pala', 'eprintid' => '18707', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Maria', 'creators_id' => 'm.pala@hud.ac.uk' }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Perego', 'eprintid' => '18707', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Ugo A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Olivieri', 'eprintid' => '18707', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Anna', 'creators_id' => undef }, '10' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '18707', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '10', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Woodward', 'eprintid' => '18707', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'Scott R.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '9', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2013', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/18707/1/journal.pone.0070492.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '58', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Mitogenomes from Two Uncommon Haplogroups Mark Late Glacial/Postglacial Expansions from the Near East and Neolithic Dispersals within Europe', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/87/07', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '9', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070492', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '9', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '3', 'publisher' => 'PLoS', 'pagerange' => 'e70492', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2013', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'PLoS ONE', 'lastmod_second' => '54', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1932-6203', 'datestamp_hour' => '16', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '58', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 7, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '18707', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '6', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20130700', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '8', 'number' => '7', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH426', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '37', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '30', 'datestamp_day' => '30', 'abstract' => 'The current human mitochondrial (mtDNA) phylogeny does not equally represent all human populations but is biased in favour of representatives originally from north and central Europe. This especially affects the phylogeny of some uncommon West Eurasian haplogroups, including I and W, whose southern European and Near Eastern components are very poorly represented, suggesting that extensive hidden phylogenetic substructure remains to be uncovered. This study expanded and re-analysed the available datasets of I and W complete mtDNA genomes, reaching a comprehensive 419 mitogenomes, and searched for precise correlations between the ages and geographical distributions of their numerous newly identified subclades with events of human dispersal which contributed to the genetic formation of modern Europeans. Our results showed that haplogroups I (within N1a1b) and W originated in the Near East during the Last Glacial Maximum or pre-warming period (the period of gradual warming between the end of the LGM, ~19 ky ago, and the beginning of the first main warming phase, ~15 ky ago) and, like the much more common haplogroups J and T, may have been involved in Late Glacial expansions starting from the Near East. Thus our data contribute to a better definition of the Late and postglacial re-peopling of Europe, providing further evidence for the scenario that major population expansions started after the Last Glacial Maximum but before Neolithic times, but also evidencing traces of diffusion events in several I and W subclades dating to the European Neolithic and restricted to Europe.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '116', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '37', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070492', 'volume' => '8', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2013', 'status_changed_hour' => '16', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21317' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407417307', 'creatorlist' => { '33' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Santachiara-Benerecetti', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '33', 'creators_name_given' => 'Silvana', 'creators_id' => undef }, '32' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Al-Zaheri', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '32', 'creators_name_given' => 'Nadia', 'creators_id' => undef }, '21' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Vona', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '21', 'creators_name_given' => 'Giuseppe', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Sellitto', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'Daniele', 'creators_id' => undef }, '26' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hatina', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '26', 'creators_name_given' => 'Ji?i', 'creators_id' => undef }, '17' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hill', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '17', 'creators_name_given' => 'Emmeline', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hickey', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Eileen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'creators_id' => undef }, '18' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bradley', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '18', 'creators_name_given' => 'Dan', 'creators_id' => undef }, '30' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Oppenheim', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '30', 'creators_name_given' => 'Ariella', 'creators_id' => undef }, '16' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Dimitrov', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '16', 'creators_name_given' => 'Dimitar', 'creators_id' => undef }, '27' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Belledi', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '27', 'creators_name_given' => 'Michele', 'creators_id' => undef }, '25' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Stefanescu', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '25', 'creators_name_given' => 'Gheorghe', 'creators_id' => undef }, '28' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Di Rienzo', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '28', 'creators_name_given' => 'Anna', 'creators_id' => undef }, '20' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Calì', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '20', 'creators_name_given' => 'Francesco', 'creators_id' => undef }, '14' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Rychkov', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '14', 'creators_name_given' => 'Yuri', 'creators_id' => undef }, '24' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Triantaphyllidis', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '24', 'creators_name_given' => 'Costas', 'creators_id' => undef }, '10' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Villems', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '10', 'creators_name_given' => 'Richard', 'creators_id' => undef }, '31' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Nørby', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '31', 'creators_name_given' => 'Søren', 'creators_id' => undef }, '35' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Torroni', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '35', 'creators_name_given' => 'Antonio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '11' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Thomas', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '11', 'creators_name_given' => 'Mark', 'creators_id' => undef }, '22' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Demaine', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '22', 'creators_name_given' => 'Andrew', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '13' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Rychkov', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '13', 'creators_name_given' => 'Oksana', 'creators_id' => undef }, '23' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Papiha', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '23', 'creators_name_given' => 'Surinder', 'creators_id' => undef }, '29' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Novelletto', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '29', 'creators_name_given' => 'Andrea', 'creators_id' => undef }, '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Rengo', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'Chiara', 'creators_id' => undef }, '36' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bandelt', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '36', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hans-Jürgen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Vega', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Emilce', 'creators_id' => undef }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kivisild', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'Toomas', 'creators_id' => undef }, '12' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Rychkov', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '12', 'creators_name_given' => 'Serge', 'creators_id' => undef }, '15' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gölge', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '15', 'creators_name_given' => 'Mukaddes', 'creators_id' => undef }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Cruciani', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'Fulvio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Sykes', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bryan', 'creators_id' => undef }, '34' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Scozzari', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '34', 'creators_name_given' => 'Rosaria', 'creators_id' => undef }, '19' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Romano', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '19', 'creators_name_given' => 'Valentino', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Guida', 'eprintid' => '21317', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'Valentina', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Tracing European Founder Lineages in the Near Eastern mtDNA Pool', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/17', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '18', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9297(07)62954-1', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '7', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '1251-1276', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'The American Journal of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '14', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0002-9297', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '14', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 11, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21317', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20001100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '5', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'D901', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '18', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '7', 'datestamp_day' => '7', 'abstract' => 'Founder analysis is a method for analysis of nonrecombining DNA sequence data, with the aim of identification and dating of migrations into new territory. The method picks out founder sequence types in potential source populations and dates lineage clusters deriving from them in the settlement zone of interest. Here, using mtDNA, we apply the approach to the colonization of Europe, to estimate the proportion of modern lineages whose ancestors arrived during each major phase of settlement. To estimate the Palaeolithic and Neolithic contributions to European mtDNA diversity more accurately than was previously achievable, we have now extended the Near Eastern, European, and northern-Caucasus databases to 1,234, 2,804, and 208 samples, respectively. Both back-migration into the source population and recurrent mutation in the source and derived populations represent major obstacles to this approach. We have developed phylogenetic criteria to take account of both these factors, and we suggest a way to account for multiple dispersals of common sequence types. We conclude that (i) there has been substantial back-migration into the Near East, (ii) the majority of extant mtDNA lineages entered Europe in several waves during the Upper Palaeolithic, (iii) there was a founder effect or bottleneck associated with the Last Glacial Maximum, 20,000 years ago, from which derives the largest fraction of surviving lineages, and (iv) the immigrant Neolithic component is likely to comprise less than one-quarter of the mtDNA pool of modern Europeans', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '18', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/S0002-9297(07)62954-1', 'volume' => '67', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2000', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14445' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1343915945', 'creatorlist' => { '11' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Vaideeswar', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '11', 'creators_name_given' => 'Pradeep', 'creators_id' => undef }, '21' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Reich', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '21', 'creators_name_given' => 'David', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Khullar', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'Madhu', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Xue', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Yali', 'creators_id' => undef }, '17' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Oppenheimer', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '17', 'creators_name_given' => 'Stephen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '22' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Singh', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '22', 