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Portrait of Professor Rob Brown Professor Rob Brown

d.r.brown@hud.ac.uk | 01484 473397



Biography

I graduated from the University of Birmingham with BSc(Hons) Chemistry in 1973, and the University of Leicester with a PhD in physical chemistry in 1977. I worked in industry for two years and then held teaching posts at Illinois State University and the University of Houston. I returned to the UK in 1987 and was Senior Lecturer/Principal Lecturer at Leeds Polytechnic before joining the University of Huddersfield in 1997.

I teach in areas across physical chemistry, and on the Science Foundation Year. My research interests are in catalysis, solid acids, solid bases and porous solids, biofuels, adsorption and calorimetry.

I am the Director of the Materials and Catalysis Research Centre in the Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences. Enquiries about the activities of the Centre and opportunities in it are very welcome. I have a number of administrative responsibilities, mainly to do with research and research student training, in the Department, in the School and more widely across the University.

Research & Scholarship

Our main interests are in solid acid catalysts, particularly as replacements for homogeneous acid catalysts in liquid phase processes. We have published over sixty papers and review articles in this area.

Many liquid phase processes in fine chemical synthesis currently use homogeneous catalysts. While very effective, these catalysts are often difficult to separate from the reaction products and the separation processes result in a great deal of effluent. The use of solid catalysts in these reactions reduces this waste and reduces the environmental impact of the processes. The challenge is to design solid catalysts with activities high enough to justify their use as replacements for homogeneous catalysts.

We are working on solid acid catalysts as replacements for homogeneous acid catalysts AlCl3, H2SO4 etc. in Friedel-Crafts and other acid-catalysed reactions. Our interests are in: modified clay mineral catalysts, functionalised mesoporous molecular sieve materials, supported heteropolyacids, non-rigid acid catalysts (polymer-supported acids) and others.

Our interest is in the structure/function relationship in these materials, since improved understanding will lead to improved catalyst design. Since 1997 we have given increasing emphasis to the use of calorimetric adsorption techniques for the characterisation of catalytic materials and adsorbents in ways that can be used to predict their performance and so inform further development. Techniques in which probe molecules are adsorbed from the gas phase on dry catalyst, and from the liquid phase on solvated catalysts (isothermal titration calorimetry) have been developed and are now used routinely in our labs.

Over the past five years we have added calorimetric adsorption techniques based on flow systems. These allow us to study the kinetics as well as the thermodynamics of adsorption. They also permit the study of competitive adsorption so that catalysts can be studied under realistic conditions. The levels of detail available from these techniques on both the thermodynamics and the kinetics of catalyst adsorption processes are unique in the UK. We use the techniques to study materials prepared in our own labs as well as catalysts and adsorbents prepared by others, through an increasing number of collaborative projects with academic and industrial groups.

We welcome enquiries from those interested in our work.

