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Portrait of Dr Alan Smith Dr Alan Smith

a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk | 01484 472305



Biography

Dr Smith graduated from Salford University (Biochemical Science) in 1997 before gaining his PhD from Cranfield University developing polysaccharide substitutes for gelatin in the production of pharmaceutical capsules under the supervision of Prof. Ed Morris. Following his PhD Dr Smith worked for 2 years as a formulation scientist within the pharmaceutical industry before taking up a position as a polysaccharide chemist at Industrial Research Limited, Wellington, New Zealand. On his return to the UK Dr. Smith has worked as a post doctoral research fellow at the University of Birmingham (School of Dentistry) and Aston University (School of Pharmacy) developing 3D cell scaffolds and polysaccharide based drug delivery systems. In 2008 he joined the tissue regeneration and interface laboratory within Chemical Engineering at the University of Birmingham where he continued to develop his research on biopolymers for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications before being appointed as a Senior Lecturer in Pharmaceutics at the University of Huddersfield in March 2011.

Research & Scholarship

Dr Smiths’s research focuses on pharmaceutical and medical applications of biopolymers. Biopolymers are a versatile class of materials which exhibit easily tailorable properties that are advantageous in developing bio-responsive drug delivery systems and functional cell culture substrates.

Cell Encapsulation and Delivery

Polysaccharides hydrogels provide an extremely mild and simple route to 3D cell immobilisation providing the cells with an environment that is similar to natural extracellular matrix. In collaboration with the University of Birmingham Dr Smith is developing these hydrogels to enable the culture of multiple cell types within a single 3D structure. He is also interested in how the mechanical properties of hydrogels change in physiological and cell culture conditions and how this impacts on the phenotype of encapsulated cells. In addition to this, he is also investigating how the extent of diffusion of molecules through different hydrogels effect tissue development.

Bioadhesion

The ability to retain a drug or cells at the site of action is an important consideration for many localised applications such as wound healing and ocular drug delivery. Biopolymers in particular, can interact with physiological secretions via physical interactions allowing sustained delivery of therapeutic molecules. Currently, Dr Smith is investigating how modification of various biopolymers can enhance bioadhesion and increase drug retention time.

Dosage form development

Within this research theme Dr Smith is interested in developing modified release formulations for oral delivery by utilizing the physiological responsive nature of biopolymers. In particular, developing novel enteric pharmaceutical capsules (Patent No. WO/2008/119943) and enteric oral liquid formulations.