'creators_name_given' => 'Lalji', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Sadayappan', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Sakthivel', 'creators_id' => undef }, '18' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '18', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Dhandapany', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Perundurai S', 'creators_id' => undef }, '13' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Narasimhan', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '13', 'creators_name_given' => 'Calambur', 'creators_id' => undef }, '23' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Tyler-Smith', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '23', 'creators_name_given' => 'Chris', 'creators_id' => undef }, '16' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Mehdi', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '16', 'creators_name_given' => 'S Qasim', 'creators_id' => undef }, '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Rai', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'Taranjit Singh', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Powell', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Gareth T', 'creators_id' => undef }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bahl', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'Ajay', 'creators_id' => undef }, '12' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Rathinavel', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '12', 'creators_name_given' => 'Andiappan', 'creators_id' => undef }, '20' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Patterson', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '20', 'creators_name_given' => 'Nick', 'creators_id' => undef }, '15' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Ayub', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '15', 'creators_name_given' => 'Qasim', 'creators_id' => undef }, '14' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Ayapati', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '14', 'creators_name_given' => 'Dharma Rakshak', 'creators_id' => undef }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Soares', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'Pedro', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Rani', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Deepa Selvi', 'creators_id' => undef }, '24' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Thangaraj', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '24', 'creators_name_given' => 'Kumarasamy', 'creators_id' => undef }, '19' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Price', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '19', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alkes L', 'creators_id' => undef }, '10' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Tharkan', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '10', 'creators_name_given' => 'Jagan Mohan', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Nallari', 'eprintid' => '14445', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'Prathiba', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '21', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'A common MYBPC3 (cardiac myosin binding protein C) variant associated with cardiomyopathies in South Asia', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/44/45', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '6', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.309', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '2', 'publisher' => 'Nature Publishing Group', 'pagerange' => '187-191', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Nature Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '21', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1061-4036', 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '21', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 2, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14445', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20090200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => '2', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '6', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '2', 'datestamp_day' => '2', 'abstract' => 'Heart failure is a leading cause of mortality in South Asians. However, its genetic etiology remains largely unknown1. Cardiomyopathies due to sarcomeric mutations are a major monogenic cause for heart failure (MIM600958). Here, we describe a deletion of 25 bp in the gene encoding cardiac myosin binding protein C (MYBPC3) that is associated with heritable cardiomyopathies and an increased risk of heart failure in Indian populations (initial study OR = 5.3 (95% CI = 2.3–13), P = 2 10-6; replication study OR = 8.59 (3.19–25.05), P = 3 10-8; combined OR = 6.99 (3.68–13.57), P = 4 10-11) and that disrupts cardiomyocyte structure in vitro. Its prevalence was found to be high (4%) in populations of Indian subcontinental ancestry. The finding of a common risk factor implicated in South Asian subjects with cardiomyopathy will help in identifying and counseling individuals predisposed to cardiac diseases in this region. ', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '6', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1038/ng.309', 'volume' => '41', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2009', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '17727' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1370360161', 'creatorlist' => { '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Villems', 'eprintid' => '17727', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Richard', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kivisild', 'eprintid' => '17727', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Toomas', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '17727', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Metspalu', 'eprintid' => '17727', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Mait', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bandelt', 'eprintid' => '17727', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hans-Jürgen', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '6', 'editors_name_honourific' => '', 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2013', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '55', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The Pioneer Settlement of Modern Humans in Asia', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => '', 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/77/27', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '36', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-31789-9_8', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '6', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '4', 'publisher' => 'Springer Verlag', 'pagerange' => '181-199', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2013', 'book_title' => 'Human Mitochondrial DNA and the Evolution of Homo sapiens', 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'book_section', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '24', 'place_of_pub' => 'Berlin, Germany', 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '55', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '17727', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'isbn' => '978-3-540-31788-3 ', 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'lastmod_month' => '6', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20060100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'G1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '31', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '4', 'datestamp_day' => '4', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '31', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi10.1007/3-540-31789-9_8', 'volume' => '18', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2006', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21309' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407407094', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Oppenheimer', 'eprintid' => '21309', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Stephen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21309', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Sykes', 'eprintid' => '21309', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Bryan', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '53', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'mtDNA Suggests Polynesian Origins in Eastern Indonesia', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/09', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '27', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/302043', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '7', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '1234-1236', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'The American Journal of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '53', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0002-9297', 'datestamp_hour' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '53', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 10, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21309', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '19981000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '10', 'number' => '4', 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'CS', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '27', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '7', 'datestamp_day' => '7', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '27', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1086/302043', 'volume' => '63', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '1998', 'status_changed_hour' => '10', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21352' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407854206', 'creatorlist' => { '11' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Vona', 'eprintid' => '21352', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '11', 'creators_name_given' => 'Giuseppe', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Guida', 'eprintid' => '21352', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'Valentina', 'creators_id' => undef }, '17' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Novelletto', 'eprintid' => '21352', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '17', 'creators_name_given' => 'Andrea', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Santolamazza', 'eprintid' => '21352', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Piero', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'La Fratta', 'eprintid' => '21352', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Roberta', 'creators_id' => undef }, '18' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Scozzari', 'eprintid' => '21352', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '18', 'creators_name_given' => 'Rosaria', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Cruciani', 'eprintid' => '21352', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Fulvio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '16' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Torroni', 'eprintid' => '21352', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '16', 'creators_name_given' => 'Antonio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '13' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Calì', 'eprintid' => '21352', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '13', 'creators_name_given' => 'Francesco', 'creators_id' => undef }, '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Watson', 'eprintid' => '21352', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'Elizabeth', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Sellitto', 'eprintid' => '21352', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Daniele', 'creators_id' => undef }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Zaharova', 'eprintid' => '21352', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'Boriana', 'creators_id' => undef }, '12' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Aman', 'eprintid' => '21352', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '12', 'creators_name_given' => 'Rashid', 'creators_id' => undef }, '14' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Akar', 'eprintid' => '21352', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '14', 'creators_name_given' => 'Nejat', 'creators_id' => undef }, '15' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21352', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '15', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Colomb', 'eprintid' => '21352', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'Eliane Beraud', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Pascone', 'eprintid' => '21352', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Roberto', 'creators_id' => undef }, '10' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Lavinha', 'eprintid' => '21352', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '10', 'creators_name_given' => 'João', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Moral', 'eprintid' => '21352', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'Pedro', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '38', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/52', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '38', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/386294', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '1014-1022', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'The American Journal of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '38', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0002-9297', 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '38', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 5, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21352', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20040500', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => '5', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'DT', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '38', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => 'We explored the phylogeography of human Y-chromosomal haplogroup E3b by analyzing 3,401 individuals from five continents. Our data refine the phylogeny of the entire haplogroup, which appears as a collection of lineages with very different evolutionary histories, and reveal signatures of several distinct processes of migrations and/or recurrent gene flow that occurred in Africa and western Eurasia over the past 25,000 years. In Europe, the overall frequency pattern of haplogroup E-M78 does not support the hypothesis of a uniform spread of people from a single parental Near Eastern population. The distribution of E-M81 chromosomes in Africa closely matches the present area of distribution of Berber-speaking populations on the continent, suggesting a close haplogroup–ethnic group parallelism. E-M34 chromosomes were more likely introduced in Ethiopia from the Near East. In conclusion, the present study shows that earlier work based on fewer Y-chromosome markers led to rather simple historical interpretations and highlights the fact that many population-genetic analyses are not robust to a poorly resolved phylogeny', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '38', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1086/386294', 'volume' => '74', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2004', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14385' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1343297938', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Sykes', 'eprintid' => '14385', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'B.C.