Publications and Other Research Outputs

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Materials with Cs content in the range x=2.0–2.7 were composed of dispersed crystallites with surface areas 100 m2 g?1 and high Brönsted acid strengths [], similar to the parent heteropolyacid. The number of accessible surface acid sites probed by -pinene isomerization correlated well with those determined by NH3 adsorption calorimetry and surface area measurements. CsxH3?xPW12O40 were active toward the esterification of palmitic acid and transesterification of tributyrin, important steps in fatty acid and ester processing for biodiesel synthesis. Optimum performance occurs for Cs loadings of x=2.0–2.3, correlating with the accessible surface acid site density. These catalysts were recoverable with no leaching of soluble HPW. ', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '41', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.jcat.2007.02.016', 'volume' => '248', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => ' S.J. Clark, L. Wagner, M.D. Schrock and P.G. Pinnaar, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 61 (1984), p. 1632. [2] G. Huber, S. Iborra and A.V. Corma, Chem. Rev. 106 (2006), p. 4044. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (57) [3] S. Romano, Vegetable Oils Fuels, in: Proc. Int. Conf. on Plant and Vegetable Oils as Fuels, ASAE, MI, USA, 1982, p. 106. [4] F. Ma and M. Hanna, Bioresour. Technol. 70 (1999), p. 1. Article | PDF (329 K) | Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (380) [5] B. Freedman, E.H. Pryde and T.L. Mounts, J. Am. 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Chem. 72 (2000), p. 1305. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (39) Corresponding author. Fax: +44 1904 432516', 'date_year' => '2007', 'status_changed_hour' => '10', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '12984' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1350301351', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Shiju', 'eprintid' => '12984', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'N. R.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Adrijanto', 'eprintid' => '12984', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'E.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Cooke', 'eprintid' => '12984', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'D. J.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Nair', 'eprintid' => '12984', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'G. S.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kozhevnikov', 'eprintid' => '12984', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'I. V.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Alsalme', 'eprintid' => '12984', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '12984', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '3', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '33', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Glycerol utilization: solvent-free acetalisation over niobia catalysts', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/29/84', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '44', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2cy00335j', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '3', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '15', 'publisher' => 'RSC', 'pagerange' => '1173-1179', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Catalysis Science & Technology', 'lastmod_second' => '18', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '2044-4753', 'datestamp_hour' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '33', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 6, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '12984', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '10', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20120600', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => '6', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '3494', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '41', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '6', 'datestamp_day' => '6', 'abstract' => 'With increasing biodiesel production, availability of glycerol is expected to increase. New processes are needed for converting this surplus glycerol to value-added chemicals. In this work, we used niobia catalysts for the liquid-phase acetalisation of glycerol without using any solvent. High conversions were achieved (80%), though water was present in the reaction system. The calcination temperature changed the strength as well as the nature of acidity of the samples. Samples with higher Brønsted acid strength exhibited higher catalytic performance. The results show that niobia is a water tolerant, reusable catalyst for glycerol acetalisation. 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'creators_name_given' => 'David .R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Ikhlaq', 'eprintid' => '13398', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Amir', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kasprzyk-Hordern', 'eprintid' => '13398', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Barbara', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '4', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '8', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Mechanisms of catalytic ozonation on alumina and zeolites in water: formation of hydroxyl radicals', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/33/98', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '45', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2012.04.015', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '4', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '15', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '94-106', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Applied Catalysis B: Environmental', 'lastmod_second' => '30', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '09263373', 'datestamp_hour' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '8', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 7, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '13398', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '10', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20120700', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '3494', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'David .R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QD', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '7', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '26', 'datestamp_day' => '26', 'abstract' => 'The mechanisms of catalytic ozonation of coumarin on ZSM-5 zeolites and ?-alumina in water have been studied. Coumarin is known to react with hydroxyl radicals to produce 7-hydroxycoumarin and is used to differentiate between radical and non-radical mechanisms. The effect of the radical scavenger (t-butanol) and phosphates has also been used to study the possible involvement of radicals and the role of surface hydroxyl groups of catalysts. Four ZSM-5 zeolites with varying silica to alumina ratios and with both hydrogen and sodium counter ions were used in the study (Z1000H:SiO2/Al2O3 = 1000, Z900Na:SiO2/Al2O3 = 900, Z25H:SiO2/Al2O3 = 25 and Z25Na:SiO2/Al2O3 = 25). The results show that both alumina and the zeolites catalyse the removal of coumarin from aqueous solution by ozonation, but that alumina is generally more active than zeolites and it catalyses a radical pathway involving hydroxyl radicals, showing its highest activity at pH close to the point of zero charge where surface hydroxyl groups are most susceptible to conversion of ozone to hydroxyl radicals. The zeolites operate through a simple adsorption process, leading to a direct reaction between adsorbed coumarin and adsorbed ozone. Activity depends to an extent on the silica to alumina ratio of the zeolite but is insensitive to the nature of the zeolite counter ion. 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'datestamp_month' => '10', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '13', 'publisher' => 'International Association of Computer Science and Information Technoloyg (IACSIT)', 'pagerange' => '41-46', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2011', 'book_title' => 'Proceedings of 2011 International Conference on Environmental, Biomedical and Biotechnology (IPCBEE)', 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'book_section', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '10', 'place_of_pub' => 'Singapore', 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '10', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 8, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '11712', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2011', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => '978-981-08-9168-8', 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '10', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20110800', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'comp', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '6', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '13', 'datestamp_day' => '13', 'abstract' => 'This study presents an experimental investigation into the effects of using bio-diesel blends on diesel engine performance and its emissions. The bio-diesel fuels were produced from vegetable oils using the transesterification process with low molecular weight alcohols and sodium hydroxide then tested on a steady state engine test rig using a Euro 4 four cylinder Compression Ignition (CI) engine. Production optimization was achieved by changing the variables which included methanol/oil molar ratio, NaOH catalyst concentration, reaction time, reaction temperature, and rate of mixing to maximize bio-diesel yield. The technique used was the response surface methodology. In addition, a second-order model was developed to predict the bio-diesel yield if the production criteria is known. The model was validated using additional experimental testing.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '6', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => '16', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2011', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '15580' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1373037001', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '15580', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Ikhlaq', 'eprintid' => '15580', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kasprzyk-Hordern', 'eprintid' => '15580', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Barbara', 'creators_id' => 'b.kasprzyk-hordern@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '10', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '47', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Mechanisms of catalytic ozonation: An investigation into superoxide ion radical and hydrogen peroxide formation during catalytic ozonation on alumina and zeolites in water', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/55/80', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '11', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2012.09.038', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '10', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '5', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '437-449', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Applied Catalysis B: Environmental', 'lastmod_second' => '1', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0926-3373', 'datestamp_hour' => '12', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '47', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '15580', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20130100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '7', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QD', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '8', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '15', 'datestamp_day' => '15', 'abstract' => 'The mechanisms of catalytic ozonation of coumarin on ZSM-5 zeolites and ?-alumina in water have been studied. Coumarin is known to react with hydroxyl radicals to produce 7-hydroxycoumarin and is used to differentiate between radical and non-radical mechanisms. The effect of the radical scavenger (t-butanol) and phosphates has also been used to study the possible involvement of radicals and the role of surface hydroxyl groups of catalysts. Four ZSM-5 zeolites with varying silica to alumina ratios and with both hydrogen and sodium counter ions were used in the study (Z1000H:SiO2/Al2O3 = 1000, Z900Na:SiO2/Al2O3 = 900, Z25H:SiO2/Al2O3 = 25 and Z25Na:SiO2/Al2O3 = 25). The results show that both alumina and the zeolites catalyse the removal of coumarin from aqueous solution by ozonation, but that alumina is generally more active than zeolites and it catalyses a radical pathway involving hydroxyl radicals, showing its highest activity at pH close to the point of zero charge where surface hydroxyl groups are most susceptible to conversion of ozone to hydroxyl radicals. The zeolites operate through a simple adsorption process, leading to a direct reaction between adsorbed coumarin and adsorbed ozone. Activity depends to an extent on the silica to alumina ratio of the zeolite but is insensitive to the nature of the zeolite counter ion. ', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '3494', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '8', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1016/j.apcatb.2012.09.038', 'volume' => '129', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2013', 'status_changed_hour' => '12', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '2234' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => undef, 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '2234', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Plant', 'eprintid' => '2234', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'S.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Edwards', 'eprintid' => '2234', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'H.G.M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Dale', 'eprintid' => '2234', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'J.A.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '10', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2008', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '52', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Raman spectroscopic studies of acid dissociation in sulfonated polystyrene resins', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/22/34', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '40', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-2860(01)00515-4', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '10', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '17', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '111-118', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2008', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Journal of Molecular Structure', 'lastmod_second' => '43', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '00222860', 'datestamp_hour' => '8', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '52', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => undef, 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => undef, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '2234', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2008', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '10', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20010000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '1-3', 'rev_number' => '11', 'edit_lock_user' => undef, 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '52', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '16', 'datestamp_day' => '16', 'abstract' => 'FT-Raman spectra of sulfonated polystyrene resins with varying levels of sulfonation from 9–97% have been recorded. Molecular markers of –SO3H and –SO3? moieties have been proposed and used to determine quantitatively the degree of dissociation of the acids as a function of total sulfonic acid and sulfonate concentrations. Comparison with the ethanesulfonic acid/water system has been made and it is concluded that the low-sulfonation and high-sulfonation resins closely resemble this molecular acid/water system, but that intermediate sulfonation specimens are dissociated some 18% less than the corresponding ethanesulfonic acid/water analogues. This is ascribed to the presence of hydrogen-bonded acid groups with water in the gel region of the resins which had been suggested in previous infrared spectroscopic measurements', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '52', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/S0022-2860(01)00515-4', 'volume' => '595', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2001', 'status_changed_hour' => '8', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '17911' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1373037146', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Fieldhouse', 'eprintid' => '17911', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'John D.', 'creators_id' => 'j.d.fieldhouse@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Abuhabaya', 'eprintid' => '17911', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Abdullah ', 'creators_id' => 'a.abuhabaya@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '17911', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'David .R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '7', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2013', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '50', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The optimization of biodiesel production by using response surface methodology and its effect on compression ignition engine', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/79/11', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '26', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2013.03.025', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '7', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '5', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '57-62', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2013', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Fuel Processing Technology', 'lastmod_second' => '50', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0378-3820', 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '50', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 9, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '17911', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20130900', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '7', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'David .R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'comp', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'TJ', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '26', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '5', 'datestamp_day' => '5', 'abstract' => 'Bio-fuel production provides an alternative non-fossil fuel without the need to redesign current engine technology. This study presents an experimental investigation into the effects of using biodiesel blends on diesel engine performance and its emissions. The biodiesel fuels were produced from sunflower oil using the transesterification process with low molecular weight alcohols and sodium hydroxide then tested on a steady state engine test rig using a Euro 4 four cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine. This study also shows how by blending biodiesel with diesel fuel at intervals of B5, B10, B15, and B20 can decrease harmful gas emissions significantly while maintaining similar performance output and efficiency. Production optimization was achieved by changing the variables which included methanol/oil molar ratio, NaOH catalyst concentration, reaction time, reaction temperature, and the rate of mixing to maximize biodiesel yield. The technique used was the response surface methodology (RSM). In addition, a second-order model was developed to predict the biodiesel yield if the production criteria is known. The model was validated using additional experimental testing. It was determined that the catalyst concentration and molar ratio of methanol to sunflower oil were the most influential variables affecting percentage conversion to fuel and percentage initial absorbance.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '116', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '26', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2013.03.025', 'volume' => '113', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2013', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '11715' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1318518988', 'creatorlist' => { '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Rothenberg', 'eprintid' => '11715', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Gadi', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Alberts', 'eprintid' => '11715', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Albert H.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '11715', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'David .R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Shiju', 'eprintid' => '11715', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'N. 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'note' => 'This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Applied Catalysis A: General. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. 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The results show that microwave calcination results in enhanced crystallinity of the resultant oxides and spinel phase formed at high temperature, compared to conventional calcination. In addition, an additional phase, Cu2MgO3, is detected following microwave calcination, at a bulk temperature very much lower than previously reported for copper-containing hydrotalcite. The concentrations and strengths of surface basic sites are significantly higher for materials calcined using microwaves than using conventional heating. Catalytic activities in the base-catalysed transesterification of glyceryl tributyrate with methanol are also higher. We suggest that microwave calcination under feedback-control, while allowing control of material bulk temperature during calcination and preventing major temperature excursions, may allow quite large but highly localised temperature variation, for instance as water is released during dehydroxylation, which are beneficial in developing surface defects and surface basicity. 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P.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '2013', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '9', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2008', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '37', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Sulfonated poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) ion-exchange resins: acidities and catalytic activities in aqueous reactions', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/20/13', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '48', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1381-1169(01)00471-X', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '9', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '17', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '439-445', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2008', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Journal of Molecular Catalysis A Chemical', 'lastmod_second' => '35', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1381-1169', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '37', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => undef, 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 12, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '2013', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2008', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '10', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20011200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '1-2', 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => undef, 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QD', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '30', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '25', 'datestamp_day' => '25', 'abstract' => 'A series of sulfonated poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) ion-exchange resins with varying levels of sulfonation has been prepared. The acidities of these resins in the hydrated form have been characterised microcalorimetrically by titration with aqueous NaOH solution. The resultant molar enthalpies of neutralisation have been compared with acid strengths of the same resins measured in the absence of water by ammonia adsorption microcalorimetry, and catalytic activities in two test reactions, the dehydration of 1-hexanol and the hydration of propene. The molar enthalpies of neutralisation of hydrated resins with aqueous NaOH have been shown to increase with increasing sulfonation level. This has been explained in terms of an increasing concentration of sulfonic acid in the internal gel solution, generating stronger acid sites and higher specific catalytic activities. A similar trend of increasing acid strengths has been observed in anhydrous resins, but this has been explained in terms of structural features such as di-substitution of sulfonic acid groups on styrene units, giving rise to intrinsically stronger acid sites. 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Its physico-chemical properties have been compared with those of sulfonated MCM-41 and SBA-15. A higher catalytic activity for the functionalised MCM-48 in the alkylation of toluene with benzyl alcohol suggests that MCM-48 behaves as a better sulfonic acid support than MCM-41 and SBA-15. Ammonia adsorption calorimetric data shows that acid site strengths on the three supports are similar so the higher activity of MCM-48 sulfonic acid is probably due to better accessibility of its acid sites in the three-dimensional pore structure. 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Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Applied Catalysis B: Environmental Volumes 115–116, 5 April 2012, Pages 261–268 doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2011.12.040', 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 4, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '12664', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '5', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20120400', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QD', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '36', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '11', 'datestamp_day' => '11', 'abstract' => 'New sulphonic acid catalysts supported on hypercrosslinked polystyrene have been studied in the esterification of oleic acid with methanol and in the rearrangement of ?-pinene to camphene and limonenes. The catalysts have been characterised in terms of specific surface areas and porosities, affinities for water and for cylcohexane vapours, and both concentrations and strengths of acid sites. They have been compared with conventional macroporous polystyrene sulphonic acids (Amberlysts 15 and 35) and SAC-13, a composite between Nafion and silica. The results show that the hypercrosslinked polystyrene sulphonic acids, despite exhibiting relatively low concentrations of acid sites and acid site strengths below those of Amberlysts 15 and 35, are very much more catalytically active than conventional resins in reactions such as the esterification in which high acid site strengths are not required. It is thought that this is due to the highly accessible acid sites throughout the catalyst particles. Reusability studies are reported and it appears that the temperature at which the catalyst is used is important in controlling and minimising catalyst deactivation.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '3494', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '36', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2011.12.040', 'volume' => '115-6', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2012', 'status_changed_hour' => '10', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '4683' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => undef, 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'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2009', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '26', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Optimising Catalytic Properties of Supported Sulfonic Acid Catalysts', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/46/83', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '46', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2009.05.032', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '6', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '23', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '95-100', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2009', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Applied Catalysis A General', 'lastmod_second' => '55', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0926-860X', 'datestamp_hour' => '11', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '26', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => undef, 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 7, 'rights' => undef, 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=> undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '53', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '11', 'datestamp_day' => '11', 'abstract' => 'Siliceous mesoporous molecular sieves (SBA-15) have been functionalised with propylsulfonic acid groups by both co-condensing 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane with the solid at the synthesis (sol–gel) stage and by grafting the same compound to pre-prepared SBA-15, followed, in both cases, by oxidation to sulfonic acid. The acidic and catalytic properties of the supported sulfonic acids prepared in the two ways have been compared, using ammonia adsorption calorimetry and the benzylation reaction between benzyl alcohol and toluene. Using a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and other analytical techniques, the level of functionalisation and the extent of subsequent oxidation of tethered thiol to sulfonic acid, both in the bulk and close to the surface of SBA-15 particles, have been assessed. The research shows that the co-condensing route leads to higher levels of functionalisation than the grafting route. The extent of oxidation of added thiol to acid groups is similar using the two routes, about 70% near the surface and only 50% in the bulk. Comparison is made with polymer supported sulfonic acid catalysts, Amberlysts 15 and 35, and Nafion. Nafion shows the highest acid strength and the highest specific catalytic activity of all materials studied. Amongst the other materials, average acid strengths are broadly similar but there appears to be a relationship between the concentration of acid sites on the catalysts and their specific activity in the benzylation reaction. A model is proposed to explain this, in which clustering of sulfonic acid groups, even to a small extent, leads to disproportionately enhanced catalytic activity.