Publications and Other Research Outputs

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'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '7', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '18', 'datestamp_day' => '18', 'abstract' => undef, 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => '', 'userid' => '8591', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '7', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1211/002235707781850168', 'volume' => '59', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2007', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '15704' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1371640124', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hunt', 'eprintid' => '15704', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Nicola C', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Grover', 'eprintid' => '15704', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Liam Michael', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'eprintid' => '15704', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk' }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Birdi', 'eprintid' => '15704', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Gurpreet', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Shelton', 'eprintid' => '15704', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Richard M', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '11', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/15704/1/smithbm301321d.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '39', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Alginate hydrogel has a negative impact on in vitro collagen 1 deposition by fibroblasts', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/57/04', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '9', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bm301321d', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '11', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '19', 'publisher' => 'American Chemical Society', 'pagerange' => '4032-4038', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Biomacromolecules', 'lastmod_second' => '9', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1525-7797 ', 'datestamp_hour' => '16', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '39', 'note' => 'Reprinted with permission from Biomacromolecules DOI: 10.1021/bm301321d Publication Date (Web): October 19, 2012 Copyright © 2012 American Chemical Societ', 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 11, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '15704', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '6', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20121100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => '2', 'rev_number' => '35', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '6', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '15', 'datestamp_day' => '15', 'abstract' => 'Hydrogels have been widely investigated as 3D culture substrates because of their reported structural similarity to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Limited ECM deposition, however, occurs within these materials, so the resulting “tissues” bear little resemblance to those found in the body. Here matrix deposition by fibroblasts encapsulated within a calcium alginate (Ca-alg) hydrogel was investigated. Although the cells transcribed mRNA for coll I? over a period of 3 weeks, very little collagen protein deposition was observed within the gel by histology or immunohistochemistry (IHC). Although molecular diffusion demonstrated charge dependency, this did not prevent the flux of both positively and negative charged amino acids through the gel, suggesting that the absence of ECM could not be attributed to substrate limitation. The flux of protein, however, was charge-dependent as proteins with a net negative charge passed quickly through the Ca-alg into the medium. The minimal collagen deposition within the Ca-alg was attributed to a combination of rapid movement of negatively charged procollagen through the gel and steric hindrance of fibril formation.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '8591', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '6', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1021/bm301321d', 'volume' => '13', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2012', 'status_changed_hour' => '16', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '9876' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1300897357', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'eprintid' => '9876', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk' }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Grover', 'eprintid' => '9876', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'L.M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hunt', 'eprintid' => '9876', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'N.C.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Shelton', 'eprintid' => '9876', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'R.M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Gbureck', 'eprintid' => '9876', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'U.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '3', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2011', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/9876/2/Acta_Biomaterialia_Paper.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '59', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Encapsulation of fibroblasts causes accelerated alginate hydrogel degradation', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/98/76', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '31', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2010.03.026', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '3', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '24', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '3649-3656', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2011', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Acta Biomaterialia', 'lastmod_second' => '40', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1742-7061', 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '59', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 9, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '9876', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2011', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '3', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20100900', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '12', 'number' => '9', 'rev_number' => '18', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '38', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '21', 'datestamp_day' => '21', 'abstract' => 'Calcium-alginate hydrogel has been widely studied as a material for cell encapsulation for tissue engineering. At present, the effect that cells have on the degradation of alginate hydrogel is largely unknown. We have shown that fibroblasts encapsulated at a density of 7.5 × 105 cells ml?1 in both 2% and 5% w/v alginate remain viable for at least 60 days. Rheological analysis was used to study how the mechanical properties exhibited by alginate hydrogel changed during 28 days in vitro culture. Alginate degradation was shown to occur throughout the study but was greatest within the first 7 days of culture for all samples, which correlated with a sharp release of calcium ions from the construct. Fibroblasts were shown to increase the rate of degradation during the first 7 days when compared with acellular samples in both 2% and 5% w/v gels, but after 28 days both acellular and cell-encapsulating samples retained disc-shaped morphologies and gel-like spectra. The results demonstrate that although at an early stage cells influence the mechanical properties of encapsulating alginate, over a longer period of culture, the hydrogels retain sufficient mechanical integrity to exhibit gel-like properties. This allows sustained immobilization of the cells at the desired location in vivo where they can produce extracellular matrix and growth factors to expedite the healing process. ', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '8591', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '38', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2010.03.026', 'volume' => '6', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2010', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '9920' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1326795577', 'creatorlist' => { '6' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Menciassi', 'eprintid' => '9920', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '6', 'creators_name_given' => 'A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Levi', 'eprintid' => '9920', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '7' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Beccai', 'eprintid' => '9920', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '7', 'creators_name_given' => 'L.