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '14385', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hedges', 'eprintid' => '14385', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'R.E.M.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '7', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '34', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Authenticating DNA Extracted From Ancient Skeletal Remains', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/43/85', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '21', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jasc.1995.0031', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '7', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '26', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '291-299', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Journal of Archaeological Science', 'lastmod_second' => '34', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '03054403', 'datestamp_hour' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '34', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 3, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14385', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '19950300', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '10', 'number' => '2', 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'CC', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '21', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '26', 'datestamp_day' => '26', 'abstract' => 'The survival of DNA, the most informative biological molecule, for periods of at least several thousand years in bone was demonstrated more than four years ago. However, difficulties with authenticating ancient DNA have made diagenetic studies problematic. It is therefore essential that these problems be overcome before the question of DNA survival can be addressed. Here we describe our work with a range of Holocene skeletal material from domestic animals and humans, and discuss how we go about authenticating the results. In the first instance, results should be reproducible between different laboratories, in order to eliminate the possibility of laboratory-specific contamination. The main risk is then contamination of the material prior to sampling for DNA. It is therefore important to have criteria whereby the authenticity of the results can be evaluated. These include amplification with species-specific primers to target DNA from domestic animals, sex determination in humans, and phylogenetic position in both. Since animals can be tested for the presence of contaminating human DNA, work with animals can be used to control and assess methodology. Our initial studies in this area suggest that more than 50% of skeletal remains from the past two thousand years are likely to contain amplifiable endogenous DNA, but that in the case of human material great care is needed to distinguish this from contamination introduced before the samples reach the laboratory. ', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '21', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1006/jasc.1995.0031', 'volume' => '22', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '1995', 'status_changed_hour' => '10', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14386' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1343298514', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Forster', 'eprintid' => '14386', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Peter', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bandelt', 'eprintid' => '14386', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hans J.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '14386', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Sykes', 'eprintid' => '14386', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Brian C.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '7', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '16', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Mitochondrial portraits of human populations using median networks', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/43/86', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '35', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.genetics.org/content/141/2/743.full.pdf+html', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '7', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '26', 'publisher' => 'The Genetics Society of America', 'pagerange' => '743-753', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '16', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0016-6731', 'datestamp_hour' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '16', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 10, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14386', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '19951000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '10', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'CS', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '35', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '26', 'datestamp_day' => '26', 'abstract' => 'Analysis of variation in the hypervariable region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has emerged as an important tool for studying human evolution and migration. However, attempts to reconstruct optimal intraspecific mtDNA phylogenies frequently fail because parallel mutation events partly obscure the true evolutionary pathways. This makes it inadvisable to present a single phylogenetic tree at the expense of neglecting equally acceptable ones. As an alternative, we propose a novel network approach for portraying mtDNA relationships. For small sample sizes (< -50), an unmodified median network contains all most parsimonious trees, displays graphically the full information content of the sequence data, and can easily be generated by hand. For larger sample sizes, we reduce the complexity of the network by identifjmg parallelisms. This reduction procedure is guided by a compatibility argument and an additional source of phylogenetic information: the frequencies of the mitochondrial haplotypes. As a spinoff, our approach can also assist in identifjmg sequencing errors, which manifest themselves in implausible network substructures. We illustrate the advantages of our approach with several examples from existing data sets.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '35', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => '141', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '1995', 'status_changed_hour' => '10', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '20393' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1401785155', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Soares', 'eprintid' => '20393', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'Pedro', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '20393', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Cerny', 'eprintid' => '20393', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Viktor', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Rito', 'eprintid' => '20393', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Teresa', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Alshamali', 'eprintid' => '20393', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Farida', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Fernandes', 'eprintid' => '20393', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Verónica', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Pereira', 'eprintid' => '20393', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'Luísa', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '5', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/20393/1/RichardsFirstjournal.pone.0080031.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '37', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The First Modern Human Dispersals across Africa', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/03/93', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '46', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080031', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '5', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '3', 'publisher' => 'PLoS ONE', 'pagerange' => 'e80031', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'PLoS ONE', 'lastmod_second' => '33', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1932-6203', 'datestamp_hour' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '37', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 11, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '20393', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '6', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20131100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '8', 'number' => '11', 'rev_number' => '12', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH426', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '51', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '27', 'datestamp_day' => '27', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '51', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080031', 'volume' => '8', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2013', 'status_changed_hour' => '10', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '17897' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1373014663', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gori', 'eprintid' => '17897', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Kevin C.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '17897', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Soares', 'eprintid' => '17897', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Pedro A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Mellars', 'eprintid' => '17897', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Paul', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Carr', 'eprintid' => '17897', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin', 'creators_id' => 'm.carr@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '7', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2013', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '52', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Genetic and archaeological perspectives on the initial modern human colonization of southern Asia', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/78/97', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '33', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1306043110', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '7', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '5', 'publisher' => 'National Academy of Sciences', 'pagerange' => '10699-10704', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2013', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences', 'lastmod_second' => '52', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0027-8424', 'datestamp_hour' => '9', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '52', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 6, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '17897', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20130600', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '9', 'number' => '26', 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'CC', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '33', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '5', 'datestamp_day' => '5', 'abstract' => 'It has been argued recently that the initial dispersal of anatomically modern humans from Africa to southern Asia occurred before the volcanic “supereruption” of the Mount Toba volcano (Sumatra) at ?74,000 y before present (B.P.)