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '3494', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '53', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.apcata.2009.05.032', 'volume' => '364', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2009', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '2238' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => undef, 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Garcia', 'eprintid' => '2238', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Jose I.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '2238', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Fraile', 'eprintid' => '2238', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'José M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Vispe', 'eprintid' => '2238', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Eugenio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Mayoral', 'eprintid' => '2238', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Jose A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Naderi', 'eprintid' => '2238', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'M.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '10', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2008', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '19', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Is MCM-41 really advantageous over amorphous silica? The case of grafted titanium epoxidation catalysts', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/22/38', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '42', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b103057b', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '10', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '17', 'publisher' => 'Royal Society of Chemistry', 'pagerange' => '1510-1511', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2008', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Chemical Communications', 'lastmod_second' => '42', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1364-548X', 'datestamp_hour' => '9', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '19', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => undef, 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => undef, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '2238', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2008', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '10', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20010000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '16', 'rev_number' => '12', 'edit_lock_user' => undef, 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '28', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '16', 'datestamp_day' => '16', 'abstract' => 'MCM-41 can be used in the same way as amorphous silica for the preparation of supported titanium catalysts; MCM-41 does not show clear advantages over silica in epoxidation reactions with either TBHP or H2O2; only in one case is a positive effect observed and this involves the recycled catalyst with H2O2', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '28', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1039/b103057b', 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2001', 'status_changed_hour' => '9', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '8651' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => 'Hydrotalcite; catalysis; solid base; entrained sodium; adsorption calorimetry; layered double hydroxide; LDH', 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1290601269', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '8651', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Cross', 'eprintid' => '8651', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hannah E.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '9', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2010', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '27', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Entrained Sodium in Mixed Metal Oxide Catalysts Derived from Layered Double Hydroxides', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/86/51', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '42', 'refereed' => 'FALSE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catcom.2010.09.008', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '9', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '11', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '243-245', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2010', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Catalysis Communications', 'lastmod_second' => '7', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1566-7367', 'datestamp_hour' => '11', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '27', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 11, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '8651', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2010', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '11', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20101100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => '3', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QD', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '18', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '22', 'datestamp_day' => '22', 'abstract' => 'The layered double hydroxide Mg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16.4H2O has been prepared using aqueous sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate. Samples have been washed to varying degrees and then calcined to form the mixed oxides. Entrained sodium concentrations have been measured in all samples and compared with catalytic activities in a base-catalysed transesterification reaction, and with CO2 adsorption calorimetric data. The same materials have been prepared using routes not involving alkali metal compounds and compared in the same way. The results show that entrained sodium in these materials is difficult to remove, that it is associated with increased basicity and catalytic activity, and that, when incorporated at levels as high as 2% w/w, significant leaching can occur into reaction mixture. It seems likely that the sodium is entrained in the layered double hydroxide as sodium nitrate. ', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '3483', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '18', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.catcom.2010.09.008', 'volume' => '12', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2010', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '194' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => 'solid-acid catalysts isopropylamine', 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => undef, 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Fesenko', 'eprintid' => '194', 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undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '18', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '11', 'edit_lock_user' => undef, 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'mcrc', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QD', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '29', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '22', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => 'A new and potentially valuable approach to the study of the acidity and reactivity of the surfaces of solid acid materials is described. The technique uses a combination of constant rate thermal analysis (CRTA) with the rate jump technique (CRTA-RJ) for temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and reaction (TPRx). CRTA, where the sample temperature is changed to force the rate of reaction to remain constant through a process, offers a number of advantages over conventional linear heating thermal methods by minimizing temperature and concentration gradients in the sample and reducing the effects of diffusion. CRTA and CRTA-RJ were applied to the TPD and TPRx of isopropylamine from NaY zeolite and its acidic form, HY. Activation energies of both the physical desorption of the amine and the surface-catalyzed Hoffman elimination reaction were calculated as a function of surface coverage and the advantages and limitations of the techniques are discussed. Comparisons are made with analogous TPD experiments using conventional linear heating methods. It is concluded that the TPRx approach reflects the reactivity of strong acidic catalytic sites directly and so usefully complements base adsorption microcalorimetry in characterizing acid solid catalysts. ', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '12', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => undef, 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1021/jp004587f', 'volume' => '105', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => '(1) Gorte, R. J. Catal. Lett. 1999, 62, 1. (2) Selli, E.; Forni, L. Micropor. Mesopor. Mat. 1999, 31, 129. (3) Umansky, B. S.; Hall, W. K. J. Catal. 1990, 124, 97. (4) Freude D.; Ernst, H.; Mildner, T.; Pfeifer, H.; Wolf, I. Stud. Surf. Sci. Catal. 1994. 90, 105. (5) Cardona-Martinez, N.; Dumesic, J. A. J. Catal. 1990, 125, 427. (6) Karge, H. G.; Dondur V.; Weitkamp J. J. Phys. Chem. 1991, 95, 283 (7) Farneth, W. E.; Gorte, R. J. Chem. ReV. 1995, 95, 615. (8) Fleischer, U.; Kutzelnigg, W.; Bleiber, A.; Sauer, J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1993, 115, 7833. (9) Parrillo, D. J.; Gorte, R. J. J. Phys. Chem. 1993, 97, 8786. (10) Parrillo, D. J.; Gorte, R. J. Catal. Lett. 1992, 16, 17. (11) Gorte, R. J. White, D. Top. Catal. 1997, 4, 57. (12) Parrillo, D. J.; Adamo, AT.; Kokotailo, G. T.; Gorte, RJ. Appl. Catal. 1990, 67, 107. (13) Yiu, H. H. P.; Brown, D. R.; Barnes, P. A. Catal. Lett. 1999, 59, 207. (14) Pakhiwala, A. G.; Gorte, R. J. Catal. Lett. 1999, 57, 19. (15) GricusKofke, T. J.; Gorte, R. J.; Kokotailo, G. T. J. Catal. 1989, 54, 265. (16) Malek, J.; Criado, J. M. Thermochim. Acta. 1992, 208, 275. (17) Palermo, A.; Aldao, C. M. Thermochim. Acta. 1998, 31, 177. (18) Salvador, F.; Merchan, M. D. J. Therm. Anal. 1997, 51, 383. (19) Redhead, P. A. Vacuum. 1962, 12, 203. (20) Parrillo, D. J.; Lee, C.; Gorte, R. J.; White, D.; Farneth, W. E. J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99, 8745. (21) Barnes, P. A.; Parkes, G. M. B.; Charsley, E. L. Anal. Chem. 1994, 66, 2226. (22) Rouquerol, J. Thermochim. Acta. 1997, 300, 247. (23) Criado, J. M.; Ortega, A.; Gotor, F. Thermochim. Acta. 1990, 157, 171. (24) Kissinger, H. E. Anal. Chem. 1957, 29, 1702. (25) Rouquerol, J. Thermochim. Acta. 1989, 144, 209. (26) Malek, J.; Sestak, J.; Rouquerol, F.; Rouquerol, J.; Criado, J. M.; Ortega, A. J. J. Therm. Anal. 1992, 38, 71. (27) Reading, M.; Dollimore, D.; Rouquerol, J.; Rouquerol, F. J. Therm. Anal. 1984, 29, 775. (28) Reading, M.; Dollimore, D. Thermochim. Acta. 1994, 249, 117. (29) Tierman, M. J.; Barnes, P. A.; Parkes, G. M. B. J. Phys. Chem. B. 1999, 103, 338. (30) Torralvo, M. J.; Grillet, Y.; Rouquerol, F.; Rouquerol, J. J. J. Therm. Anal. 1994, 41, 1529. (31) Koga, N.; Criado, J. M. Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 1998, 30, 737. (32) Tierman, M. J.; Barnes, P. A.; Parkes, G. M. B. J. Phys. Chem. B. 1999, 103, 6944. (33) Barnes, P. A.; Parkes, G. M. B.; Brown, D. R.; Charsley, E. L. Thermochim. Acta. 1995, 268/270, 665. (34) Biaglow, A. I.; Parrillo, D. J.; Kokotailo, G. T.; Gorte, R. J. J. Catal. 1994, 148, 21. (35) Zholobenko, V.; Garforth, A.; Dwyer, J. Thermochim. Acta. 1997, 294, 39. Study of the Reactivity of Solid-Acid Catalysts J. Phys. Chem. B, Vol. 105, No. 26, 2001 6185', 'date_year' => '2001', 'status_changed_hour' => '18', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '582' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => undef, 'creatorlist' => { '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Wilson', 'eprintid' => '582', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Karen', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '582', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Lee', 'eprintid' => '582', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Adam F.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Newman', 'eprintid' => '582', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Andrew D.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Siril', 'eprintid' => '582', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Prem', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '3', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2008', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '21', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Structural studies of high dispersion H3PW12O40/SiO2 solid acid catalysts ', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/05/82', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '13', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.rsc.org/Publishing/Journals/CP/article.asp?doi=b603979k', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '3', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '17', 'publisher' => 'Royal Society of Chemistry', 'pagerange' => '2893-2902', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2008', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics', 'lastmod_second' => '33', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1463-9076', 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '21', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => undef, 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => undef, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '582', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2008', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '10', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20060000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '17', 'edit_lock_user' => undef, 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'mcrc', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QD', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '36', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '14', 'datestamp_day' => '14', 'abstract' => 'Highly dispersed H3PW12O40/SiO2 catalysts with loadings between 3.6 and 62.5 wt% have been synthesised and characterised. The formation of a chemically distinct interfacial HPW species is identified by XPS, attributed to pertubation of W atoms within the Keggin cage in direct contact with the SiO2 surface. EXAFS confirms the Keggin unit remains intact for all loadings, while NH3 adsorption calorimetery reveals the acid strength >0.14 monolayers of HPW is loading invariant with initial Hads = –164 kJ mol–1. Lower loading catalysts exhibit weaker acidity which is attributed to an inability of highly dispersed clusters to form crystalline water. For reactions involving non-polar hydrocarbons the interfacial species where the accessible tungstate is highest confer the greatest reactivity, while polar chemistry is favoured by higher loadings which can take advantage of the H3PW12O40 pseudo-liquid phase available within supported multilayers', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '36', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1039/b603979k', 'volume' => '8', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => '1 R. A. Sheldon, Chem. Ind., 1997, 1, 12. 2 I. V. Kozhevnikov, Cat. Rev. Sci. Eng., 1995, 37, 311. 3 M. T. Pope, Heteropoly and Isopoly Oxometalates, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983. 4 I. V. Kozhevnikov, Chem. Rev., 1998, 98, 171 [Links]. 5 K. Nowiska, R. Fórmaniak, W. Kaleta and A. Wclaw, Appl. Catal., A, 2003, 256, 115 [Links]. 6 K. Pamin, A. Kubacka, Z. Olejniczak, J. Haber and B. Sulikowski, Appl. Catal., A, 2000, 194–195, 137 [Links]. 7 E. López-Salinas, J. G. Hernández-Cortéz, I. Schifter, E. Torres-García, J. Navarrete, A. Gutiérrez-Carrillo, T. López, P. P. Lottici and D. Bersani, Appl. Catal., A, 2000, 193, 215 [Links]. 8 Y. Izumi and K. Urabe, Chem. Lett., 1981, 663. 9 T. Blasco, A. Corma, A. Martínez and P. Martínez-Escolano, J. Catal., 1998, 177, 306 [Links]. 10 F. Lefebvre, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1992, 756 [Links]. 11 V. M. Mastikhin, S. M. Kulikov, A. V. Nosov, I. V. Kozhevnikov, I. L. Mudrakovsky and M. N. Timofeeva, J. Mol. Catal., 1990, 60, 65 [Links]. 12 M. S. Kaba, I. K. Song, D. C. Duncan, C. L. Hill and M. A. Barteau, Inorg. Chem., 1998, 37, 398 [Links]. 13 L. P. Hammett and A. J. Deyrup, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1932, 54, 2721 [Links]. 14 G. Gündüz, R. Dimitrova, S. Yilmaz, L. Dimitrov and M. Spassova, J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem., 2004, 225, 253. 15 M. A. Ecormier, K. Wilson and A. F. Lee, J. Catal., 2003, 215, 57 [Links]. 16 A. D. Newman, A. F. Lee and K. Wilson, Catal. Lett., 2005, 102, 45 [Links]. 17 B. W. L. Southward, J. S. Vaughan and C. T. OConnor, J. Catal., 1995, 153, 293 [Links]. 18 B. K. Hodnett and J. B. Moffat, J. Catal., 1984, 88, 253 [Links]. 19 P. Scherrer, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Goettingen, Math. Phys. Kl., 1918, 2, 98. 20 J. Evans, M. Pillinger and J. M. Rummey, J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans., 1996, 14, 2951 [Links]. 21 G. M. Brown, M. R. Noe-Spirlet, W. R. Busing and H. A. Levy, Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B, 1977, 33, 1038 [Links]. 22 A. Kremenovic, A. Spasojevic-de Bire, R. Dimitrijevic, P. Sciau, U. B. Mioc and P. Columban, Solid State Ionics, 2000, 132, 39 [Links]. 23 J. F. Keggin, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 1934, 144, 75 [Links]. 24 S. P. Felix, C. Savill-Jowitt and D. R. Brown, Thermochim. Acta, 2005, 33, 59 [Links]. 25 Stanislaus and L. M. Yeddanapalli, Can. J. Chem., 1972, 50, 61 [Links]. 26 M. K. Yadav, C. D. Chudasama and R. V. Jasra, J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem., 2004, 216, 51 [Links]. 27 M. Stöcker, Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 1999, 29, 3 [Links]. 28 E. F. Kozhevnikova and I. V. Kozhevnikov, J. Catal., 2004, 224, 164 [Links]. 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undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '27', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'pH and basicity of ligands control the binding of metal-ions to B. cereus B1 ?-lactamase', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/10/68', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '18', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4sc00601a', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '7', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '1', 'publisher' => 'Royal Society of Chemistry', 'pagerange' => '3120-3129', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Chemical Science', 'lastmod_second' => '28', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '2041-6520', 'datestamp_hour' => '11', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '28', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 8, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21068', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20140800', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => '8', 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'David R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QD', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '18', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '1', 'datestamp_day' => '1', 'abstract' => 'Metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) are a group of enzymes responsible for a significant proportion of bacterial resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics by catalysing the hydrolysis of the ?-lactam. The MBL from B. cereus BcII (569/H/9) forms both mono- and bi-nuclear species with native zinc and also with cobalt and cadmium ions. Which species is formed is controlled by the pH because some of the protein ligands used for metal-ion binding must lose a proton to form the metallo-enzyme from the apo-enzyme. The protonation states of the ligands that are used to bind various metal-ions in BcII have been determined using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) at different pH's maintained by different buffers. If a single equilibrium is established, by positive cooperative binding, between two metal-ions and the enzyme to form the bi-nuclear enzyme it requires the solution of a cubic equation to model the ITC data. At pH 5.2 and 5.6 the dominant species for all three metals is the mono-nuclear MBL, but only with the native mono-nuclear ZnBcII is the metal-bound water ionised. Compared with ZnBcII, fewer protons are released upon formation of mono-nuclear CoBcII and CdBcII which probably involves metal ion binding to the DCH site. For all three metal-ions, the number of metal-ions binding per molecule of enzyme increases from one to two as the pH is increased from pH 5.20 to 7.20. Only cadmium shows distinct sequential binding in the ITC outputs and the two cadmium ions bind independently and non-cooperatively, showing very distinct and different binding parameters. The apparent single ITC titration curves when two zinc- or cobalt-ions are bound to the ?-lactamase are, in fact, not indicative of strong cooperative binding, but are best modelled by two sequential binding steps. The binuclear Cd2BcII is formed with the release of only two protons from the apo-enzyme and, at pH 7.2, probably has an unionised water bridging the two metal-ions, whereas in Zn2BcII and Co2BcII it is a bridged hydroxide-ion, giving rise to the release of three protons on formation of the binuclear enzyme.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '18', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1039/c4sc00601a', 'volume' => '5', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2014', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '8088' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 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'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Duren', 'eprintid' => '8088', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'T.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '8088', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Lee', 'eprintid' => '8088', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'Adam F.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '7', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2010', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '16', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Interdependent lateral interactions, hydrophobicity and acid strength and their influence on the catalytic activity of nanoporous sulfonic acid silicas ', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/80/88', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '3', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.rsc.org/Publishing/Journals/GC/article.asp?doi=c0gc00045k', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '7', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '22', 'publisher' => 'Royal Society of Chemistry', 'pagerange' => '1383-1391', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2010', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Green Chemistry', 'lastmod_second' => '28', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1463-9262', 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '16', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 8, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '8088', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2010', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '9', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20100800', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => '8', 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QD', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '20', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '8', 'datestamp_day' => '8', 'abstract' => 'A series of propylsulfonic (MCM–SO3H) and octyl co-functionalised propylsulfonic (MCM–Oc–SO3H) catalysts have been prepared by post modification of MCM-41 with mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) to achieve SO3H surface coverages spanning the range 0.12–1 monolayer. Within the MCM–Oc–SO3H series, samples with submonolayer MPTS coverages were further grafted with octyltrimethoxysilane to cap bare hydroxyl sites and tune the hydrophobicity of the support. For the MCM–SO3H series NH3 calorimetry revealed acid strength increases as a function of sulfonic acid loading, with -Hads(NH3) increasing from 87 to 118 kJ mol-1. In contrast, MCM–Oc–SO3H exhibits a dramatic enhancement of acid strength for submonolayer SO3H coverages, with -Hads(NH3) found to increase to 103 kJ mol-1. In line with these acid strength measurements the per-site activity of the MCM–SO3H series in the esterification of butanol with acetic acid was found to increase with SO3H content. Incorporation of octyl groups further promotes esterification activity of all the samples within the MCM–Oc–SO3H series, such that the turn over frequency of the sample with the lowest loading of SO3H more than doubles. Molecular dynamic simulations indicate that the interaction of isolated sulfonic acid groups with the pore walls is the primary cause of the decrease in acid strength and activity of submonolayer samples within the MCM–SO3H series. Incorporation of octyl groups results in a combination of increased hydrophobicity and lateral interactions between adjacent sulfonic acid head groups, resulting in a striking enhancement of acid strength and esterification activity', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '3494', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '20', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => '12', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2010', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '2232' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => undef, 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '2232', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Edwards', 'eprintid' => '2232', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'H.G.M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Plant', 'eprintid' => '2232', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'S.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Dale', 'eprintid' => '2232', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'J.A.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '10', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2008', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '50', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Raman spectroscopy of sulfonated polystyrene resins', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/22/32', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '39', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2031(00)00070-9', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '10', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '17', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '213-222', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2008', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Vibrational Spectroscopy', 'lastmod_second' => '2', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '09242031', 'datestamp_hour' => '8', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '50', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => undef, 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => undef, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '2232', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2008', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '10', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20000000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '2', 'rev_number' => '11', 'edit_lock_user' => undef, 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QD', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '40', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '16', 'datestamp_day' => '16', 'abstract' => 'Raman spectroscopy has been applied to the determination of molecular structural features in sulfonated polystyrene resins. Comparison with model compounds has facilitated the identification of key molecular vibrations which are characteristic of sulfonates and their undissociated acids. Of particular importance in the current study is the ability to undertake analysis of these resins in the hydrated state, with various amounts of water being present in the resins', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '40', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/S0924-2031(00)00070-9', 'volume' => '24', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2000', 'status_changed_hour' => '8', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '172' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => undef, 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Davison', 'eprintid' => '172', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Andrea Dianne', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Siril', 'eprintid' => '172', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'P.F.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '172', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Randhawa', 'eprintid' => '172', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'J.K.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '1', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2007', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/172/1/BrownAcid.