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Grover', 'eprintid' => '9920', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Liam M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Allman', 'eprintid' => '9920', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'R.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'eprintid' => '9920', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Buselli', 'eprintid' => '9920', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'E.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '5' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Mattoli', 'eprintid' => '9920', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '5', 'creators_name_given' => 'V.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '3', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2011', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/9920/1/MME_papar.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '9', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Development and characterization of a bio-hybrid skin-like stretchable electrode', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/99/20', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '21', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mee.2010.12.011', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '3', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '17', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '1676-1680', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2011', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Microelectronic Engineering ', 'lastmod_second' => '43', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0167-9317', 'datestamp_hour' => '12', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '9', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 8, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '9920', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2012', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '1', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20110800', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '10', 'number' => '8', 'rev_number' => '15', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'TK', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '53', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '24', 'datestamp_day' => '24', 'abstract' => 'This work presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a polymer based stretchable electrode for cell monitoring. The final goal is the development of innovative bio-hybrid skin-like tactile sensors with mammalian cells as core biological elements; to achieve such aim the enabling technological approach is pursued in this investigation. Electrodes are needed to detect cells response, thus the first step of the bio-hybrid system fabrication is the development of a platform able to record such response and transmit it to the external world. The stretchable electrode is composed by a conductive layer (few ? of Ti plus 90 nm of Au) on a polymeric substrate (1 mm thick PDMS membrane). Cellular adhesion was verified and cellular response to an induced electrode strain of 1% was detected through fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence intensities were 104.82 ± 9.64 a.u. and 129.66 ± 13.06 a.u. prior and during electrode strain, respectively. Electromechanical characterization of the stretchable electrode revealed excellent stability and reliability within the 1% strain, which is the operative range identified for the future tactile sensor application. Results showed that the electrode was conductive up to 14% of strain. Furthermore, frequency impedance measurements demonstrated the electrode capability of detecting presence of cells. 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Rheological data from temperature sweeps confirm that in addition to orders of magnitude differences in G' between 1% gellan and 1% gellan with alphaMEM, there is also a 20°C increase in the temperature at which the onset of gelation takes place when alphaMEM is present. Frequency sweeps confirm the formation of a true gel; mechanical spectra for mixtures of gellan and alphaMEM clearly demonstrate G' to be independent of frequency. It is possible to immobilize cells within a three-dimensional (3D) gellan matrix that remain viable for up to 21 days in culture by adding a suspension of rat bone marrow cells (rBMC) in alphaMEM to 1% gellan solution. This extremely simple approach to cell immobilization within 3D constructs, made possible by the fact that gellan solutions cross-link in the presence of millimolar concentrations of cations, poses a very low risk to a cell population immobilized within a gellan matrix and thus indicates the potential of gellan for use as a tissue engineering scaffold. 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causing considerable economic loss to farmers and Government in the United Kingdom as its incidence is increasing. Efforts to control bTB in the UK are hampered by the infection in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) that represent a wildlife reservoir and source of recurrent M. bovis exposure to cattle. Vaccination of badgers with the human TB vaccine, M. bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), in oral bait represents a possible disease control tool and holds the best prospect for reaching badger populations over a wide geographical area. Using mouse and guinea pig models, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy, respectively, of candidate badger oral vaccines based on formulation of BCG in lipid matrix, alginate beads, or a novel microcapsular hybrid of both lipid and alginate. Two different oral doses of BCG were evaluated in each formulation for their protective efficacy in guinea pigs, while a single dose was evaluated in mice. In mice, significant immune responses (based on lymphocyte proliferation and expression of IFN-?) were only seen with the lipid matrix and the lipid in alginate microcapsular formulation, corresponding to the isolation of viable BCG from alimentary tract lymph nodes. In guinea pigs, only BCG formulated in lipid matrix conferred protection to the spleen and lungs following aerosol route challenge with M. bovis. Protection was seen with delivery doses in the range 106–107 CFU, although this was more consistent in the spleen at the higher dose. No protection in terms of organ CFU was seen with BCG administered in alginate beads or in lipid in alginate microcapsules, although 107 in the latter formulation conferred protection in terms of increasing body weight after challenge and a smaller lung to body weight ratio at necropsy. These results highlight the potential for lipid, rather than alginate, -based vaccine formulations as suitable delivery vehicles for an oral BCG vaccine in badgers.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '8591', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '36', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.08.028', 'volume' => '26', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2008', 'status_changed_hour' => '16', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '9878' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => 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'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2011', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/image.png;/9878/1/23.