—possibly as early as 120,000 y B.P. We show here that this “pre-Toba” dispersal model is in serious conflict with both the most recent genetic evidence from both Africa and Asia and the archaeological evidence from South Asian sites. We present an alternative model based on a combination of genetic analyses and recent archaeological evidence from South Asia and Africa. These data support a coastally oriented dispersal of modern humans from eastern Africa to southern Asia ?60–50 thousand years ago (ka). This was associated with distinctively African microlithic and “backed-segment” technologies analogous to the African “Howiesons Poort” and related technologies, together with a range of distinctively “modern” cultural and symbolic features (highly shaped bone tools, personal ornaments, abstract artistic motifs, microblade technology, etc.), similar to those that accompanied the replacement of “archaic” Neanderthal by anatomically modern human populations in other regions of western Eurasia at a broadly similar date. ', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '116', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '33', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1073/pnas.1306043110', 'volume' => '110', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2013', 'status_changed_hour' => '9', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21337' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407841436', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '21337', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Sobrino', 'eprintid' => '21337', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Beatriz', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21337', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Lareu', 'eprintid' => '21337', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'María-Victoria', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Salas', 'eprintid' => '21337', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Antonio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Carracedo', 'eprintid' => '21337', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'Ángel', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'De la Fe', 'eprintid' => '21337', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Tomás', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Sánchez-Diz', 'eprintid' => '21337', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'Paula', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '38', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/37', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '5', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/344348', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '1082-1111', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'The American Journal of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '38', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0002-9297', 'datestamp_hour' => '11', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '38', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 11, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21337', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20021100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => '5', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'DT', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '5', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => 'Africa presents the most complex genetic picture of any continent, with a time depth for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages >100,000 years. The most recent widespread demographic shift within the continent was most probably the Bantu dispersals, which archaeological and linguistic evidence suggest originated in West Africa 3,000–4,000 years ago, spreading both east and south. Here, we have carried out a thorough phylogeographic analysis of mtDNA variation in a total of 2,847 samples from throughout the continent, including 307 new sequences from southeast African Bantu speakers. The results suggest that the southeast Bantu speakers have a composite origin on the maternal line of descent, with ?44% of lineages deriving from West Africa, ?21% from either West or Central Africa, ?30% from East Africa, and ?5% from southern African Khoisan-speaking groups. The ages of the major founder types of both West and East African origin are consistent with the likely timing of Bantu dispersals, with those from the west somewhat predating those from the east. Despite this composite picture, the southeastern African Bantu groups are indistinguishable from each other with respect to their mtDNA, suggesting that they either had a common origin at the point of entry into southeastern Africa or have undergone very extensive gene flow since.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '5', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1086/344348', 'volume' => '71', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2002', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14446' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1343918403', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Amorim', 'eprintid' => '14446', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Soares', 'eprintid' => '14446', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'P.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '14446', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Pereira', 'eprintid' => '14446', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'F.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Pereira', 'eprintid' => '14446', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'L.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Carneiro', 'eprintid' => '14446', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'J.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Samuels', 'eprintid' => '14446', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'D. C.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '44', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Evidence for Variable Selective Pressures at a Large Secondary Structure of the Human Mitochondrial DNA Control Region', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/44/46', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '42', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msn225', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '2', 'publisher' => 'Oxford University Press', 'pagerange' => '2759-2770', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Molecular Biology and Evolution', 'lastmod_second' => '44', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0737-4038', 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '44', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 12, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14446', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20081200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => '12', 'rev_number' => '11', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH426', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '42', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '2', 'datestamp_day' => '2', 'abstract' => 'A combined effect of functional constraints and random mutational events is responsible for the sequence evolution of the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. Most studies targeting this noncoding segment usually focus on its primary sequence information disregarding other informative levels such as secondary or tertiary DNA conformations. In this work, we combined the most recent developments in DNA folding calculations with a phylogenetic comparative approach in order to investigate the formation of intrastrand secondary structures in the human mtDNA control region. Our most striking results are those regarding a new cloverleaf-like secondary structure predicted for a 93-bp stretch of the control region 5?-peripheral domain. Randomized sequences indicated that this structure has a more negative folding energy than the average of random sequences with the same nucleotide composition. In addition, a sliding window scan across the complete mitochondrial genome revealed that it stands out as having one of the highest folding potential. Moreover, we detected several lines of evidence of both negative and positive selection on this structure with high levels of conservation at the structure-relevant stem regions and the occurrence of compensatory base changes in the primate lineage. In the light of previous data, we discuss the possible involvement of this structure in mtDNA replication and/or transcription. We conclude that maintenance of this structure is responsible for the observed heterogeneity in the rate of substitution among sites in part of the human hypervariable region I and that it is a hot spot for the 3? end of human mtDNA deletions', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '42', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1093/molbev/msn225', 'volume' => '25', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2008', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21363' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1408020213', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Carracedo', 'eprintid' => '21363', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Ángel', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '21363', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Salas', 'eprintid' => '21363', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Antonio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21363', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '8', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Charting the Ancestry of African Americans', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/63', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '47', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/491675', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '14', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '676-680', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'The American Journal of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '8', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0002-9297', 'datestamp_hour' => '12', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '8', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 10, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21363', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20051000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '12', 'number' => '4', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'DT', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '47', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '14', 'datestamp_day' => '14', 'abstract' => 'The Atlantic slave trade promoted by West European empires (15th–19th centuries) forcibly moved at least 11 million people from Africa, including about one-third from west-central Africa, to European and American destinations. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome has retained an imprint of this process, but previous analyses lacked west-central African data. Here, we make use of an African database of 4,860 mtDNAs, which include 948 mtDNA sequences from west-central Africa and a further 154 from the southwest, and compare these for the first time with a publicly available database of 1,148 African Americans from the United States that contains 1,053 mtDNAs of sub-Saharan ancestry. We show that >55% of the U.S. lineages have a West African ancestry, with <41% coming from west-central or southwestern Africa. These results are remarkably similar to the most up-to-date analyses of the historical record.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '47', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1086/491675', 'volume' => '77', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2005', 'status_changed_hour' => '12', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21343' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407849183', 'creatorlist' => { '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21343', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Beware the gene genies', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/43', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '16', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 21, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.theguardian.com/education/2003/feb/21/highereducation.uk', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => 'Guardian News and Media', 'pagerange' => '20', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'The Guardian Newspaper', 'lastmod_second' => '13', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0261-3077', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '13', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 3, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21343', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20030321', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '6', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH426', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '16', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => '"Where do I come from?" It's a question that many people have asked themselves at one time or another. You might think that the answer would be pretty straightforward. In my case, for example, it's there in black and white on my birth certificate: Watford. But people seem to want more than this. And plenty of people have been ready to cater for this need: preachers, philosophers, or archaeologists. Now it is geneticists who are making the running, and new businesses are springing up both in Britain and America dedicated to providing the answer - in exchange for a few cheek cells of DNA and a fat fee.