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '27', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Acid strengths and catalytic activities of sulfonic acid on polymeric and silica supports ', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/01/72', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '19', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TGM-4MCDK20-4&_user=495973&_coverDate=04%2F18%2F2007&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000024198&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=495973&md5=442017fab99176704db852fab5bcd59b', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '5', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '28', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '72-78', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2008', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical', 'lastmod_second' => '49', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1381-1169', 'datestamp_hour' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => undef, 'note' => '© 2006 Elsevier B.V.', 'edit_lock_until' => undef, 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 4, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '172', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2010', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20070400', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '18', 'number' => '1-2', 'rev_number' => '11', 'edit_lock_user' => undef, 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QD', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '29', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '22', 'datestamp_day' => '14', 'abstract' => 'The acidic and catalytic properties of sulfonic acids supported on polystyrene, on silica (via propyl and phenyl tethers) and on a fluorinated hydrocarbon polymer (Nafion) are compared. Surface acidities are characterised using ammonia adsorption calorimetry under flow conditions in which pulses of ammonia are introduced to the sample from a flowing carrier stream. The extent of adsorption and molar enthalpies of ammonia adsorption (?Hads°) are interpreted in terms of the abundance, accessibility and strength of surface acid sites. Catalytic activities are measured for the isomerisation of ?-pinene. The Nafion catalysts show the highest ?Hads°(NH3) and the highest catalytic activities. Although both silica-supported and polystyrene-supported sulfonic acids show lower specific activities and lower ?Hads°(NH3) values, the correlation between activity and ?Hads°(NH3) is relatively poor for these supported forms of the acid. It appears that while ?Hads°(NH3) is certainly sensitive to the strength of acid groups on which ammonia is adsorbed, it can only be used to compare acid strengths in a meaningful way for structurally similar catalysts', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => undef, 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1016/j.molcata.2006.11.022', 'volume' => '267', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => '[1] M. Hart, G. Fuller, D.R. Brown, C. Park, M.A. Keane, J.A. Dale, C.M. Fougret, R.W. Cockman, Catal. Lett. 72 (2001) 135. [2] M. Hart, G. Fuller, D.R. Brown, J.A. Dale, S. Plant, J. Mol. Catal.A182/183 (2002) 439. [3] S. Koujout, D.R. Brown, Thermochim. Acta 434 (2005) 158. [4] C.N. Rhodes, D.R. Brown, S. Plant, J.A. Dale, React. Funct. Polym. 40 (1999) 187. 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This reaction is traditionally catalysed by either enzymes or homogeneous mineral acids. We compared various solid catalysts for hemicellulose hydrolysis, running reactions in water, under neutral pH and relatively mild temperature and pressure (120 °C and 10 bar) conditions. Sulphonated resins are highly active, but they leach out sulphonic groups. Sulphonated silicas are less active, but more stable. They have weakly and strongly bound sites and the strongly bound ones do not leach. Zeolites are moderately active and stable. Among them, H-ferrierite especially, despite its small pores, exhibited high activity as well as good recyclability.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '116', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '33', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1039/C3CY20838A', 'volume' => '3', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2013', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '7100' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1285154618', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 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As-prepared NanoMgO comprised 4 nm cubic periclase nanocrystals, interspersed within an amorphous Mg(OH)(OCH3) matrix. These crystallites appear predominantly (1 0 0) terminated, and the overall material exhibits carbonate and hydroxyl surface functionalities of predominantly weak/moderate base character. Heating promotes gradual crystallisation and growth of the MgO nanoparticles, and concomitant loss of Mg(OH)(OCH3). In situ DRIFTS confirms the residual precursor and surface carbonate begin to decompose above 300 °C, while in situ XPS shows these morphological changes are accompanied by the disappearance of surface hydroxyl/methoxide species and genesis of O? centres which enhance both the surface density and basicity of the resulting stepped and defective MgO nanocrystals. The catalytic performance in tributyrin transesterification with methanol is directly proportional to the density of strong surface base sites. 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Techniques such as temperature programmed thermolysis, reduction, oxidation, desorption and reaction provide important information on the formation, surface properties and reactivity of catalysts. 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The Royal Society of Chemistry 2002', 'edit_lock_until' => undef, 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => undef, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '175', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2010', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20020000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '18', 'number' => '4', 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => undef, 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 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Adsorption of CNCl is provided by diaminoalkylsilane tethers bound to the surface. Reactivity towards HCN is provided by Cu2+ ions complexed by the diamines. Overall reactivity towards the two gases depends on the balance between free amine and Cu2+ concentrations. The performance of these adsorbents is superior to that of carbon-based adsorbents in which alkylamine and copper(II) salt are physisorbed on the carbon surface. ', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => undef, 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1039/b110111k', 'volume' => '12', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => '1 C. T. Carey, U.S. Chemical and Biological Defense Respirators – An Illustrated History, Schiffer, Atglen, PA, 1998. 2 R. E. Wilson and J. C. Whetzel, US Pat., 1,519,470, 1921. 3 S. H. Liang, B. H. Harrison and J. G. Pagotto, US Pat., 5,145,820, 1992. 4 A. J. Evans, Chem. Ind., 2000, 702. 5 P. N. Brown, G. G. Jayson, G. Thompson and M. C. Wilkinson, Carbon, 1989, 27, 821. 6 J. Rossin, E. Peterson, D. Tevault, R. Lamontagne and L. Isaacson, Carbon, 1991, 29, 197. 7 L. Zhiquiang, Z. Mingrong and C. Kuixue, Carbon, 1993, 31, 1179. 8 S. L. Baker, M. J. Chinn and P. R. Norman, UK Pat. Appl., No. 9714346.5, 1997. 9 C. F. Cheng, D. H. Park and J. Klinowski, J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans., 1997, 93, 193. 10 J. F. Diaz, K. J. Balkus, F. Bedioui, V. Kurschev and L. Kevan, Chem. Mater., 1997, 9, 61. 11 Z. H. Luan, C. F. Cheng, W. Z. Zhou and J. Klinowski, J. Phys. Chem., 1995, 99, 1018. 12 J. Pickett, M. Naderi, M. Chinn and D. R. Brown, Sep. Sci. Technol., 2002, in press. 13 J. S. Beck, J. C. Vartuli, W. J. Roth, M. E. Leonowicz, C. T. Kresge, K. O. Schmitt, C. T.-W. Chu, D. H. Olsen, E. W. Sheppard, S. B.McCullen, J. B. Higgins and J. L. Schlenker, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1992, 114, 10 834. 14 C. P. Jaroniec, M. Kruk, M. Jaroniec and A. Sayari, J. Phys. Chem. B, 1998, 102, 5503. 15 A. Poppl, M. Hartmann and L. Kevan, J. Phys. Chem., 1995, 99, 17 251. 16 D. R. Brown and L. Kevan, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1988, 110, 2743. 17 F. Khattou, G. Aptel, J.-V. Zanchetta, D. J. Jones, B. Deroide and J. Roziere, J. Mater. Chem., 1999, 9, 2453. 18 R. Barbucci and M. J. M. Campbell, Inorg. Chim. Acta, 1976, 16, 113. 19 A. Poppl, M. Newhouse and L. Kevan, J. Phys. Chem., 1995, 99, 10 019.', 'date_year' => '2002', 'status_changed_hour' => '18', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '2237' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => undef, 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '2237', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kim', 'eprintid' => '2237', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Jeong Yeon', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Michalik', 'eprintid' => '2237', 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undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b008245g', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '10', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '17', 'publisher' => 'Royal Society of Chemistry', 'pagerange' => '1705-1709', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2008', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics', 'lastmod_second' => '35', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '14639076', 'datestamp_hour' => '9', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '22', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => undef, 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => undef, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' 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These metal ions are reduced to metal particles by hydrogen and characterized by conduction electron paramagnetic resonance (CEPR). Metal particle sizes were calculated from the Kawabata theory that relates CEPR linewidths to metal particle size. The CEPR linewidths are independent of metal ion loading, which suggests that the metal particles are located inside the AlMCM-41 channels and size constrained by the channel diameter. The calculated metal particle diameters are about 1 nm, which is smaller than the 3.5 nm channel diameter of AlMCM-41. The validity of Kawabata's theory to such systems may need reexamination', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '9', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1039/b008245g', 'volume' => '3', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2001', 'status_changed_hour' => '9', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '584' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => undef, 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '584', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Siril', 'eprintid' => '584', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'P.F.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '3', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2008', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Acid site accessibility in sulfonated polystyrene acid catalysts: Calorimetric study of NH3 adsorption from flowing gas stream ', 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'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '10', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20060600', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => '1-2', 'rev_number' => '22', 'edit_lock_user' => undef, 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QD', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '30', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '14', 'datestamp_day' => '14', 'abstract' => 'Calorimetric pulsed NH3 adsorption measurements from a flowing carrier gas have been made on sulfonated poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) resin acid catalysts to characterise surface acidity in general and acid site accessibility in particular. The adsorption and enthalpy profiles associated with each pulse of NH3 show distinct features associated with relatively weak and reversible adsorption of NH3 followed by strongly exothermic reaction with sulfonic acid sites and irreversible adsorption. The rate at which NH3 diffuses from its initial adsorption site to an acid site is shown to depend on catalyst particle size, adsorption temperature and the proportion of unreacted acid sites. By varying the contact time of NH3 with the catalyst the reversibility of the initial NH3 adsorption is demonstrated and an increasing number of the acid sites within the polymer matrix are shown to become completely inaccessible to NH3 as the contact time is reduced. ', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '30', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1016/j.molcata.2006.02.050', 'volume' => '252', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => '[1] A. Renhfiger and U. Hoffman, Chem. Eng. Sci. 45 (1990) (6), p. 1619. [2] M. Iborra, J.F. Izquierdo, F. Cunill and J. Tajero, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 31 (1992), p. 1840. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (12) [3] N. Boz, T. Dogu, K. Murtezaoglu and G. Dogu, Appl. Catal. A 268 (2004), p. 175. SummaryPlus | Full Text + Links | PDF (211 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (8) [4] P.K. Pakkonen and O.I. Krause, React. Funt. Polym. 55 (2003), p. 139. [5] Z.P. Xu and K.T. Chuang, Chem. Eng. Sci. 52 (1997) (17), p. 3011. 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Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (4) [19] S.P. Felix, C. Savill-Jowitt and D.R. Brown, Thermochim. Acta 433 (2005), p. 59. SummaryPlus | Full Text + Links | PDF (215 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (4) [20] D.R. Brown and C.N. Rhodes, Thermochim. Acta 294 (1997), p. 33. Abstract | Abstract + References | PDF (325 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (13) [21] C.N. Rhodes, D.R. Brown, S. Plant and J.A. Dale, React. Funct. Polym. 40 (1999), p. 187. SummaryPlus | Full Text + Links | PDF (105 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (16) [22] M. O’Neil and J. Philips, J. Phys. Chem. 91 (1987), p. 2867. [23] B. Corain, M. Zecca and K. Jerabek, J. Mol. Catal. 177A (2001), p. 3. 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'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '16', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '23', 'datestamp_day' => '23', 'abstract' => 'Keggin tungstophosphoric acid supported onto mesoporous and meso-microporous materials was studied by ammonia microcalorimetry. Experiments were performed at high and low temperatures to separate the contributions of chemisorption and physisorption, low-temperature data being potentially important for the ambient temperature purification processes. Analysis of thermokinetic data obtained from heat output curves at an elevated temperature allows one to distinguish the transition between reaction of ammonia with the acid sites and the onset of physical sorption. Thermokinetic data are also sensitive to the pore structure of the support materials, with faster sorption registered in the case of materials with the open mesoporous structure. The SBA-15 supported acid shows the maximum ammonia uptake and the strongest acid sites among the three materials studied. The dynamics of sorption, characterized by the thermokinetic parameter, appears to be better in the two materials possessing open pore structure, mesoporous carbon Novacarb and especially the mesoporous silica SBA-15', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '16', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1021/la061187w', 'volume' => '22', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2006', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21066' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1404211990', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '21066', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'David R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Ikhlaq', 'eprintid' => '21066', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Amir', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kasprzyk-Hordern', 'eprintid' => '21066', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Barbara', 'creators_id' => 'b.kasprzyk-hordern@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '7', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'Emailed for FT 1/7/14', 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '1', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Catalytic ozonation for the removal of organic contaminants in water on ZSM-5 zeolites', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/10/66', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '5', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2014.02.010', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '7', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '1', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '110-122', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Applied Catalysis B: Environmental', 'lastmod_second' => '1', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '09263373', 'datestamp_hour' => '11', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '1', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 7, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21066', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20140700', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'David R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => undef, 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QD', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '5', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '1', 'datestamp_day' => '1', 'abstract' => 'The results presented in this study aim to show the potential of ozonation of common water pollutants (volatile organic chemicals, pharmaceuticals and carboxylic acids, ozonation by-products) on ZSM-5 zeolites and to investigate the effect of the nature of pollutants on the efficiency of catalytic ozonation. Both the H-ZSM-5 and Na-ZSM-5 forms with different SiO2/Al2O3 ratios and counter ions (Z1000H:SiO2/Al2O3 = 1000, Z900Na:SiO2/Al2O3 = 900, Z25H:SiO2/Al2O3 = 25 and Z25Na:SiO2/Al2O3 = 25) have been used. The effects of pH, adsorption, presence of hydroxyl radical scavengers, phosphates and humic acids on the efficiency of catalytic ozonation have been investigated. The results revealed that catalytic ozonation on zeolites could substantially enhance the removal of VOCs and ibuprofen when compared with ozonation alone and that adsorption plays a key role in the effectiveness of this process. Zeolites with high SiO2/Al2O3 ratios were found to have a high adsorption capacity towards VOCs and as a result high catalytic activity. On the other hand zeolites with low SiO2/Al2O3 ratios had a high adsorption capacity towards ibuprofen in its ionised form. Catalytic processes have been found to be pH dependent with the highest activity at acidic pH. The presence of hydroxyl radical scavengers (phosphates and humic acid) did not have a significant effect on the removal of contaminants on ZSM-5 zeolites. Despite high activity towards VOCs and ibuprofen, zeolites did not catalyse the removal of acetic acid in water at studied pH values. It is therefore suggested that catalytic ozonation of organic pollutants on ZSM-5 zeolites proceeds via direct reactions of molecular ozone with pollutants adsorbed on the surface of zeolites.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '5', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2014.02.010', 'volume' => '154', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2014', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '15581' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1350303071', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Andrijanto ', 'eprintid' => '15581', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'E.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '15581', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '10', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => 'IEX 2012 The International Ion Exchange Conference', 'date_type' => undef, 'pres_type' => 'paper', 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/15581/1/sept_2012_iex_flyer.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '27', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'New Microporous Polystyrene Sulfonic Acid Catalyst for Free Fatty Acid Esterification', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/55/81', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'unpub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '33', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => undef, 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '10', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '15', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => 'Queens' College, Cambridge', 'type' => 'conference_item', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '27', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '12', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '27', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 9, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '15581', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '10', 'event_dates' => '19-21 September 2012', 'fulltimestamp' => '20120900', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '12', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '3494', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => undef, 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QD', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '33', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => 'conference', 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '15', 'datestamp_day' => '15', 'abstract' => 'E Andrijanto and D R Brown, IEX 2012 The International Ion Exchange Conference, Cambridge, 2012, Society of Chemical Industry, 12 pages, on-line. New Microporous Polystyrene Sulfonic Acid Catalyst for Free Fatty Acid Esterification.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '3494', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '33', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2012', 'status_changed_hour' => '12', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '19864' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1395056206', 'creatorlist' => { '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Morales', 'eprintid' => '19864', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Gabriel', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Lee', 'eprintid' => '19864', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Adam F.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Osatiashtiani', 'eprintid' => '19864', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Amin', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Melero', 'eprintid' => '19864', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Juan A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '19864', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Wilson', 'eprintid' => '19864', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'Karen', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '3', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '9', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Bifunctional SO4/ZrO2 catalysts for 5-hydroxymethylfufural (5-HMF) production from glucose', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/98/64', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '39', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C3CY00409K', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '3', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '17', 'publisher' => 'Royal Society of Chemistry', 'pagerange' => '333-342', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Catalysis Science & Technology', 'lastmod_second' => '9', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '2044-4753', 'datestamp_hour' => '11', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '9', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 2, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '19864', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '3', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20140200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => '2', 'rev_number' => '7', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QD', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '39', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '17', 'datestamp_day' => '17', 'abstract' => 'The telescopic conversion of glucose to fructose and then 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), the latter a potential, bio-derived platform chemical feedstock, has been explored over a family of bifunctional sulfated zirconia catalysts possessing tuneable acid–base properties. Characterisation by acid–base titration, XPS, XRD and Raman reveal that submonolayer SO4 coverages offer the ideal balance of basic and Lewis–Brønsted acid sites required to respectively isomerise glucose to fructose, and subsequently dehydrate fructose to 5-HMF. A constant acid site normalised turnover frequency is observed for fructose dehydration to 5-HMF, confirming a common Brønsted acid site is responsible for this transformation.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '116', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '39', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1039/C3CY00409K', 'volume' => '4', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2014', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '174' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => undef, 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'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Plant', 'eprintid' => '174', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'S.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '1', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2007', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/174/1/BrownNature.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '30', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The nature of the internal acid solutions in sulfonated poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) resins ', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/01/74', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '19', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www.springerlink.com/content/l526866wk4866088/', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '5', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '28', 'publisher' => 'Springer', 'pagerange' => '33-40', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2008', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Catalysis Letters', 'lastmod_second' => '50', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1572-879X', 'datestamp_hour' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => undef, 'note' => '© 2003 Plenum Publishing Corporation', 'edit_lock_until' => undef, 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '174', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2010', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20030100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '18', 'number' => '1-2', 'rev_number' => '11', 'edit_lock_user' => undef, 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QD', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '29', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '22', 'datestamp_day' => '14', 'abstract' => 'The acidities of a series of fully hydrated sulfonated poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) resins with varying levels of sulfonation from 0.80 to 5.25 mequiv g-1 have been characterized. Enthalpies of neutralization with aqueous NaOH have been measured by titration calorimetry. The degrees of acid dissociation () have been measured using FT-Raman spectroscopy, based on the intensity of the –SO3 - stretching band at 1033 cm-1. The same measurements have been made on aqueous solutions of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TsOH), on the basis that these solutions are analogs of the internal solutions in the hydrated resin gels. For resins with low levels of sulfonation, and therefore relatively dilute internal acid solutions, the internal and the equivalent p-TsOH solutions are similar. However, significant differences are seen in highly sulfonated resins where the internal solution concentration is above 4.0 mol kg-1. At these concentrations, p-TsOH solutions show essentially complete dissociation and enthalpies of neutralization typical of a strong, fully dissociated acid in aqueous solution. In contrast, the acid groups in hydrated resins are largely undissociated and exhibit numerically higher enthalpies of neutralization, and catalytic activity measurements indicate that these acid groups are stronger than normal. It is proposed that this acidity enhancement is associated with networks of sulfonic acid groups which form in highly sulfonated resins. Although such networks have been previously proposed in dehydrated resins, this paper reports the first evidence for their existence in resins under conditions of full hydration', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => undef, 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1023/A:1022160506026', 'volume' => '85', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => '[1] A. Chakrabarti and M.M. Sharma, React. Polym. 20 (1993) 1. [2] B. Corain, M. Zecca and K. Jerabek, J. Molec. Catal. A: Chem. 177 (2001) 3. [3] R. Thornton and B.C. Gates, J. Catal. 34 (1974) 275. [4] M.D. Grieser, A.D. Wilks and D.J. Pietrzyk, Anal. Chem. 44 (1972) 671. [5] C. Buttersack, H. Widdecke and J. Klein, React. Polym. 5 (1987) 181. [6] C.N. Rhodes, S. Plant, J.A. Dale and D.R. Brown, React. Funct. Polym. 40 (1999) 187. [7] M. Hart, G. Fuller, D.R. Brown, C. Park, M.A. Keane, J.A. Dale, C.M. Fougret and R.W. Cockman, Catal. Lett. 72 (2001) 135. [8] M. Hart, G. Fuller, D.R. Brown, J.A. Dale and S. Plant, J. Molec. Catal. A: Chem. 182–183 (2002) 439. [9] F. Ancillotti, M.M. Mauri and E. Pescaraollo, J. Catal. 46 (1977) 49. [10] K. Jerabek, J. Odnoha and K. Setinek, Appl. Catal. 37 (1988) 129. [11] J.H. Ahn, S.K. Ihn and K.S. Park, J. Catal. 113 (1988) 434. [12] K. Jerabek and K. Setinek, J. Mol. Catal. 39 (1987) 161. [13] H.G.M. Edwards, D.R. Brown, J.A. Dale and S. Plant, Vibrational Spectrosc. 24 (2000) 213. [14] H.G.M. Edwards, D.R. Brown, J.A. Dale and S. Plant, J. Mol. Struct. 595 (2001) 111. [15] E.M. Arnett, R.A. Haaksma, B. Chawla and M.H. Healy, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108 (1986) 4888. [16] A.E. Dann, J.B. Davis and M.J. Nagler, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin I (1979) 158. [17] C.W. Jones, M. Tsapatsis, T. Okubo and M.E. Davis, Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 42 (2001) 21. [18] C.E. Harland, Ion Exchange: Theory and Practice, 2nd edition (Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 1994). [19] H.G.M. Edwards and D.N. Smith, J. Molec. Struct. 