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '10', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Polymer film formulations for the preparation of enteric pharmaceutical capsules', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/98/78', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '40', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1211/jpp.62.02.0003', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '3', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '21', 'publisher' => 'Wiley ', 'pagerange' => '167-172', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2011', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology', 'lastmod_second' => '10', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0022-3573', 'datestamp_hour' => '16', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '10', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 2, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '9878', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2011', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '3', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20100200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '16', 'number' => '2', 'rev_number' => '14', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '40', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '21', 'datestamp_day' => '21', 'abstract' => 'Objectives Standard pharmaceutical capsules are designed to dissolve in the acidic environment of the stomach releasing the encapsulated contents for absorption. When release is required further along the gastrointestinal tract capsules can be coated with acid insoluble polymers to enable passage through the stomach and dissolution in the intestine. This paper describes formulations that have the potential to be used to produce two-piece hard capsules for post-gastric delivery without the requirement of an exterior coat. Methods The formulation uses three polysaccharides: sodium alginate, hypromellose and gellan gum to provide acid insolubility and the ability to form a capsule using standard industrial equipment. Key findings The rheological profile on cooling, of the base material, water content and thickness of the films were shown to be comparable with those of commercial capsules. The capsules remained intact for 2 h in 100 mM HCl at pH 1.2 and within 5 min of being removed from the acid and submerged in phosphate-buffered saline at pH 6.8 were ruptured. Conclusions Selected formulations from this study have potential for use as delayed release capsules.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '8591', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '40', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1211/jpp.62.02.0003', 'volume' => '62', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2010', 'status_changed_hour' => '16', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '19778' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1405598427', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Ginting', 'eprintid' => '19778', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Gidion', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Ghori', 'eprintid' => '19778', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Muhammad U.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Conway', 'eprintid' => '19778', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Barbara R', 'creators_id' => 'b.r.conway@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'eprintid' => '19778', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '3', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'Emailed author for FT 6/3/14', 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/19778/1/conwayIJP_13903.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '18', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Simultaneous quantification of drug release and erosion from hypromellose hydrophilic matrices', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/97/78', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '1', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'b.r.conway@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.02.028', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '3', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '17', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '405-412', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'International Journal of Pharmaceutics', 'lastmod_second' => '22', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0378-5173', 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '18', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 4, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '19778', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20140400', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '12', 'number' => '1-2', 'rev_number' => '14', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'R1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '28', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '6', 'datestamp_day' => '6', 'abstract' => 'Hypromellose, HPMC, is frequently used to control drug release from matrix tablet formulations. Drug is released by a combination of diffusion through and erosion of, the matrix and is usually measured invitro by separate dissolution and swelling/erosion studies. The present study was designed to measure matrix erosion, polymer dissolution and drug release kinetics and their inter-relationship in a single experiment using a phenol-sulphuric acid assay to quantify dissolved HPMC alongside spectrophotometrical analysis of drug release. HPMC-based matrix tablets were manufactured containing two drugs at various drug:HPMC ratios. Drug release was determined and the degree of erosion was calculated by gravimetry. Results showed the matrix erosion rate and drug release were dependent on HPMC content and drug solubility, as expected. It was also apparent that the erosion rate was directly related to the drug release kinetics and comparative analysis of both matrix erosion techniques showed a high level of correlation. The findings show that a simple and inexpensive assay can be utilised not only to quantify HPMC but can also be used to calculate the degree of erosion of tablet matrices, negating the need for a separate study and providing a simplified practical approach that may be of use during product optimization.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '6', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '28', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.02.028', 'volume' => '465', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2014', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '9881' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1380292033', 'creatorlist' => { '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Morris', 'eprintid' => '9881', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'E.R.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'eprintid' => '9881', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk' }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Richardson', 'eprintid' => '9881', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'R.K.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Agoub', 'eprintid' => '9881', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'A.A.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Giannouli', 'eprintid' => '9881', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'P.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '3', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2011', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/9881/2/carbohydrate_polymers_paper.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '24', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => '“Melt-in-the-mouth” gels from mixtures of xanthan and konjac glucomannan under acidic conditions: A rheological and calorimetric study of the mechanism of synergistic gelation', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/98/81', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '27', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2007.02.014', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '3', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '27', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '713-724', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2011', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Carbohydrate Polymers', 'lastmod_second' => '21', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0144-8617', 'datestamp_hour' => '16', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '24', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 7, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '9881', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '9', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20070700', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => '4', 'rev_number' => '15', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '11', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '23', 'datestamp_day' => '23', 'abstract' => 'The effect of acidification on a typical commercial xanthan and on pyruvate-free xanthan (PFX), alone and in gelling mixtures with konjac glucomannan (KGM), has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and small deformation oscillatory measurements of storage modulus (G0) and loss modulus (G00). For both xanthan samples, progressive reduction in pH caused a progressive increase in temperature of the disorder–order transition in DSC, and a progressive reduction in gelation temperature with KGM. This inverse correlation is interpreted as showing that synergistic gelation involves disruption of the xanthan 5-fold helix, probably