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '16', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2003', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21326' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407839725', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21326', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Oppenheimer', 'eprintid' => '21326', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Stephen', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '42', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Fast Trains, Slow Boats, and the Ancestry of the Polynesian Islanders', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/26', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '39', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-81763591/fast-trains-slow-boats-and-the-ancestry-of-the-polynesian', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => 'Science Reviews', 'pagerange' => '157-181', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Science Progress', 'lastmod_second' => '43', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '00368504', 'datestamp_hour' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '43', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 9, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21326', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20010900', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '10', 'number' => '3', 'rev_number' => '11', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '39', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => 'The question of the origins of the Polynesians has, for over 200 years, been the subject of adventure science. Since Captain Cook's first speculations on these isolated Pacific islanders, their language affiliations have been seen as an essential clue to the solution. The geographic and numeric centre of gravity of the Austronesian language family is in island Southeast Asia, which was therefore originally seen as their dispersal homeland. However, another view has held sway for 15 years, the 'out of Taiwan' model, popularly known as the 'express train to Polynesia'. This model, based on the combined evidence of archaeology and linguistics, proposes a common origin for all Austronesian-speaking populations, in an expansion of rice agriculturalists from south China/Taiwam beginning around 6,000 years ago. However, it is becoming clear that there is, in fact, little supporting evidence in favour of this view. Alternative models suggest that the ancestors of the Polynesians achieved their maritime skills and hor ticultural Neolithic somewhere between island Southeast Asia and Melanesia, at an earlier date. Recent advances in human genetics now allow for an independent test of these models, lending support to the latter view rather than the former. Although local gene flow occurring between the bio-geo graphic regions may have been the means for the dramatic cultural spread out to the Pacific, the immediate genetic substrate for the Polynesian expansion came not from Taiwan, but from east of the Wallace line, probably in Wallacea itself', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '39', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => '84', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2001', 'status_changed_hour' => '10', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14387' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1343299581', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Leiboff', 'eprintid' => '14387', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Sykes', 'eprintid' => '14387', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'B.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '14387', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Tetzner', 'eprintid' => '14387', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'S.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '7', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The origins of the Polynesians: an interpretation from mitochondrial lineage analysis', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/43/87', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '46', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1801401/?tool=pmcentrez', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '7', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '26', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '1463-1475', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'American Journal of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '28', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1537-6605', 'datestamp_hour' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '15', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 12, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14387', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '19951200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '10', 'number' => '6', 'rev_number' => '7', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'HT', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '46', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '26', 'datestamp_day' => '26', 'abstract' => 'Using mitochondrial lineage analysis of 1,178 individuals from Polynesia, the western Pacific, and Taiwan, we show that the major prehistoric settlement of Polynesia was from the west and involved two or possibly three genetically distinct populations. The predominant lineage group, accounting for 94% of Polynesian mtDNA, shares a 9-bp COII/tRNA(Lys) intergenic deletion and characteristic control region transition variants, compared to the Cambridge reference sequence. In Polynesia, the diversity of this group is extremely restricted, while related lineages in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Taiwan are increasingly diverse. This suggests a relatively recent major eastward expansion into Polynesia, perhaps originating from Taiwan, in agreement with archeological and linguistic evidence, but which experienced one or more severe population bottlenecks. The second mitochondrial lineage group, accounting for 3.5% of Polynesian mtDNA haplotypes, does not have the 9-bp deletion and its characterized by an A-C transversional variant at nt position 16265. Specific oligonucleotides for this variant were used to select individuals from the population sample who, with other sequences, show that the Polynesian lineages were part of a diverse group in Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea. The very low overall diversity of both lineage groups in Polynesia suggests there was severe population restriction during the colonization of remote Oceania. A third group, represented by only four individuals (0.6%) in Polynesia but also present in the Philippines, shares variants at nt positions 16172 and 16304. Two Polynesians had unrelated haplotypes matching published sequences from native South Americans, which may be the first genetic evidence of prehistoric human contact between Polynesia and South America. ', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '46', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => '57', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '1995', 'status_changed_hour' => '10', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14395' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1343305073', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bandelt', 'eprintid' => '14395', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hans-Jurgen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '14395', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Watson', 'eprintid' => '14395', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'E.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '14395', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'V. A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bendall', 'eprintid' => '14395', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'K.E.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Forster', 'eprintid' => '14395', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'P.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Sykes', 'eprintid' => '14395', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'B.C.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '7', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '18', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'mtDNA mutation rates--no need to panic', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/43/95', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '26', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1715986/', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '7', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '26', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '983-986', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'American Journal of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '18', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1537-6605', 'datestamp_hour' => '12', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '18', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 10, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14395', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '19971000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '12', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH426', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '26', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '26', 'datestamp_day' => '26', 'abstract' => 'Readers of the recent paper by Howell et al. (1996) might be forgiven for thinking that, after all the controversy surrounding the reconstruction of the original mitochondrial gene trees (e.g., see Maddison 1991; Templeton 1993), the field was once again in difficulties because of (a) a serious underestimation of the mutation rate by a factor of almost nine and (b) the resulting misdating of past divergences. We believe that such an interpretation would be unduly pessimistic.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '26', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => '61', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '1997', 'status_changed_hour' => '12', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21353' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407854556', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21353', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bradley', 'eprintid' => '21353', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Daniel G.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'McEvoy', 'eprintid' => '21353', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Brian', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Forster', 'eprintid' => '21353', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Peter', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '1', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The Longue Durée of Genetic Ancestry: Multiple Genetic Marker Systems and Celtic Origins on the Atlantic Facade of Europe', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/53', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '46', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/424697', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '693-702', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'The American Journal of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '1', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0002-9297', 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '1', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 10, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21353', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20041000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => '4', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH426', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '46', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => 'Celtic languages are now spoken only on the Atlantic facade of Europe, mainly in Britain and Ireland, but were spoken more widely in western and central Europe until the collapse of the Roman Empire in the first millennium a.d. It has been common to couple archaeological evidence for the expansion of Iron Age elites in central Europe with the dispersal of these languages and of Celtic ethnicity and to posit a central European “homeland” for the Celtic peoples. More recently, however, archaeologists have questioned this “migrationist” view of Celtic ethnogenesis. The proposition of a central European ancestry should be testable by examining the distribution of genetic markers; however, although Y-chromosome patterns in Atlantic Europe show little evidence of central European influence, there has hitherto been insufficient data to confirm this by use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Here, we present both new mtDNA data from Ireland and a novel analysis of a greatly enlarged European mtDNA database. We show that mtDNA lineages, when analyzed in sufficiently large numbers, display patterns significantly similar to a large fraction of both Y-chromosome and autosomal variation. These multiple genetic marker systems indicate a shared ancestry throughout the Atlantic zone, from northern Iberia to western Scandinavia, that dates back to the end of the last Ice Ag', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '46', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1086/424697', 'volume' => '75', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2004', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21340' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407843153', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21340', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Oppenheimer', 'eprintid' => '21340', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Stephen', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Polynesians: Devolved Taiwanese rice farmers or Wallacean maritime traders with fishing, foraging and horticultural skills? ', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/40', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '34', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => undef, 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => 'Cambridge University Press', 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => 'Examining the Farming/Language Dispersal Hypothesis ', 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'book_section', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '14', 'place_of_pub' => 'Cambridge, UK', 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '11', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '14', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 12, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21340', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => '978-1902937205', 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20021200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '6', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => 'McDonald Institute Monographs', 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'D051', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '34', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '34', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2002', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21346' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407850560', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Davies', 'eprintid' => '21346', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'W.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21346', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Pettitt', 'eprintid' => '21346', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'P. B.