238 (1990) 27. [20] E.M. Arnett, T. Absan and K. Amarnath, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113 (1991) 6858.', 'date_year' => '2003', 'status_changed_hour' => '18', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '3360' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => undef, 'creatorlist' => { '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '3360', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Liu', 'eprintid' => '3360', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Yan', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Siril', 'eprintid' => '3360', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'P.F.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kooli', 'eprintid' => '3360', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Fethi', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Alshahateet', 'eprintid' => '3360', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Solhe F.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '2', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2009', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '56', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Effect of pillared clays on the hydroisomerization of n-heptane ', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/33/60', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '16', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 29, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2007.10.053', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '2', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '19', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '244-249', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2009', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Catalysis Today', 'lastmod_second' => '56', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0920-5861', 'datestamp_hour' => '9', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '56', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => undef, 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 2, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '3360', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2009', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '2', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20080229', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '9', 'number' => '1-4', 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => undef, 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '16', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '19', 'datestamp_day' => '19', 'abstract' => 'Different montmorillonites and saponites were pillared with Al polyoxocations to obtain catalytic supports for the hydroisomerization of n-heptane. The catalysts were characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis and N2 adsoprtion. The temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia indicated that pillared clays exhibited moderate and strong acid sites. The concentration of the acid sites depended on the starting clays as well as the type of the clays. The pillared saponites are more effective for the hydroisomerization of n-heptane at 300 °C, however, it decreased over the Al-pillared montmorillonites, and mainly cracking products were obtained.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '16', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1016/j.cattod.2007.10.053', 'volume' => '131', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2008', 'status_changed_hour' => '9', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '4682' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 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'4682', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Adam F.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Wilson', 'eprintid' => '4682', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'K.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '6', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2009', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '48', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Cs-doped H4SiW12O40 catalysts for biodiesel applications', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' 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'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0926-860X', 'datestamp_hour' => '11', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '48', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 5, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '4682', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2011', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '3', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20090500', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => '1', 'rev_number' => '11', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QD', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '38', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '11', 'datestamp_day' => '11', 'abstract' => 'Cs exchanged silicotungstic acid catalysts of general formula CsxH4?xSiW12O40 (x = 0.8–4) have been synthesised and characterised by a range of techniques including elemental analysis, N2 gas adsorption, XRD, XPS and NH3 flow calorimetry. Cs substitution promotes recrystallisation of the parent H4SiW12O40 polyoxometallate to the Cs4 salt, via a stable intermediate phase formed at compositions between Cs0.8–2.8. This recrystallisation is accompanied by a pronounced rise and subsequent fall in porosity, with a maximum mesopore volume obtained for materials containing 2.8 Cs atoms per Keggin unit. Calorimetry reveals all CsxH4?xSiW12O40 are strong acids, with ?H?ads(NH3) ranging from ?142 to 116 kJ mol?1 with increasing Cs content, consistently weaker than their phosphotungstic analogues. CsxH4?xSiW12O40 materials are active catalysts for both C4 and C8 triglyceride transesterification, and palmitic acid esterification with methanol. For loadings ?0.8 Cs per Keggin, (trans)esterification activity arises from homogeneous contributions. However, higher degrees of substitution result in entirely heterogeneous catalysis, with rates proportional to the density of accessible acid sites present within mesopores.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '3494', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '38', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.apcata.2009.03.003', 'volume' => '360', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2009', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '9177' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => 'vegetable oil, biodiesel, viscosity, alternative fuels, CI engine', 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'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '14', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'j.d.fieldhouse@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 3, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://www2.hud.ac.uk/ce/research/conference/presentations/Presentations-13-A-A-Abuhabaya.pdf', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '12', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '13', 'publisher' => 'The University of Huddersfield ', 'pagerange' => '71-76', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2010', 'book_title' => 'Future Technologies in Computing and Engineering Annual Researchers' Conference (CEARC'10)', 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'book_section', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '13', 'place_of_pub' => 'University of Huddersfield, Computing and Engineering Annual Researchers’ Conference 2010', 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '9', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '46', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 12, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '9177', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2011', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => 'gary', 'isbn' => '9781862180932', 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => 'Lucas ', 'lastmod_month' => '1', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20101203', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => '194', 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '21', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'TL', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '40', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '7', 'datestamp_day' => '7', 'abstract' => 'This work aims to investigate the viability of using vegetable oils and waste oils a an alternative to or additive to basic diesel fuel. Rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and waste cooking oils was used to manufacture bio-diesel oil by the transesterification process using a commercially available “fuelpod”. The base oils were tested to first characterize them against diesel and the characteristics were remeasured after the conversion process. The fuels were then tested on a steady state engine test rig using a modern four cylinder compression ignition engine. Significant improvement in the viscosity was observed in the waste vegetable oils (WVO) after the transesterification process. The specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions were reduced due to decrease in viscosity of the WVO. Acceptable thermal efficiencies of the engine were obtained with biodiesel. From the properties and engine test results it has been establish that biodiesel of WVO can be substituted for diesel without any engine modification and preheating of the fuels. Sustainability issues present an obstacle for general use so only small fleet operators may take advantage of the alternative fuel. ', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '2754', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '40', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => 'PRAMANIK K. (2003), Properties and use of jatropha curcas oil and diesel fuel blends in compression ignition engine. Renewable Energy, Vol. 28, pp.239-248. NWAFOR OMI., RICE G., OGBONNA AI. (2000), Effect of advanced injection timing on the performance of rapeseed oil in diesel engines. Renewable Energy, Vol. 21, pp. 433–444. KARABEKTAS M. (2009), The effects of turbocharger on the performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel. Renewable Energy, Vol. 34, pp. 989-993. DEVANA P.K. and MAHALAKSHMIB N.V. (2008), A study of the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a compression ignition engine using methyl ester of paradise oil–eucalyptus oil blends. Applied Energy, Vol. 86, pp. 675-680. AZOUMAHa Y., BLINa J. and DahoDAHOb T. (2009), Exergy efficiency applied for the performance optimization of a direct injection compression ignition (CI) engine using biofuels. Renewable Energy, Vol. 34, pp. 1494-1500. GHOBADIANa B., RAHMINIa H., NIKBAKHTa A.M., NAJAFIa G. and YUAFb T.F. (2009), Diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using waste cooking biodiesel fuel with an artificial neural network. Renewable Energy, Vol.34, pp. 976-982. BANAPURMATH N.R. and TEWARI P.G. (2009), Comparative performance studies of a 4-stroke CI engine operate on du fuel mode with producer gas and Honge oil and its methyl ester (HOME) with and without carburetor. Renewable Energy, Vol. 34, pp. 1009-1015. BENJUMEAa P., AGUDELOb J. and AGUDELOb A. (2009), Effect of altitude and palm oil biodiesel fuelling on the performance and combustion characteristics of a HSDI diesel engine. Fuel, Vol. 88, pp. 725-731. BARNWAL* B.K. and SHARMA M.P. (2005), Prospects of biodiesel production from vegetable oils in India. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 9, pp. 363-378. CANAKCI M. (2007), The Potential of Restaurant Waste Lipids as Biodiesel Feedstocks. Bioresource Technology, Vol. 98, pp. 183-190. CONNEMANN J. and FISCHER J. (1998), biodiesel processing technologies. Paper presented at the International Liquid Biofuels Congress, Brazil, pp. 1-16. RADICH, A. (2006), Biodiesel performance, costs, and use. US Energy InformationAdministration,http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/analysispaper/biodiesel/index.html. KULKARNI M. G. and DALAI A. K. (2006), Waste Cooking Oils an Economical Source for Biodiesel. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res, Vol. 45, pp. 2901-2913. CARTER D., DARBY D., HALLE J. and HUNT P. (2005), How To Make Biodiesel, Low-Impact Living Initiative, Redfield Community, Winslow, Buck. ISSN 0-9649171-0-3. YANG H-H., CHIEN S-M., LO M-Y., LAN J. G.-W, LU W-C. and KU Y-Y. (2007), Effect of biodiesel on emission of regulated air pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under engine durability testing. Atmospheric Environmental, Vol. 41, pp. 7232-7240. CANAKCI M. and SANLI H. (2008), Biodiesel production from various feedstocks and their effects the fuel properties. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, Springer, Vol. 35, pp 431-441. 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The results illustrate the limitations of using calorimetric techniques for relative acidity measurements and the assumptions that must be made if molar enthalpies of adsorption or molar enthalpies of neutralisation are to be used to compare the strengths of solid acids. They also show how the relative acid strengths of nominally similar acids can be highly dependent on whether measurements are made in the presence or absence of a solvent, and, if the former, on the type of solvent. 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The ESR spectrum of Cu2+ ions in hydrated resins is characteristic of the freely tumbling hexahydrated cation. On dehydration of the gel, the spectrum gradually broadens suggesting that dehydration occurs in a relatively disordered way. Reversible loss of ESR signal intensity is attributed to dipolar interactions between neighbouring Cu2+ ions. In resins fully solvated with methanol, the ESR spectrum is characteristic of the unconstrained, fully solvated Cu2+ ion and, again, on drying, loss of solvent occurs without the formation of any well-defined Cu2+ centres. Similar behaviour is seen for resins solvated with i-propanol and n-butanol.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '5', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '57', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/S1381-5148(02)00026-3', 'volume' => '51', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2002', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '20868' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1411633332', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Shiju', 'eprintid' => '20868', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'N. Raveendran', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '20868', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Elmekawy', 'eprintid' => '20868', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Ahmed A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Rothenberg', 'eprintid' => '20868', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Gadi', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '6', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'Permission on 10/06/14 to use post print with 12 month embargo', 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/20868/1/Environmentally_benign.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '5', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Environmentally Benign Bifunctional Solid Acid and Base Catalysts', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/08/68', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '23', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie500839m', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '6', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '25', 'publisher' => 'American Chemical Society', 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research', 'lastmod_second' => '44', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0888-5885', 'datestamp_hour' => '9', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '5', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 4, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '20868', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '9', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20140400', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '8', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '12', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '8', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '5', 'datestamp_day' => '5', 'abstract' => 'Solid bifunctional acid–base catalysts were prepared in two ways on an amorphous silica support: (1) by grafting mercaptopropyl units (followed by oxidation to propylsulfonic acid) and aminopropyl groups to the silica surface (NH2–SiO2–SO3H), and (2) by grafting only aminopropyl groups and then partially neutralizing with phosphotungstic acid, relying on the H2PW12O40– ion for surface acidity (NH2–SiO2–NH3+[H2PW12O40–], denoted as NH2–SiO2–PTA). Surface acidity and basicity were characterized by adsorption calorimetry, using SO2 as a probe for surface basicity and NH3 for surface acidity. Catalytic activities were compared in a two-stage cascade: an acid-catalyzed deacetalization followed directly by a base-catalyzed Henry reaction. Overall, the NH2–SiO2–SO3H catalysts showed higher concentrations and strengths of both acid and base sites, and higher activities than NH2–SiO2–PTA. Both catalysts showed evidence of cooperative acid–base catalysis. Importantly, the bifunctional catalysts exhibited catalytic advantage over physical mixtures of singly functionalized catalysts', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '8', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1021/ie500839m', 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2014', 'status_changed_hour' => '9', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '1692' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => undef, 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Fuller', 'eprintid' => '1692', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'Graham', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Garcia', 'eprintid' => '1692', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Jose I.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Vispe', 'eprintid' => '1692', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Eugenio', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Fraile', 'eprintid' => '1692', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'José M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Salvatella', 'eprintid' => '1692', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Luis', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Mayoral', 'eprintid' => '1692', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Jose A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '1692', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2008', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '3', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Experimental and theoretical studies on structure-reactivity relationships of titanium-modified silicas in the hydrogen peroxide-promoted oxidation of cyclohexene', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/16/92', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '33', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 16, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp025741w', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '26', 'publisher' => 'American Chemical Society', 'pagerange' => '519-526', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2008', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'The Journal of Physical Chemistry B', 'lastmod_second' => '1', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '15206106', 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '3', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => undef, 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '1692', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2010', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '5', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20030116', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '12', 'number' => '2', 'rev_number' => '15', 'edit_lock_user' => undef, 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '11', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '29', 'datestamp_day' => '29', 'abstract' => 'Theoretical calculations demonstrate that the presence of ligands with different basicity modifies the Lewis acidity (expressed both as the LUMO energy and the enthalpy of coordination of a NH3 molecule) of the active centers in silica-supported titanium catalysts. Several catalysts containing different organic ligands bonded to the titanium centers have been prepared, characterized, and tested in the benchmark reaction of cyclohexene with hydrogen peroxide. Both the activity and the selectivities of the catalysts depend on the relative basicity of the ligands and their variation is proportional to the calculated Lewis acidity, expressed as the LUMO energy. With more basic ligands, hydrolysis of the epoxide to diol occurs to a lesser extent at the expense of the catalytic activity and the epoxidation/allylic oxidation selectivity, showing the coincidence of the active sites for epoxidation and hydrolysis reactions', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '11', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1021/jp025741w', 'volume' => '107', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2003', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '11716' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1318519743', 'creatorlist' => { '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gai', 'eprintid' => '11716', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Pratibha L.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Yoshida', 'eprintid' => '11716', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Kenta', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '11716', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'David .R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Raveendran Shiju', 'eprintid' => '11716', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'N.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Boyes', 'eprintid' => '11716', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Edward D.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '10', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'Emailed author for PP SJT 13/10/11', 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2011', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '2', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Dynamic atomic scale in situ electron microscopy in the development of an efficient heterogeneous catalytic process for pharmaceutical NSAIDS', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/17/16', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '34', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C0CY00063A', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '10', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '13', 'publisher' => 'RSC', 'pagerange' => '413-425', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2011', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Catalysis Science & Technology', 'lastmod_second' => '2', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '2044-4753', 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '2', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 3, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '11716', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2011', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '10', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20110300', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => '3', 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'David .R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '34', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '13', 'datestamp_day' => '13', 'abstract' => 'In heterogeneous catalysis the identification of the active site and crucially its location to prevent unwanted sintering and deactivation during the transformation of the precursor to active catalyst require the integration of dynamic in situ imaging at the atomic level and reactivity studies. We report nanostructural and physico-chemical studies towards an efficient low temperature heterogeneous catalytic process for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (paracetamol or acetaminophen) on tungstated zirconia nanocatalysts of only a few nanometres in size. We directly visualised, in real-time, the dynamic precursor transformation to the active catalyst, which is of great significance in heterogeneous catalysis, using double aberration-corrected in situ electron microscopy at the atomic level under controlled conditions. We quantified the observations with catalytic activity studies for the NSAIDS. The observations using negative defocus imaging in AC-TEM combined with HAADF-STEM have provided the direct evidence for the presence of surface WOx species with dimensions of ?0.35 nm, nanoclusters and nanoparticles of WOx from up to 0.6 to 1 nm, located at grain boundaries on the surface of the zirconia nanoparticles. The observations illustrate that the nanoparticles (NPs) are disordered (distorted) tungsten trioxide. The correlation between the nanostructure and activity of catalysts with different W loadings indicate that surface WOx species, nanoclusters and distorted WO3 nanoparticles create Brønsted acid sites highly active for the low temperature N-acetyl-p-aminophenol reaction, with distorted WO3 NPs contributing to the activity. The results further elucidate that the anchoring of active sites at grain boundaries of the zirconia nanoparticles prevents undesirable coalescence of the active species and improves the catalyst stability and performance to make more product. ', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '34', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1039/C0CY00063A', 'volume' => '1', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2011', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '4685' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1294834211', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Williams', 'eprintid' => '4685', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'H.M.', 'creators_id' => 'h.m.williams@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Shiju', 'eprintid' => '4685', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'N.R.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '4685', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '6', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2009', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '35', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Cs exchanged phosphotungstic acid as an efficient catalyst for liquid-phase Beckmann rearrangement of oximes', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/46/85', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '57', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2009.04.016', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '6', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '4', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '451-457', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2009', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Applied Catalysis B: Environmental', 'lastmod_second' => '37', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0926-3373', 'datestamp_hour' => '12', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '35', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '1294837811', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 8, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '4685', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2010', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '3', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20090800', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => '3-4', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QD', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '5', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '11', 'datestamp_day' => '11', 'abstract' => 'Cs exchanged phosphotungstic acid is a highly efficient and environmentally benign solid acid catalyst for the liquid-phase Beckmann rearrangement of ketoximes to the corresponding amides. The catalysts CsxH3?xPW12O40 (x = 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3) were prepared by a titration method. The characterization results indicated that the primary Keggin structure remained intact after exchanging the protons with Cs ions. Moreover, the Cs exchanged catalysts were insoluble and exhibited larger BET surface area than the parent acid. The catalysts exhibited high reactivity and selectivity for the formation of -caprolactam, the precursor of Nylon 6, from cyclohexanone oxime. The catalyst can be recovered after reaction without any structural transformation. ', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '3494', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '5', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2009.04.016', 'volume' => '90', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2009', 'status_changed_hour' => '12', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '9028' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1289475980', 'creatorlist' => { '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gai', 'eprintid' => '9028', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'P L', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Shiju', 'eprintid' => '9028', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'N R', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Yoshida', 'eprintid' => '9028', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'K', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Boyes', 'eprintid' => '9028', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'E D', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '9028', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '11', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2010', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '28', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Double aberration-corrected TEM/STEM of tungstated zirconia nanocatalysts for the synthesis of paracetamol', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/90/28', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '55', 'refereed' => 'FALSE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/241/1/012035', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '11', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '11', 'publisher' => 'Institute of Physics Publishing ', 'pagerange' => '012035', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2010', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Journal of Physics: Conference Series', 'lastmod_second' => '28', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1742-6596', 'datestamp_hour' => '11', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '28', 'note' => 'Originally presented at Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group Conference 2009 (EMAG 2009) 8–11 September 2009, University of Sheffield, UK', 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '9028', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2010', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '11', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20100100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => '1', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '55', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '11', 'datestamp_day' => '11', 'abstract' => 'We report highly active tungstated zirconia nanocatalysts for the synthesis of paracetamol by Beckmann rearrangement of 4-hydroxyacetophenone oxime. Double aberration-corrected (2AC)-TEM/STEM studies were performed in a JEOL 2200FS FEG TEM/STEM at the 1 Angstrom (1 Å = 0.1 nanometer) level. Observations at close to zero defocus were carried out using the AC-TEM as well as AC-STEM including high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging, from the same areas of the catalyst crystallites. The studies from the same areas have revealed the location and the nanostructure of the polytungstate species (clusters) and the nanograins of zirconia. The AC (S)TEM was crucial to observe the nanostructure and location of polytungstate clusters on the zirconia grains. Polytungstate clusters as small as 0.5 nm have been identified using the HAADF-STEM. The nanostructures of the catalyst and the W surface density have been correlated with paracetamol reaction studies. The results demonstrate the nature of active sites and high activity of the tungstated zirconia nanocatalyst, which is an environmentally clean alternative to the current homogeneous process. ', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '3483', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '55', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1088/1742-6596/241/1/012035', 'volume' => '241', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2010', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '3359' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => undef, 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Cross', 'eprintid' => '3359', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Hannah E.