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gamble', 'eprintid' => '21346', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'C.S', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '30', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Palaeolithic radiocarbon chronology: quantifying our confidence beyond two half-lives', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/46', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '38', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0305-4403(03)00070-0', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '1685-1693', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Journal of Archaeological Science', 'lastmod_second' => '30', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '03054403', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '30', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 12, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21346', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20031200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '12', 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH426', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '38', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => 'It is now three decades since Waterbolk introduced evaluation criteria to 14C chronology. Despite this, and other subsequent attempts to introduce quality control in the use of 14C data, no systematic procedure has been adopted by the archaeological community. As a result, our databases may be significantly weakened by questionable dates and/or questionable associations between dated samples and the archaeological phenomena they are intended to represent. As the use of chronometric data in general becomes more ambitious, we must pause and assess how reliable these data are. Here, we forward a set of evaluation criteria which take into account archaeological (e.g. associational, stratigraphic) and chronometric (e.g. pre-treatment and measurement) criteria. We intend to use such criteria to evaluate a large 14C dataset we have assembled to investigate Late Glacial settlement in Europe, the Near East and North Africa, supported by the Leverhulme Trust. We suggest that the procedure presented here may at least form the basis of the development of more rigorous, scientific use of 14C dates.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '38', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/S0305-4403(03)00070-0', 'volume' => '30', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2003', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21314' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407415314', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '21314', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21314', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Genetic data and the colonization of Europe: genealogies and founders', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/14', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '42', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => undef, 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '7', 'publisher' => 'Cambridge University Press', 'pagerange' => '139-151', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => 'Archaeogenetics: DNA and the population prehistory of Europe', 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'book_section', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '14', 'place_of_pub' => 'Cambridge, UK', 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '12', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '14', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21314', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => '978-1-902937-08-3', 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20000100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '12', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => 'McDonald Institute Monographs', 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH426', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '42', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '7', 'datestamp_day' => '7', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '42', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2000', 'status_changed_hour' => '12', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14396' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1343305616', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Forster', 'eprintid' => '14396', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'P.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Watson', 'eprintid' => '14396', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'E.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bandelt', 'eprintid' => '14396', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hans-Jurgen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '14396', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '7', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '42', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Mitochondrial footprints of human expansions in Africa. ', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/43/96', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '32', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1715955/', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '7', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '26', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '691-704', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'American Journal of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '42', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1537-6605', 'datestamp_hour' => '12', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '42', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 9, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14396', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '19970900', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '12', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '7', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '32', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '26', 'datestamp_day' => '26', 'abstract' => 'mtDNA studies support an African origin for modern Eurasians, but expansion events within Africa have not previously been investigated. We have therefore analyzed 407 mtDNA control-region sequences from 13 African ethnic groups. A number of sequences (13%) were highly divergent and coalesced on the "mitochondrial Eve" in Africans. The remaining sequences also ultimately coalesced on this sequence but fell into four major clusters whose starlike phylogenies testify to demographic expansions. The oldest of these African expansions dates to approximately 60,000-80,000 years ago. Eurasian sequences are derived from essentially one sequence within this ancient cluster, even though a diverse mitochondrial pool was present in Africa at the time. ', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '32', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => '61', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '1997', 'status_changed_hour' => '12', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '14443' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1343921323', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Yao', 'eprintid' => '14443', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Yong-Gang', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bandelt', 'eprintid' => '14443', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hans-Jurgen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Salas', 'eprintid' => '14443', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Antonio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '14443', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '24', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The brave new era of human genetic testing ', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/44/43', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '28', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1002/bies.20837', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '2', 'publisher' => 'Wiley', 'pagerange' => '1246-1251', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Bioessays', 'lastmod_second' => '56', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1521-1878', 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '24', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 12, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '14443', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20081200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => '11', 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '3494', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH426', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '25', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '2', 'datestamp_day' => '2', 'abstract' => 'The commercialization of ‘big science’ is in full swing, leading to situations in which the ethical principles of academia are beginning to be compromised. This is exemplified by the profitable business of genetic ancestry testing. The goals of this sort of ‘big science’ are not necessarily in any way novel, however. In particular, large genotyping projects have a certain start-up time when their design is frozen in, so that the projects often lag behind the development of genetic knowledge. On the other hand, extremely provisional knowledge about potential disease markers is being rapidly turned into questionable ‘tests’, purporting to determine risk factors for complex disorders, by private companies that are eager to get their share of a profitable market of the future. The flow of money generated by such concerns looks likely to erode traditional research operations and small-scale projects, which risk becoming pebbles on the ‘big science’ landscape', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '25', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1002/bies.20837', 'volume' => '30', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2008', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21368' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1408024513', 'creatorlist' => { '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bandelt', 'eprintid' => '21368', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hans-Jürgen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Achilli', 'eprintid' => '21368', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alessandro', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21368', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Torroni', 'eprintid' => '21368', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Antonio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '21368', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '16', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Harvesting the fruit of the human mtDNA tree', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/68', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '57', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tig.2006.04.001', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '14', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '339-345', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Trends in Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '16', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '01689525', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '16', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 6, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21368', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20060600', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '6', 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH426', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '57', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '14', 'datestamp_day' => '14', 'abstract' => 'Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies have entered a new phase since the blossoming of complete genome analyses. Sequencing complete mtDNAs is more expensive and more labour intensive than restriction analysis or simply sequencing the control region of the molecule. But the efforts are paying off, as the phylogenetic resolution of the mtDNA tree has been greatly improved, and, in turn, phylogeographic interpretations can be given correspondingly greater precision in terms of the timing and direction of human dispersals. Therefore, despite mtDNA being only a fraction of our total genome, the deciphering of its evolution is profoundly changing our perception about how modern humans spread across our planet. Here we illustrate the phylogeographic approach with two case studies: the initial dispersal out of Africa, and the colonization of Europe.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '57', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.tig.2006.04.001', 'volume' => '22', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2006', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '218' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => 'mitochondrial stratigraphy Island Southeast Asia', 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1354192045', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Vizuete-Forster', 'eprintid' => '218', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'Matthieu', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '218', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Forster', 'eprintid' => '218', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'Peter', 'creators_id' => undef }, '9' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Oppenheimer', 'eprintid' => '218', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '9', 'creators_name_given' => 'Stephen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Mormina', 'eprintid' => '218', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Maru', 'creators_id' => undef }, '8' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bulbeck', 'eprintid' => '218', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '8', 'creators_name_given' => 'David', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Clarke', 'eprintid' => '218', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Douglas', 'creators_id' => 'd.j.clarke@hud.ac.uk' }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Soares', 'eprintid' => '218', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Pedro', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hill', 'eprintid' => '218', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Catherine', 'creators_id' => undef }, '10' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '218', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '10', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Blumbach', 'eprintid' => '218', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'Petya B.