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Siril', 'eprintid' => '3359', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'P.F.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '3359', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '2', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2009', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '35', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'New polystyrene sulfonic acid resin catalysts with enhanced acidic and catalytic properties ', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/33/59', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '43', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 2, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcata.2007.10.001', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '2', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '24', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '63-68', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2009', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical', 'lastmod_second' => '50', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1381-1169', 'datestamp_hour' => '16', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '35', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => undef, 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '3359', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2010', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '3', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20080102', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '1', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => undef, 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '45', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '12', 'datestamp_day' => '12', 'abstract' => 'The effects of halogenation of polystyrene sulfonic acid resins on acidic and catalytic properties have been evaluated. Four polystyrene-co-divinylbenzene sulfonic acid resins from Rohm and Haas (Amberlyst 70, Amberlyst 15, Amberlyst 35 and Amberlyst 36) have been characterised in terms of their acidities (both strength and acid site concentrations) by ammonia adsorption flow microcalorimetry, their thermal and hydrothermal stabilities, and their catalytic activities in two test reactions, the isomerisation of ?-pinene and the benzylation of toluene using benzyl alcohol. Amberlysts 35 and 36 are “over-sulfonated” and exhibit stronger acid sites than the conventional sulfonated resin Amberlyst 15. These acid properties explain differences in catalytic activities, although differences between the porosities of Amberlysts 35 and 36 have a profound affect on catalytic performance in non-polar reaction media. Amberlyst 70, which is reported to be halogenated and is claimed to exhibit better thermal stability than the other three resins, shows acid site strengths similar to those of the over-sulfonated Amberlysts 35 and 36, and shows significantly better thermal and hydrothermal stability. It exhibits a relatively low pore volume, however, constraining its catalytic activity in non-swelling solvents. ', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '45', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1016/j.molcata.2007.10.001', 'volume' => '279', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2008', 'status_changed_hour' => '16', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '1422' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => undef, 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '1422', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hart', 'eprintid' => '1422', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'M. P.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '8', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2008', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '37', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Surface acidities and catalytic activities of acid-activated clays', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/14/22', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '57', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcata.2003.11.013', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '8', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '17', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '315-322', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2008', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Journal of Molecular Catalysis A Chemical', 'lastmod_second' => '57', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '13811169', 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '37', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => undef, 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => undef, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '1422', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2008', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '10', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20040000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '13', 'number' => '1-2', 'rev_number' => '11', 'edit_lock_user' => undef, 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '35', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '7', 'datestamp_day' => '7', 'abstract' => 'Two commercially available acid-activated montmorillonite clay catalysts, K5 and K10, have been characterised by ammonia adsorption microcalorimetry at 150 °C. The adsorption capacities and molar enthalpies of adsorption have been interpreted in terms of the concentration and strength of surface acid sites. Clays exchanged with Al3+, Fe3+ and Na+ have been examined. Catalytic activities have also been measured, in liquid phase reactions in swelling and non-swelling solvents, and in reactions catalysed by Bronsted and by Lewis acid sites. The relationships between ammonia adsorption characteristics and catalytic activities have been determined. It has been shown that anhydrous ammonia is able to access all acid sites on the clay surface, including those in the residual clay interlayer regions which would normally only be accessible in the presence of a swelling solvent. Ammonia adsorption on clays exchanged with Fe3+, where Lewis acidity is maximised, is more extensive and with a higher molar enthalpy of adsorption than on clays maximised for Bronsted acidity. It is concluded that ammonia can be satisfactorily used as a probe of surface acidity when Bronsted acidity dominates but, if there is significant Lewis acidity, ammonia adsorption data is difficult to interpret', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '35', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.molcata.2003.11.013', 'volume' => '212', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2004', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '173' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 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'status_changed_second' => '28', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The influence of solvent on the acidity and activity of supported sulfonic acid catalysts ', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/01/73', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '19', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1007/s10562-004-8680-3', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '5', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '28', 'publisher' => 'Springer', 'pagerange' => '195-202', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2008', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Catalysis Letters', 'lastmod_second' => '49', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1572-879X', 'datestamp_hour' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => undef, 'note' => '© 2004 Plenum Publishing Corporation', 'edit_lock_until' => undef, 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 12, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '173', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2010', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20041200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '18', 'number' => '4', 'rev_number' => '10', 'edit_lock_user' => undef, 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'mcrc', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QD', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '29', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '22', 'datestamp_day' => '14', 'abstract' => 'The acid strengths and catalytic activities of sulfonic acids supported on polystyrene resins and ordered mesoporous HMS and SBA-15 silicas are compared. Acid strengths are measured by acid–base titration calorimetry in terms of the molar enthalpies of neutralisation with either NaOH or n-butylamine in water, acetonitrile and cyclohexane. Catalytic activities (turnover numbers) are reported in model reactions in water, 1,2-dichlorobenzene and anisole, and compared with acid strengths. In water, sulfonated resins are both stronger acids and more active catalysts than sulfonated silicas. Catalytic activities in water correlate well with these measured acid strengths. In acetonitrile the order of acid strengths is reversed and the sulfonated silicas are the stronger acids. Catalytic measurements in 1,2-dichlorobenzene, a similar dipolar aprotic solvent, show the same reversed order of activities. In the non-polar solvent cyclohexane (where only macroporous sulfonated resins show measurable acidity) the sulfonated silicas are again the stronger acids but by a larger margin. Catalytic activities in anisole, which is also only very weakly solvating towards sulfonic acid groups, show a similar trend. The results illustrate the role of the solvent in controlling the acid strength of solid acid catalysts, and the importance of taking this into account when designing acid catalysts for liquid phase processes. ', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => undef, 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1007/s10562-004-8680-3', 'volume' => '98', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => '[1] A. Chakrabarti and M.M. Sharma, React. Polym. 20 (1993) 1. [2] B. Corain, M. Zecca and K. Jerabek, J. Molec. Catal. A: Chem. 177 (2001) 3. [3] J. Tejero, F. Cunill, M.Iborra, J.F. Izquierdo and C. Fite, J. Mol. Catal. A:Chem. 182 (2002) 541. [4] W.M. Van Rhijn, D.E. DeVos, B.F. Sels, W.D. Bossaert and P.A. Jacos, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 182 (1998) 317. [5] W.D. Bossaert, D.E. DeVos, W.M. Van Rhijn, J. Bullen, P.J. Grobet and P.A. Jacobs, J. Catal. 182 (1999) 156. [6] D. Margolese, J.A. Melero, S.C. Christiansen, B.F. Chmelka and G.D. Stucky, Chem. Mater. 12 (2000) 2448. [7] S. Koujout and D.R. Brown in: Catalysis in Application Application, eds. S.D. Jackson, J.S.J. Hargreaves and D. Lennon (Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 2003) pp. 178–185. [8] S. Koujout, B.M. Kiernan, D.R. Brown, H.G.M. Edwards, J.A. Dale and S. Plant, Catal. Lett. 85 (2003) 33. [9] M. Hart, G. Fuller, D.R. Brown, C. Park, M.A. Keane, J.A. Dale, C.M. Fougret and R.W. Cockman, Catal. Lett. 72 (2001) 135. [10] C. Buttersack, H Widdeske and J. Klein, React. Polym. 5 (1987) 181. [11] M. Hart, G. Fuller, D.R. Brown, J. A Dale and S. Plant, J. Mol. Catal. A:Chem. 182–183 (2002) 439. [12] F. Ancilloti, M.M. Mauri and E. Pescaraollo, J. Catal. 46 (1977) 49. [13] K. Jerabek and K. Setinek, J. Mol. Catal. 39 (1987) 161. [14] J.H. Ahn, S.K. Ihn and K.S. Park, J. Catal. 113 (1988) 434. [15] P.T. Tanev and T.J. Pinnavaia, Science 267 (1995) 865. [16] D. Zhao, J. Feng, Q. Huo, N. Melosh, G.H. Fredrickson, B.F. Chmelka and G.D. Stucky, Science 279 (1998) 548. [17] E.M. Arnett, R.A. Haaksma, B. Chawla and M.H. Healy, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108 (1986) 4888. [18] E.M. Arnett, T. Absan and K. Amarnath, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113 (1991) 6858. [19] R.S. Drago and N. Kob, J. Phys. Chem. B 101 (1997) 3360. [20] C. Chronister and R. Drago, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115 (1993) 4793. [22] C.E. Harland, Ion Exchange:Theory and Practice 2nd Ed, (Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 1994). [23] M.J. Climent, A. Corma, S. Iborra and M.C. Navarro, J. Catal. 161 (1996) 783. [24] Y. Tanaka, N. Sawamura and M. Iwamoto, Tet. Lett. 39 (1998) 9457. [25] J. Deutsch, V. Quashning, E. Kemnitz, A. Auroux, H. Ehwald and H. Lieske, Top. Catal. 13 (2000) 281. [26] R. Thornton and B.C. Gates, J. Catal. 34 (1974) 275. [27] M.D. Grieser, A.D. Wilks and D.J. Pietrzyk, Anal. Chem. 44 (1972) 671. ', 'date_year' => '2004', 'status_changed_hour' => '18', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '15579' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1360231674', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Fieldhouse', 'eprintid' => '15579', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'John D.', 'creators_id' => 'j.d.fieldhouse@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Abuhabaya', 'eprintid' => '15579', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Abdullah ', 'creators_id' => 'a.abuhabaya@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '15579', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '10', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '30', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Influence of production variables for biodiesel synthesis on yields and fuel properties, and optimization of production conditions', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/55/79', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '9', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'a.abuhabaya@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.09.067', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '10', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '7', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '963-969', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Fuel', 'lastmod_second' => '29', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0016-2361', 'datestamp_hour' => '12', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '30', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 1, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '15579', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '2', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20130100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '10', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '6', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QD', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '4', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '15', 'datestamp_day' => '15', 'abstract' => 'This study presents an experimental investigation into the effects of using bio-diesel on diesel engine performance and its emissions. The bio-diesel fuels were produced from vegetable oils using the transesterification process with low molecular weight alcohols and sodium hydroxide then tested on a steady state engine test rig using a Euro 4 four cylinder Compression Ignition (CI) engine. Production optimization was achieved by changing the variables which included methanol/oil molar ratio, NaOH catalyst concentration, reaction time, reaction temperature, and rate of mixing to maximize bio-diesel yield. The technique used was the response surface methodology. In addition, a second-order model was developed to predict the bio-diesel yield if the production criteria is known. The model was validated using additional experimental testing.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '3494', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '4', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1016/j.fuel.2012.09.067', 'volume' => '103', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2013', 'status_changed_hour' => '12', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '7840' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1316078890', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Fieldhouse', 'eprintid' => '7840', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'John D.', 'creators_id' => 'j.d.fieldhouse@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Abuhabaya', 'eprintid' => '7840', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Abdullah ', 'creators_id' => 'a.abuhabaya@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '7840', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '6', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'Permission letter in file SJT ', 'event_title' => '2nd International Conference on Nuclear and Renewable Energy Sources', 'date_type' => 'completed', 'pres_type' => 'paper', 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2010', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/7840/2/FieldhouseVariation.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '3', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Variation of Engineering Performance and Emissions using Biodiesel Fuels', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/78/40', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '28', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => 7, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => undef, 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '6', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '15', 'publisher' => 'NURER', 'pagerange' => '580-585', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2010', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => 'Ankara, Turkey', 'type' => 'conference_item', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '47', 'place_of_pub' => '4-7 July 2010 Ankara TURKEY. ', 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '13', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '3', 'note' => 'Parallel Session 10A “Solar energy applications” Proceedings published by Vizyon Publishing House, 9786058854901', 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 7, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '7840', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2011', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => '2nd International Conference on Nuclear and Renewable Energy Resources ', 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '9', 'event_dates' => '4th-7th July 2010', 'fulltimestamp' => '20100707', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '9', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '39', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '55', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => 'conference', 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '24', 'datestamp_day' => '24', 'abstract' => 'There is considerable concern over the increasing demand on our limited supply fossil fuel and as a result initiatives are being considered to extend the use of such fossil fuels. In addition there is international concern regarding the associated pollution levels and it is these collective concerns that have increased the demand for alternative fuels to be used in internal combustion engines. This study investigates the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a compression ignition CI engine over its full speed and engine load range when running on differing type of biodiesel. Engine performance, measured as torque, power and specific fuel consumption are recorded at each engine parameter setting along with the exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2). It is seen that the benefits are not very clear and that reduced emissions may in fact be balanced by reduced performance or that increased performance is offset by higher emissions. Overall conclusion is that the sustainability of biodiesel as a green fuel is in question, with reports that deforestation is taking place to grow fuel stock. The paper will present the empirical results and look towards the peripheral effects of using arable land to satisfy the increasing need for fuel, and question the sustainability of such an approach. The increased demands on engine servicing are also considered within the paper, so presenting a balanced holistic approach to the uses of biofuels. The biodiesel processor was developed for the production of biodiesel from vegetable oils such as rapeseed, soybean, sunflower, corn and waste vegetable oil. The vegetable oils and its biodiesel samples were characterized and their rheological behavior was analyzer.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '2754', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '55', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2010', 'status_changed_hour' => '13', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '2236' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1284021820', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Fougret', 'eprintid' => '2236', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'C.M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Keane', 'eprintid' => '2236', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'M.A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Fuller', 'eprintid' => '2236', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Graham', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Park', 'eprintid' => '2236', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'C.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hart', 'eprintid' => '2236', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'M. P.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Cockman', 'eprintid' => '2236', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'R.W.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '2236', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Dale', 'eprintid' => '2236', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'J.A.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '10', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2008', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '30', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Acidities and catalytic activities of persulfonated poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) ion-exchange resins', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/22/36', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '44', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009032027366', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '10', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '9', 'publisher' => 'Springer', 'pagerange' => '135-141', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2008', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Catalysis Letters', 'lastmod_second' => '10', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1011372X', 'datestamp_hour' => '9', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '30', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => undef, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '2236', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2010', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '9', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20010000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '8', 'number' => '3/4', 'rev_number' => '13', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'QD', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '1', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '16', 'datestamp_day' => '16', 'abstract' => 'A series of macroporous sulfonated poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) ion-exchange resins with varying levels of sulfonation have been prepared. The acidities of these resins have been measured calorimetrically by ammonia sorption. Catalytic activities have been measured in two liquid-phase reactions: the dehydration of 1-hexanol under flow conditions and the hydration of propene as a batch process. The molar enthalpies of ammonia sorption show that the strength of the acid sites increases as the level of sulfonation is increased; catalytic activities follow the same trend. The most active resins are those that have been sulfonated at levels above one sulfonic acid group per aromatic ring (persulfonated). These persulfonated resins also show higher thermal stabilities than conventional resins (sulfonated at just below one acid group per aromatic ring). ', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '1', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1023/A:1009032027366', 'volume' => '72', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2001', 'status_changed_hour' => '9', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '2278' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => undef, 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Savill-Jowitt', 'eprintid' => '2278', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Claire', 'creators_id' => 'c.m.savill-jowitt@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Felix', 'eprintid' => '2278', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'S.P.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'eprintid' => '2278', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '10', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2008', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '12', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Base adsorption calorimetry for characterising surface acidity: a comparison between pulse flow and conventional “static” techniques ', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/22/78', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '4', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2005.02.012', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '10', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '20', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '59-65', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2008', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Thermochimica Acta', 'lastmod_second' => '12', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0040-6031', 'datestamp_hour' => '9', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Brown', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '12', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => undef, 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => undef, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '2278', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2008', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '10', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20050000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '9', 'number' => '1-2', 'rev_number' => '9', 'edit_lock_user' => undef, 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'D.R.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'mcrc', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '4', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '20', 'datestamp_day' => '20', 'abstract' => 'A pulsed flow adsorption microcalorimeter (pulse-FMC) has been developed by modifying a Setaram 111. It is tested in comparison with a conventional pulsed static adsorption microcalorimeter (pulse-SMC) for characterising surface acidity of solid acid catalysts. Small pulses of 1% ammonia in helium are delivered to an activated catalyst sample and its surface acidity is differentially profiled in terms of the molar enthalpy of ammonia adsorption (?Hads°) using a combination of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a downstream thermal conductivity detector (TCD). The pulsing action and its sequences are controlled by in-house developed software and the TCD output also is logged into a PC. Thus, the pulse-FMC is fully automated. Two sulfonated polystyrene resin-type catalysts, Amberlyst 15 and Amberlyst 35, a zeolite of the type H+-ZSM-5 (CT 410) and an acid activated clay (Fulcat 220) are characterised at appropriate temperatures using both the new technique and the conventional static base adsorption method. ?Hads° versus surface coverage profiles of all the four catalysts obtained from both pulse-FMC and the conventional method are found to be comparable. Results are interpreted in terms of the extent to which NH3 adsorption on the catalysts surface is under thermodynamic control in the two methods. ', 'creators_id' => 'd.r.brown@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '116', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '4', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.tca.2005.02.012', 'volume' => '433', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2005', 'status_changed_hour' => '9', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef } };