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '1', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2007', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/218/1/ClarkeMitochondrial.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '24', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'A mitochondrial stratigraphy for Island Southeast Asia ', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/02/18', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '27', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/resolve?id=doi:10.1086/510412', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '12', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '29', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => '29-43', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2008', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'American Journal of Human Genetics', 'lastmod_second' => '40', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1537-6605', 'datestamp_hour' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => undef, 'note' => 'Reproduced by permission of American Journal of Human Genetics, published by The American Society of Human Genetics © 2006 The American Society of Human Genetics.', 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '218', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '11', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20070100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '12', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '15', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'G1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '30', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '22', 'datestamp_day' => '20', 'abstract' => 'Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) was first colonized by modern humans at least 45,000 years ago, but the extent to which the modern inhabitants trace their ancestry to the first settlers is a matter of debate. It is widely held, in both archaeology and linguistics, that they are largely descended from a second wave of dispersal, proto-Austronesianspeaking agriculturalists who originated in China and spread to Taiwan 5,500 years ago. From there, they are thought to have dispersed into ISEA 4,000 years ago, assimilating the indigenous populations. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial DNA diversity in the region is extremely high and includes a large number of indigenous clades. Only a fraction of these date back to the time of first settlement, and the majority appear to mark dispersals in the late-Pleistocene or early-Holocene epoch most likely triggered by postglacial flooding. There are much closer genetic links to Taiwan than to the mainland, but most of these probably predated the mid-Holocene "Out of Taiwan" event as traditionally envisioned. Only 20% at most of modern mitochondrial DNAs in ISEA could be linked to such an event, suggesting that, if an agriculturalist migration did take place, it was demographically minor, at least with regard to the involvement of women.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => undef, 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1086/510412', 'volume' => '80', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => 'pdf supplied by publsher', 'referencetext' => '1. Barker G, Barton H, Beavitt P, Bird M, Daly P, Doherty C, Gilbertson D, Hunt C, Krigbaum J, Lewis H, et al (2002) Prehistoric foragers and farmers in southeast Asia: renewed investigations at Niah Cave, Sarawak. Proc Prehist Soc 68:147– 164 2. De´troit F, Dizon E, Falgue`res C, Hameau S, Ronquillo W, Se´- mah F (2004) Upper Pleistocene Homo sapiens from the Tabon cave (Palawan, The Philippines): description and dating of new discoveries. C R Palevol 3:705–712 3. Voris HK (2000) Maps of Pleistocene sea levels in Southeast Asia: shorelines, river systems and time durations. J Biogeogr 27:1153–1167 4. Bellwood P (1997) Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian archipelago. University of Hawaii Press, Hawaii 5. Oppenheimer S (1998) Eden in the East. Wiedenfeld and Nicholson, London 6. SolheimWG (2006) Archaeology and culture in southeast Asia:unraveling the Nusantao. University of Philippines Press, Quezon City 7. Blust R (1999) Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: some issues in comparative Austronesian linguistics. Symp Ser Inst Linguis Academica Sinica 1:31–94 8. Blust R (1996) Austronesian culture history: the window of language. In: Goodenough WH (ed) Prehistoric settlement of the Pacific. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, pp 28–35 9. Spriggs M (2003) Chronology of the Neolithic transition in Island Southeast Asia and the western Pacific: a view from 2003. Rev Archaeol 24:57–80 10. Schutler R, Marck JC (1975) On the dispersal of Austronesian horticulturalists. Archaeol Phys Anthropol Oceania 10:81– 113 11. Bellwood P (2005) First farmers, the origins of agricultural societies. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford 12. Pawley A (2002) Austronesian dispersal: languages, technologies and people. In: Bellwood P, Renfrew C (eds) Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis. McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, pp 251–273 13. Paz V (2002) Island Southeast Asia—spread or friction zone? In: Bellwood P, Renfrew C (eds) Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis. MacDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, pp 275–285 14. Hunt CO, Rushworth G (2005) Cultivation and human impact at 6000 cal yr B.P. in tropical lowland forest at Niah, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Quaternary Res 64:460–468 15. Anderson A (2005) Crossing the Luzon Strait: archaeological chronology in the Batanes Islands, Philippines and the regional sequence of Neolithic dispersal. J Austronesian Stud 1:25–44 16. Bellwood P, Gillespie R, Thompson GB, Vogel GS, Ardika JW, Datan I (1992) New dates for prehistoric Asian rice. Asian Perspect 31:161–170 17. Szabo´ K, O’Connor S (2004) Migration and complexity in Holocene Island Southeast Asia. World Archaeol 36:621–628 18. Meacham W (1984–5) On the improbability of Austronesian origins in South China. Asian Perspect 26:89–106 19. Wolff J (1995) The position of the Austronesian languages of Taiwan within the Austronesian group. In: Li P, Tsang J-K, Ho D, Tseng C (eds) Austronesian studies relating to Taiwan: Institute of History and Philology Symposium Series 3. Academica Sinica, Taipei 20. Greenhill S, Gray RD (2005) Testing dispersal hypotheses: Pacific settlement, phylogenetic trees and Austronesian languages. In: Mace R, Holden C, Shennan S (eds) The evolution of cultural diversity: phylogenetic approaches. UCL Press, London, pp 31–52 21. Lum JK, Rickards O, Ching C, Cann RL (1994) Polynesian mitochondrial DNAs reveal three deep maternal lineage clusters. Hum Biol 66:567–590 22. Redd AJ, Takezaki N, Sherry ST, McGarvey ST, Sofro ASM, Stoneking M (1995) Evolutionary history of the COII/ tRNA(Lys) intergenic 9-base-pair deletion in human mitochondrial DNAs from the Pacific. Mol Biol Evol 12:604–615 23. Melton T, Peterson R, Redd AJ, Saha N, Sofro ASM, Martinson J, Stoneking M (1995) Polynesian genetic affinities with Southeast Asian populations as identified by mtDNAanalysis. Am J Hum Genet 57:403–414 24. Sykes B, Leiboff A, Low-Beer J, Tetzner S, Richards M (1995) The origins of the Polynesians—an interpretation from mitochondrial lineage analysis. Am J Hum Genet 57:1463–1475 25. Lum JK, Cann RL, Martinson JJ, Jorde LB (1998) Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic relationships among Pacific Island and Asian populations. Am J Hum Genet 63:613–624 26. Pierson MJ, Martinez-Arias R, Holland BR, Gemmell NJ, Hurles ME, Penny D (2006) Deciphering past human population movements in Oceania: provably optimal trees of 127 mtDNA genomes. Mol Biol Evol 23:1966–1975 27. Richards M, Oppenheimer S, Sykes B (1998) mtDNA suggests Polynesian origins in eastern Indonesia. Am J Hum Genet 63: 1234–1236 28. Oppenheimer SJ, Richards M (2001) Polynesian origins: slow boat to Melanesia? Nature 410:166–167 29. Oppenheimer SJ, Richards M (2001) Fast trains, slow boats, and the ancestry of the Polynesian islanders. Sci Prog 84:157– 181 30. Capelli C, Wilson JF, Richards M, Stumpf MPH, Gratrix F, Oppenheimer S, Underhill P, Pascali VL, Ko T-M, Goldstein DB (2001) A predominantly indigenous paternal heritage for the Austronesian-speaking peoples of insular Southeast Asia and Oceania. Am J Hum Genet 68:432–443 31. Kayser M, Brauer S, Weiss G, Underhill PA, Roewer L, Schiefenho ¨vel W, Stoneking M (2000) Melanesian origin of Polynesian Y chromosomes. Curr Biol 10:1237–1246 32. Kayser M, Brauer S, Weiss G, Schiefenho¨vel W, Underhill PA, Stoneking M (2001) Independent histories of human Y chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia. Am J Hum Genet 68:173–190 33. Kayser M, Brauer S, Weiss G, Schiefenho¨vel W, Underhill P, Shen PD, Oefner P, Tommaseo-Ponzetta M, Stoneking M (2003) Reduced Y-chromosome, but not mitochondrial DNA, diversity in human populations from West New Guinea. Am J Hum Genet 72:281–302 34. Su B, Jin L, Underhill P, Martinson J, Milmani S, McGarvey ST, Shriver MD, Chu J, Oefner P, Chakraborty R, et al (2000) Polynesian origins: insights from the Y chromosome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:8225–8228 35. Hill C, Soares P, Mormina M, Macaulay V, Meehan W, Blackburn J, Clarke D, Raja JM, Ismail P, Bulbeck D, et al (2006) Phylogeography and ethnogenesis of aboriginal Southeast Asians. Mol Biol Evol 23:2480–2491 36. Melton T, Clifford S, Martinson J, Batzer M, Stoneking M (1998) Genetic evidence for the proto-Austronesian homeland in Asia: mtDNA and nuclear DNA variation in Taiwanese aboriginal tribes. Am J Hum Genet 63:1807–1823 37. Yao Y-G, Kong Q-P, Bandelt H-J, Kivisild T, Zhang Y-P (2002) Phylogeographic differentiation of mitochondrial DNA in Han Chinese. Am J Hum Genet 70:635–651 38. Yao Y-G, Nie L, Harpending H, Fu Y-X, Yuan Z-G, Zhang Y-P (2002) Genetic relationship of Chinese ethnic populations revealed by mtDNA sequence diversity. Am J Phys Anthropol 118:63–76 39. Yao Y-G, Zhang Y-P (2002) Phylogeographic analysis ofmtDNA variation in four ethnic populations from Yunnan Province: new data and a reappraisal. J Hum Genet 47:311–318 40. Kivisild T, Tolk H-V, Parik J, Wang Y, Papiha SS, Bandelt H-J, Villems R (2002) The emerging limbs and twigs of the east Asian mtDNA tree. Mol Biol Evol 19:1737–1751 (erratum 20: 162) 41. Trejaut JA, Kivisild T, Loo JH, Lee CL, He CL, Hsu CJ, Li ZY, Lin M (2005) Traces of archaic mitochondrial lineages persist in Austronesian speaking Formosan populations. PLoS Biol 3:e247 42. Betty DJ, Chin-Atkins AN, Croft L, Straml M, Esteal S (1996) Multiple independent origins of the COII/tRNALys intergenic 9-bp mtDNA deletion in aboriginal Australians. Am J Hum Genet 58:428–433 43. Comas D, Calafell F, Mateu E, Pe´rez-Lezaun A, Bosch E, Mart? ´nez-Arias R, Clarimon J, Facchini F, Fiori G, Luiselli D, et al (1998) Trading genes along the Silk Road: mtDNA sequences and the origin of central Asian populations. Am J Hum Genet 63:1824–1838 44. Fucharoen G, Fucharoen S, Horai S (2001) Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in Thailand. J Hum Genet 46:115–125 45. Hertzberg M, Mickleson KNP, Serjeanston S, Prior JF, Trent RJ (1989) An Asian-specific 9-bp deletion of mitochondrialDNA is frequently found in Polynesians. Am J Hum Genet 44:510– 540 46. Horai S, Hayasaka K (1990) Intraspecific nucleotide sequence differences in the major noncoding region of human mitochondrial DNA. Am J Hum Genet 46:828–842 47. Horai S, Murayama K, Hayasaka K, Matsubayashi S, Hattori Y, Fucharoen G, Harihara S, Park KS, Omoto K, Pan I-H (1996) mtDNA polymorphism in East Asian populations, with special reference to the peopling of Japan. Am J Hum Genet 59: 579–590 48. Kolman C, Sambuughin N, Bermingham E (1996) Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Mongolian populations and implications for the origin of New World founders. Genetics 142: 1321–1334 49. Lee SD, Shin CH, Kim KB, Lee YS, Lee JB (1997) Sequence variation of mitochondrial DNA control region in Koreans. Forensic Sci Int 87:99–116 50. Nishimaki Y, Sato K, Fang L, Ma M, Hasekura H, Boettcher B (1999) Sequence polymorphism in the HV1 region in Japanese and Chinese. Legal Med 1:238–249 51. Oota H, Kurosaki K, Pookajorn S, Ishida T, Ueda S (2001) Genetic study of the Palaeolithic and Neolithic Southeast Asians. Hum Biol 73:225–231 52. Pfeiffer H, Steighner R, Fisher R, Mo¨rnstad H, Yoon CL, Holland MM (1998) Mitochondrial DNA extraction and typing from isolated dentin—experimental evaluation in a Korean population. Int J Legal Med 111:309–313 53. Prasad BVR, Ricker CE,Watkins WS,Dixon ME, Rao BB, Naidu JM, Jorde LB, Bamshad M (2001) Mitochondrial DNA variation in Nicobarese islanders. Hum Biol 73:715–725 54. Qian YP, Chu Z-T, Dai Q, Wei C-D, Chu YJ, Tajima A, Horai S (2001) Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in Yunnan nationalities in China. J Hum Genet 46:211–220 55. Seo Y, Stradmann-Bellinghausen B, Rittner C, Takahama K, Schneider PM (1998) Sequence polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA control region in Japanese. Forensic Sci Int 97:155– 164 56. Zainuddin Z, Goodwin W (2003) Mitochondrial DNA profiling of modern Malay and Orang Asli populations in peninsular Malaysia. Prog Forensic Genet 10:428–430 57. Tanaka M, Cabrera VM, Gonza´lez AM, Larruga JM, Takeyasu T, Fuku N, Guo L-J, Hirose R, Fujita Y, Kurata M, et al (2004) Mitochondrial genome variation in eastern Asia and the peopling of Japan. Genome Res 14:1832–1850 58. Wen B, Li H, Gao S, Mao X, Gao Y, Li F, Zhang F, He Y, Dong Y, Zhang Y, et al (2004) Genetic structure of Hmong-Mien speaking populations in East Asia as revealed by mtDNA lineages. Mol Biol Evol 22:725–734 59. Wen B, Li H, Lu D, Song X, Zhang F, He Y, Li F, Gao Y, Mao X, Zhang L, et al (2004) Genetic evidence supports demic diffusion of Han culture. Nature 431:302–305 60. Richards M, Macaulay V, Hickey E, Vega E, Sykes B, Guida V, Rengo C, Sellitto D, Cruciani F, Kivisild T, et al (2000) Tracing European founder lineages in the Near Eastern mitochondrial gene pool. Am J Hum Genet 67:1251–1276 61. Andrews RM, Kubacka I, Chinnery PF, Lightowlers R, Turnbull D, Howell N (1999) Reanalysis and revision of the Cambridge Reference Sequence for human mitochondrial DNA. Nat Genet 23:147 62. Bandelt H-J, Quintana-Murci L, Salas A, Macaulay V (2002) The fingerprint of phantom mutations in mitochondrialDNA data. Am J Hum Genet 71:1150–1160 63. Bandelt H-J, Forster P, Sykes BC, Richards MB (1995) Mitochondrial portraits of human populations using median networks. Genetics 141:743–753 64. Forster P, Harding R, Torroni A, Bandelt H-J (1996) Origin and evolution of Native American mtDNA variation: a reappraisal. Am J Hum Genet 59:935–945 65. Saillard J, Forster P, Lynnerup N, Bandelt H-J, Nørby SS (2000) mtDNA variation among Greenland Eskimos: the edge of the Beringian expansion. Am J Hum Genet 67:718–726 66. Kong Q-P, Bandelt H-J, Sun C, Yao Y-G, Salas A, Achilli A, Wang C-Y, Zhong L, Zhu C-L, Wu S-F, et al (2006) Updating the East Asian mtDNA phylogeny: a prerequisite for the identification of pathogenic mutations.HumMol Genet 15:2076– 2086 67. Torroni A, Bandelt H-J, Macaulay V, Richards M, Cruciani F, Rengo C, Martinez-Cabrera V, Villems R, Kivisild T, Metspalu E, et al (2001) A signal, from human mtDNA, of post-glacial recolonization in Europe. Am J Hum Genet 69:844–852 68. Richards MB, Macaulay VA, Torroni A, Bandelt H-J (2002) In search of geographical patterns in European mitochondrial DNA. Am J Hum Genet 71:1168–1174 69. Schneider S, Roessli D, Excoffier L (2000) Arlequin: a software for population genetics data analysis: version 2.000. Genetics and Biometry Laboratory, Department of Anthropology, University of Geneva, Geneva 70. Trivedi R, Sitalaximi T, Banerjee J, Singh A, Sircar PK, Kashyap VK (2006) Molecular insights into the origins of the Shompen, a declining population of the Nicobar archipelago. J Hum Genet 51:217–226 71. Kivisild T, Shen P, Wall DP, Do B, Sung R, Davis K, Passarino G, Underhill PA, Scharfe C, Torroni A, et al (2006) The role of selection in the evolution of human mitochondrial genomes. Genetics 172:373–387 72. Friedlaender J, Schurr T, Gentz F, Koki G, Friedlaender F, Horvat G, Babb P, Cerchio S, Kaestle F, Schanfield M, et al (2005) Expanding Southwest Pacific mitochondrial haplogroups P and Q. Mol Biol Evol 22:1506–1517 73. Macaulay V, Hill C, Achilli A, Rengo C, Clarke D, MeehanW, Blackburn J, Semino O, Scozzari R, Cruciani F, et al (2005) Single, rapid coastal settlement of Asia revealed by analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes. Science 308:1034–1036 74. Hurles M (2002) Can the hypothesis of language/agriculture co-dispersal be tested with archaeogenetics? In: Bellwood P, Renfrew C (eds) Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis. MacDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, pp 299–309 75. Hurles ME, Nicholson J, Bosch E, Renfrew C, Sykes BC, Jobling MA (2002) Y chromosomal evidence for the origins of Oceanic- speaking peoples. Genetics 160:289–303 76. Reesink G (2005) West Papuan languages: roots and development. In: Pawley A, Attenborough R, Golson G, Hide R (eds) Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. The Australian National University, Canberra, pp 185–215 77. Terrell JE, Welsch RL (1997) Lapita and the temporal geography of prehistory. Antiquity 71:548–572 78. De´troit F (2006) Homo sapiens in Southeast Asian archipelagos: the Holocene fossil evidence with special reference to funerary practises in East Java. In: Simanjuntak T, Pojoh IHE, Hisyam M (eds) Austronesian diaspora and the ethnogeneses of the people in Indonesian Archipelago. LIPI Press, Jakarta 79. Bird MI, Taylor D, Hunt C (2005) Palaeoenvironments of insular Southeast Asia during the last glacial period: a savanna corridor in Sundaland? Quaternary Sci Rev 24:2228–2242 80. Solheim WG (1994) South-east Asia and Korea from the beginnings of food production to the first states. In: De Laet SJ (ed) The history of humanity. Vol I. Routledge, London, pp 468–481', 'date_year' => '2007', 'status_changed_hour' => '18', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21313' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407409938', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Colson', 'eprintid' => '21313', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'I. B.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21313', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '38', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Preliminary report on DNA analysis', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/13', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '24', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => undef, 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '7', 'publisher' => 'CRC Press', 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => 'The Excavation Near Wijnaldum', 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'book_section', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '38', 'place_of_pub' => 'Rotterdam, Netherlands', 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '11', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '38', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21313', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => '9789054104889', 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '19990100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => 'Reports on Friesland in Roman and Medieval Times', 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH426', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '24', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '7', 'datestamp_day' => '7', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '24', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => '1', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '1999', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21366' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1408023899', 'creatorlist' => { '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21366', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Davies', 'eprintid' => '21366', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'William', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hazelwood', 'eprintid' => '21366', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Lee', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gamble', 'eprintid' => '21366', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Clive', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Pettitt', 'eprintid' => '21366', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Paul', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/21366/1/RichardsArchout.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '53', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The Archaeological and Genetic Foundations of the European Population during the Late Glacial: Implications for ‘Agricultural Thinking’', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/66', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '45', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0959774305000107', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '14', 'publisher' => 'Cambridge University Press', 'pagerange' => '193', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Cambridge Archaeological Journal', 'lastmod_second' => '31', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0959-7743', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '53', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 10, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21366', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20051000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '02', 'rev_number' => '12', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'CC', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '43', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '14', 'datestamp_day' => '14', 'abstract' => 'This article presents the initial results from the S2AGES data base of calibrated radiocarbon estimates from western Europe in the period 25,000–10,000 years ago. Our aim is to present a population history of this sub-continental region by providing a chronologically-secure framework for the interpretation of data from genetics and archaeology. In particular, we define five population events in this period, using dates-as-data, and examine the implications for the archaeology of Late Glacial colonization. We contrast this detailed regional approach to the larger project which we call the cognitive origins synthesis that includes historical linguistics in the reconstruction of population history. We conclude that only archaeology can currently provide the framework for population history and the evaluation of genetic data. Finally, if progress is to be made in the new interdisciplinary field of population history then both disciplines need to refrain from inappropriate agricultural thinking that fosters distorting models of European prehistory, and they should also pay less, if any, attention to historical linguistics', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '43', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1017/S0959774305000107', 'volume' => '15', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2005', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '17726' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1370358579', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bandelt', 'eprintid' => '17726', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hans-Jürgen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '17726', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Oppenheimer', 'eprintid' => '17726', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Stephen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kivisild', 'eprintid' => '17726', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Toomas', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '6', 'editors_name_honourific' => '', 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2013', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '58', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'A Model for the Dispersal of Modern Humans out of Africa', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => '', 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/77/26', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '24', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-31789-9_10', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '6', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '4', 'publisher' => 'Springer Verlag', 'pagerange' => '225-265', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2013', 'book_title' => 'Human Mitochondrial DNA and the Evolution of Homo sapiens', 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'book_section', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '58', 'place_of_pub' => 'Berlin, Germany', 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '58', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '17726', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => 'Hans-Jurgen', 'isbn' => '978-3-540-31788-3 ', 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => 'Bandelt', 'lastmod_month' => '6', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20060100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'HT', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '24', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '4', 'datestamp_day' => '4', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '24', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1007/3-540-31789-9_10', 'volume' => '18', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2006', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21355' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407855255', 'creatorlist' => { '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Salas', 'eprintid' => '21355', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Antonio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '21355', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Carracedo', 'eprintid' => '21355', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Ángel', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21355', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hill', 'eprintid' => '21355', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Catherine', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '12', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The archaeogenetics of the Bantu dispersals', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/13/55', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '59', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => undef, 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '12', 'publisher' => 'Cambridge University Press', 'pagerange' => '75-88', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => 'Traces of Ancestry: Studies in honour of Colin Renfrew', 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'book_section', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '12', 'place_of_pub' => 'Cambridge, UK', 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '12', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 12, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21355', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => '978-1902937250', 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '8', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20041200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => 'McDonald Institute Monographs', 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QH426', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '59', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '59', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2004', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21316' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1407416927', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Macaulay', 'eprintid' => '21316', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vincent', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bandelt', 'eprintid' => '21316', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hans-Jürgen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richards', 'eprintid' => '21316', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Martin B.', 'creators_id' => 'm.b.richards@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '25', 'ex