2014

Aburass, A., Yangchun , G., Tie , W., Fengshou, G., Andrew, B. and Brown, D. (2014) ‘Investigation of the Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Fuel Injection Pumps based on Vibration and Pressure Measurements’. In: VETOMAC-X 2014, 9-11th September 2014, Manchester Conference Centre (Days Hotel), University of Manchester, UK , p. 10

Elmekawy, A., Sweeney, J. and Brown, D. (2014) ‘Efficient synthesis of supported proline catalysts for asymmetric aldol reactionsCatalysis Science & Technology . ISSN 2044-4753

Morales, G., Osatiashtiani, A., Hernández, B., Iglesias, J., Melero, J., Paniagua, M., Brown, D., Granollers, M., Lee, A. and Wilson, K. (2014) ‘Conformal sulfated zirconia monolayer catalysts for the one-pot synthesis of ethyl levulinate from glucoseChemical Communications , 50 (79), pp. 11742-11745. ISSN 1359-7345

Motara, H., Mistry, D., Brown, D., Cryan, R., Nigen, M. and Page, M. (2014) ‘pH and basicity of ligands control the binding of metal-ions to B. cereus B1 ?-lactamaseChemical Science , 5 (8), pp. 3120-3129. ISSN 2041-6520

Ikhlaq, A., Brown, D. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B. (2014) ‘Catalytic ozonation for the removal of organic contaminants in water on ZSM-5 zeolitesApplied Catalysis B: Environmental , 154, pp. 110-122. ISSN 09263373

Elmekawy, A., Shiju, N., Rothenberg, G. and Brown, D. (2014) ‘Environmentally Benign Bifunctional Solid Acid and Base CatalystsIndustrial & Engineering Chemistry Research . ISSN 0888-5885

Osatiashtiani, A., Lee, A., Brown, D., Melero, J., Morales, G. and Wilson, K. (2014) ‘Bifunctional SO4/ZrO2 catalysts for 5-hydroxymethylfufural (5-HMF) production from glucoseCatalysis Science & Technology , 4 (2), pp. 333-342. ISSN 2044-4753

2013

Abuhabaya, A., Fieldhouse, J. and Brown, D. (2013) ‘The optimization of biodiesel production by using response surface methodology and its effect on compression ignition engineFuel Processing Technology , 113, pp. 57-62. ISSN 0378-3820

Carà, P., Pagliaro, M., Elmekawy, A., Brown, D., Verschuren, P., Shiju, N. and Rothenberg, G. (2013) ‘Hemicellulose hydrolysis catalysed by solid acidsCatalysis Science & Technology , 3 (8), pp. 2057-2061. ISSN 2044-4753

Ikhlaq, A., Brown, D. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B. (2013) ‘Mechanisms of catalytic ozonation: An investigation into superoxide ion radical and hydrogen peroxide formation during catalytic ozonation on alumina and zeolites in waterApplied Catalysis B: Environmental , 129, pp. 437-449. ISSN 0926-3373

Abuhabaya, A., Fieldhouse, J. and Brown, D. (2013) ‘Influence of production variables for biodiesel synthesis on yields and fuel properties, and optimization of production conditionsFuel , 103, pp. 963-969. ISSN 0016-2361

2012

Brown, D. and Andrijanto , E. (2012) ‘New Microporous Polystyrene Sulfonic Acid Catalyst for Free Fatty Acid Esterification’. In: IEX 2012 The International Ion Exchange Conference, 19-21 September 2012, Queens' College, Cambridge

Ikhlaq, A., Brown, D. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B. (2012) ‘Mechanisms of catalytic ozonation on alumina and zeolites in water: formation of hydroxyl radicalsApplied Catalysis B: Environmental , 123/4, pp. 94-106. ISSN 09263373

Cross, H., Parkes, G. and Brown, D. (2012) ‘Microwave calcination of Cu/Mg/Al hydrotalcite catalyst precursorApplied Catalysis A: General , 429/30, pp. 24-30. ISSN 0926860X

Nair, G., Adrijanto, E., Alsalme, A., Kozhevnikov, I., Cooke, D., Brown, D. and Shiju, N. (2012) ‘Glycerol utilization: solvent-free acetalisation over niobia catalystsCatalysis Science & Technology , 2 (6), pp. 1173-1179. ISSN 2044-4753

Andrijanto, E., Dawson, E. and Brown, D. (2012) ‘Hypercrosslinked polystyrene sulphonic acid catalysts for the esterification of free fatty acids in biodiesel synthesisApplied Catalysis B: Environmental , 115-6, pp. 261-268. ISSN 09263373

2011

Shiju, N., Alberts, A., Khalid, S., Brown, D. and Rothenberg, G. (2011) ‘Mesoporous Silica with Site-Isolated Amine and Phosphotungstic Acid Groups: A Solid Catalyst with Tunable Antagonistic Functions for One-Pot Tandem ReactionsAngewandte Chemie International Edition , 50 (41), pp. 9615-9619. ISSN 14337851

Shiju, N., Alberts, A., Khalid, S., Brown, D. and Rothenberg, G. (2011) ‘Mesoporous Silica with Site-Isolated Amine and Phosphotungstic Acid Groups: A Solid Catalyst with Tunable Antagonistic Functions for One-Pot Tandem ReactionsAngewandte Chemie , 123 (41), pp. 9789-9793. ISSN 00448249

Abuhabaya, A., Fieldhouse, J. and Brown, D. (2011) ‘The Effects of Using Bio-diesel as Fuel on Compression Ignition (CI) Engine and Its Production from Vegetable Oils’. In: Proceedings of 2011 International Conference on Environmental, Biomedical and Biotechnology (IPCBEE). Singapore: International Association of Computer Science and Information Technoloyg (IACSIT). pp. 41-46. ISBN 978-981-08-9168-8

Raveendran Shiju, N., Yoshida, K., Boyes, E., Brown, D. and Gai, P. (2011) ‘Dynamic atomic scale in situ electron microscopy in the development of an efficient heterogeneous catalytic process for pharmaceutical NSAIDSCatalysis Science & Technology , 1 (3), pp. 413-425. ISSN 2044-4753

2010

Abuhabaya, A., Fieldhouse, J. and Brown, D. (2010) ‘Evaluation of Properties and use of waste vegetable oil (WVO), pure vegetable oils and standard diesel as used in a compression ignition engine’. In: Future Technologies in Computing and Engineering Annual Researchers' Conference (CEARC'10). University of Huddersfield, Computing and Engineering Annual Researchers’ Conference 2010: The University of Huddersfield . pp. 71-76. ISBN 9781862180932

Cross, H. and Brown, D. (2010) ‘Entrained Sodium in Mixed Metal Oxide Catalysts Derived from Layered Double HydroxidesCatalysis Communications , 12 (3), pp. 243-245. ISSN 1566-7367

Shiju, N., Brown, D., Wilson, K. and Rothenberg, G. (2010) ‘Glycerol Valorization: Dehydration to Acrolein Over Silica-Supported Niobia CatalystsTopics in Catalysis , 53 (15-18), pp. 1217-1223. ISSN 1022-5528

Dacquin, J., Cross, H., Brown, D., Duren, T., Williams, J., Lee, A. and Wilson, K. (2010) ‘Interdependent lateral interactions, hydrophobicity and acid strength and their influence on the catalytic activity of nanoporous sulfonic acid silicas Green Chemistry , 12 (8), pp. 1383-1391. ISSN 1463-9262

Abuhabaya, A., Fieldhouse, J. and Brown, D. (2010) ‘Variation of Engineering Performance and Emissions using Biodiesel Fuels’. In: 2nd International Conference on Nuclear and Renewable Energy Sources, 4th-7th July 2010, Ankara, Turkey , pp. 580-585

Montero, J., Brown, D., Gai, P., Lee, A. and Wilson, K. (2010) ‘In situ studies of structure–reactivity relations in biodiesel synthesis over nanocrystalline MgOChemical Engineering Journal , 161 (3), pp. 332-339. ISSN 1385-8947

Bandyopadhyay, M., Shiju, N. and Brown, D. (2010) ‘MCM-48 as a support for sulfonic acid catalystsCatalysis Communications , 11 (7), pp. 660-664. ISSN 1566-7367

Yoshida, K., Shiju, N., Brown, D., Boyes, E. and Gai, P. (2010) ‘Double aberration-corrected TEM/STEM of tungstated zirconia nanocatalysts for the synthesis of paracetamolJournal of Physics: Conference Series , 241 (1), p. 012035. ISSN 1742-6596

2009

Shiju, N., Williams, H. and Brown, D. (2009) ‘Cs exchanged phosphotungstic acid as an efficient catalyst for liquid-phase Beckmann rearrangement of oximesApplied Catalysis B: Environmental , 90 (3-4), pp. 451-457. ISSN 0926-3373

Siril, P., Shiju, N., Brown, D. and Wilson, K. (2009) ‘Optimising Catalytic Properties of Supported Sulfonic Acid CatalystsApplied Catalysis A General , 364 (1-2), pp. 95-100. ISSN 0926-860X

Pesaresi, L., Brown, D., Lee, A., Montero, J., Williams, H. and Wilson, K. (2009) ‘Cs-doped H4SiW12O40 catalysts for biodiesel applicationsApplied Catalysis A General , 360 (1), pp. 50-58. ISSN 0926-860X

Shiju, N., AnilKumar, M., Hoelderich, W. and Brown, D. (2009) ‘Tungstated Zirconia Catalysts for Liquid-Phase Beckmann Rearrangement of Cyclohexanone Oxime: Structure-Activity RelationshipThe Journal of Physical Chemistry C , 113 (18), pp. 7735-7742. ISSN 19327447

2008

Brown, D. and Siril, P. (2008) ‘Enhanced Acidic and Catalytic Properties of Modified Polystyrene Sulfonic Acid Resins’. In: IEX 2008 Conference, 6-11 July 2008, Cambridge, UK , pp. 435-442

Kooli, F., Liu, Y., Alshahateet, S., Siril, P. and Brown, D. (2008) ‘Effect of pillared clays on the hydroisomerization of n-heptane Catalysis Today , 131 (1-4), pp. 244-249. ISSN 0920-5861

Siril, P., Cross, H. and Brown, D. (2008) ‘New polystyrene sulfonic acid resin catalysts with enhanced acidic and catalytic properties Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical , 279 (1), pp. 63-68. ISSN 1381-1169

2007

Siril, P., Davison, A., Randhawa, J. and Brown, D. (2007) ‘Acid strengths and catalytic activities of sulfonic acid on polymeric and silica supports Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical , 267 (1-2), pp. 72-78. ISSN 1381-1169

Narasimharao, K., Brown, D., Lee, A., Newman, A., Siril, P., Tavener, S. and Wilson, K. (2007) ‘Structure–activity relations in Cs-doped heteropolyacid catalysts for biodiesel productionJournal of Catalysis , 248 (2), pp. 226-234. ISSN 00219517

2006

Siril, P. and Brown, D. (2006) ‘Acid site accessibility in sulfonated polystyrene acid catalysts: Calorimetric study of NH3 adsorption from flowing gas stream Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical , 252 (1-2), pp. 125-131. ISSN 1381-1169

Newman, A., Brown, D., Siril, P., Lee, A. and Wilson, K. (2006) ‘Structural studies of high dispersion H3PW12O40/SiO2 solid acid catalysts Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics , 8, pp. 2893-2902. ISSN 1463-9076

Lapkin, A., Savill-Jowitt, C., Brown, D. and Edler, K. (2006) ‘Microcalorimetric Study of Ammonia Chemisorption on H3PW12O40 Supported onto Mesoporous Synthetic Carbons and SBA-15Langmuir , 22 (18), pp. 7664-7671. ISSN 0743-7463

2005

Koujout, S. and Brown, D. (2005) ‘Calorimetric base adsorption and neutralisation studies of supported sulfonic acidsThermochimica Acta , 434 (1-2), pp. 158-164. ISSN 0040-6031

Felix, S., Savill-Jowitt, C. and Brown, D. (2005) ‘Base adsorption calorimetry for characterising surface acidity: a comparison between pulse flow and conventional “static” techniques Thermochimica Acta , 433 (1-2), pp. 59-65. ISSN 0040-6031

2004

Koujout, S. and Brown, D. (2004) ‘The influence of solvent on the acidity and activity of supported sulfonic acid catalysts Catalysis Letters , 98 (4), pp. 195-202. ISSN 1572-879X

Hart, M. and Brown, D. (2004) ‘Surface acidities and catalytic activities of acid-activated claysJournal of Molecular Catalysis A Chemical , 212 (1-2), pp. 315-322. ISSN 13811169

2003

Fesenko, E., Barnes, P., Parkes, G., Brown, D. and Naderi, M. (2003) ‘Application of SCTA to the study of the reactivity of acid-base catalystsJournal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry , 72 (3), pp. 1103-1105. ISSN 14182874

Fraile, J., Garcia, J., Mayoral, J., Salvatella, L., Vispe, E., Brown, D. and Fuller, G. (2003) ‘Experimental and theoretical studies on structure-reactivity relationships of titanium-modified silicas in the hydrogen peroxide-promoted oxidation of cyclohexeneThe Journal of Physical Chemistry B , 107 (2), pp. 519-526. ISSN 15206106

Koujout, S. and Brown, D. (2003) ‘Supported sulfonic acid catalysts in aqueous reactions’. In: Catalysis in Application. London, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. 178-185. ISBN 978-0-85404-608-9

Koujout, S., Kiernan, B., Brown, D., Edwards, H., Dale, J. and Plant, S. (2003) ‘The nature of the internal acid solutions in sulfonated poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) resins Catalysis Letters , 85 (1-2), pp. 33-40. ISSN 1572-879X

2002

Pickett, J., Naderi, M., Chinn, M. and Brown, D. (2002) ‘The adsorption and decomposition of cyanogen chloride by modified inorganic molecular sievesSeparation Science and Technology , 37 (5), pp. 1079-1093. ISSN 0149-6395

Naderi, M., Pickett, J., Chinn, M. and Brown, D. (2002) ‘Modified mesoporous silicates for the adsorption and decomposition of toxic gases Journal of Materials Chemistry , 12 (4), pp. 1086-1089. ISSN 1364-5501

Naderi, M., Dale, J., Parkes, G. and Brown, D. (2002) ‘Solvation of exchangeable cations in sulfonated polystyrene ion-exchange resins: an ESR studyReactive and Functional Polymers , 51 (1), p. 25. ISSN 1381-5148

2001

Hart, M., Fuller, G., Brown, D., Dale, J. and Plant, S. (2001) ‘Sulfonated poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) ion-exchange resins: acidities and catalytic activities in aqueous reactionsJournal of Molecular Catalysis A Chemical , 182-183 (1-2), pp. 439-445. ISSN 1381-1169

Edwards, H., Brown, D., Dale, J. and Plant, S. (2001) ‘Raman spectroscopic studies of acid dissociation in sulfonated polystyrene resinsJournal of Molecular Structure , 595 (1-3), pp. 111-118. ISSN 00222860

Fraile, J., Garcia, J., Mayoral, J., Vispe, E., Brown, D. and Naderi, M. (2001) ‘Is MCM-41 really advantageous over amorphous silica? The case of grafted titanium epoxidation catalystsChemical Communications (16), pp. 1510-1511. ISSN 1364-548X

Barnes, P., Fesenko, E., Parkes, G., Brown, D. and Naderi, M. (2001) ‘A new approach to the study of the reactivity of solid-acid catalysts: the application of constant rate thermal analysis to the desorption and surface reaction of isopropylamine from NaY and HY zeolitesJournal of Physical Chemistry B , 105, pp. 6178-6185. ISSN 1089-5647

Michalik, J., Brown, D., Yu, J., Danilczuk, M., Kim, J. and Kevan, L. (2001) ‘Conduction electron paramagnetic resonance of metal nanoparticles in AlMCM-41 aluminosilica mesoporous molecular sievesPhysical Chemistry Chemical Physics , 3 (9), pp. 1705-1709. ISSN 14639076

Hart, M., Fuller, G., Brown, D., Park, C., Keane, M., Dale, J., Fougret, C. and Cockman, R. (2001) ‘Acidities and catalytic activities of persulfonated poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) ion-exchange resinsCatalysis Letters , 72 (3/4), pp. 135-141. ISSN 1011372X

2000

Edwards, H., Brown, D., Dale, J. and Plant, S. (2000) ‘Raman spectroscopy of sulfonated polystyrene resinsVibrational Spectroscopy , 24 (2), pp. 213-222. ISSN 09242031

Research Degree Supervision

Supported Acid Catalysts

We will use siliceous ordered mesoporous molecular sieve materials and disordered silica gels as supports for acid catalysts. We will concentrate on supported sulfonic acids. We will prepare a range of these materials, using various supports and methods of functionalisation. Catalyst acidities will be characterised by adsorption calorimetry, and activity in a range of test reactions. The objective will be to identify the structural features in these materials which control catalytic activity and can be optimised to prepare catalysts for specific reactions.

Solid Base Catalysts

The objective will be to study a range of solid base catalysts using adsorpion calorimetry with suitable acidic probe molecules, and to link the function of these materials to their basic properties and structures. Catalytic properties will be tested in model reactions. Initially, we plan to concentrate on layered double hydroxides and the mixed oxides which arise from their calcination. There are many variables to investigate in the composition and preparation of these catalysts and we hope to develop a model relating basic and catalytic properties to structural properties and synthetic routes/compositions.

Catalysts based on Clay Minerals

Expanding clays such as montmorllinites will be characterised as the basis for acid catalysts. Materials will be characterised by base adsorption calorimetry and other spectroscopic techniques. We are particularly interested in incorporation of lanthanide metal ions with a view to generating strong Lewis acid catalysts, and these properties will be tested in suitable reactions. The objective is to develop an understanding of the way in which clay-based catalysts can deliver Lewis acidity and Lewis acid catalysis.

Basic catalysts for applications in bio-fuel synthesis

A range of basic catalysts will be charaterised by adsorption calorimetry and tested in the ester hydrolysis and transesterification reactions associated with the generations of biofuels from triglycerides. We will start with hydrotalcite materials and their calcination products, and move on to other mixed and single oxides. The objective will be to link structural properties to basicity and to activity in these reactions. It is hoped that this project will lead to collaboration within the Department over the application of the same catalysts to the degradation of lignin-type compounds, reactions with potentially greated importance than those of triglycerides.

Last updated Thursday 6 March 2014
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