by attachment of KGM to the cellulosic backbone of the xanthan molecule (as proposed previously by a research group in the Institute of Food Research, Norwich, UK). Higher transition temperature accompanied by lower gelation temperature for PFX in comparison with commercial xanthan at neutral pH is explained in the same way. However, an additional postulate from the Norwich group, that attachment of KGM (or galactomannans) can occur only when the xanthan molecule is disordered, is inconsistent with the observation that gelation of acidified mixtures of KGM with PFX can occur at temperatures more than 60 ?C below completion of conformational ordering of the PFX component (as characterised by DSC). Increase in G0 on cooling for mixtures of commercial xanthan with KGM at pH values of 4.5 and 4.25 occurred in two discrete steps, the first following the temperature-course observed for the same mixtures at neutral pH and the second occurring over the lower temperatures observed for mixtures of KGM with PFX at the same values of pH. These two ‘‘waves’’ of gel formation are attributed to interaction of KGM with, respectively, xanthan sequences that had retained a high content of pyruvate substituents, and sequences depleted in pyruvate by acid hydrolysis. At pH values of ?4.0 and lower, gelation of mixtures of KGM with commercial xanthan followed essentially the same temperature course as for mixtures with PFX, indicating extensive loss of pyruvate under these more strongly acidic conditions. Mixtures prepared at pH values in the range 4.0–3.5 gave comparable moduli at room temperature (20 ?C) to those obtained at neutral pH, but showed substantial softening on heating to body temperature, suggesting possible applications in replacement of gelatin in products where ‘‘melt-in-the mouth’’ characteristics are important for acceptability to the consumer.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '8591', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '11', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2007.02.014', 'volume' => '69', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2007', 'status_changed_hour' => '16', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '19838' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1395152875', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Jarved', 'eprintid' => '19838', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'O.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'eprintid' => '19838', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk' }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Perrie', 'eprintid' => '19838', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Yvonne', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Batchelor', 'eprintid' => '19838', 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Cell viability and cell attachment studies were performed on 3T3 fibroblasts cultured for a period of 12 days on the surface and when encapsulated within a 2% iota-carrageenan hydrogel. It was found that 3T3 fibroblasts seeded onto the surface of the gel did not show signs of attachment and the proportion of live cells decreased by 33% over a period of 12 days. The proportion of live cells encapsulated within the gel remained constant and there was evidence of cell proliferation throughout the 12 day study (4-fold increase in cell number). The extent of degradation of the gel for both encapsulated and non cell-seeded forms was also evaluated and showing no significant degradation for both types. These results indicate that iota-carrageenan may be a suitable scaffold material for use in tissue engineering and a potential tool for studying cell proliferation in three dimensions.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => '', 'userid' => '8591', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '54', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => undef, 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2009', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '21548' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1410879076', 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'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.08.044', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '9', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '16', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '335-343', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'International Journal of Pharmaceutics', 'lastmod_second' => '29', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0378-5173', 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '29', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 11, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '21548', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '9', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20141120', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '14', 'number' => '1-2', 'rev_number' => '18', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '56', 'conductors_name_honourific' => 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A potential route to achieve modified release in oral liquids is by using fluid (sheared) gels formed by introducing a shear field during gelation in gel-forming biopolymers. These fluid gels can act as pourable viscoelastic fluids but retain true gel micro/nano structure. Here, we have demonstrated that fluid gels have potential as paediatric oral liquids preventing release of ibuprofen in simulated gastric fluid. Subsequent release at pH 7.4 was affected by the duration of exposure and magnitude of acid pH with a linear relationship between onset of release and the preceding acidic exposure duration. Delayed release was a result of increasing gel stiffness, a consequence of the acidity of the initial release media and exposure time. A much faster release rate was measured when exposure time in acid was 10 min compared with 60 min. This study highlights the potential to design fluid gels that are tuned to have a specified stiffness at a particular pH and exposure time. This could enable the preparation oral liquids with modified release behaviour.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '8591', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '56', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.08.044', 'volume' => '475', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2014', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '9877' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1300722025', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 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'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2011', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/image.png;/9877/1/31.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '45', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Alginate-Loaded Liposomes Can Protect Encapsulated Alkaline Phosphatase Functionality When Exposed to Gastric pH', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/98/77', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '11', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf904466p', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '3', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '21', 'publisher' => 'American Chemical Society', 'pagerange' => '4719-4724', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2011', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry', 'lastmod_second' => '45', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0021-8561', 'datestamp_hour' => '16', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '45', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 4, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '9877', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2011', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '3', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20100400', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '16', 'number' => '8', 'rev_number' => '13', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '11', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '21', 'datestamp_day' => '21', 'abstract' => 'The present study has evaluated the potential of alginate-loaded liposomes as a vehicle for the oral delivery of bioactive proteins. The vesicles were prepared from the phospholipid dipalmatoyl phosphatidylcholine using a simple dry film hydration technique. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was used as a model bioactive protein, which was encapsulated in alginate-loaded liposomes and conventional liposomes. These vesicles were subject to physical characterization and stability analysis at varying pH values. The enzymatic activity of the ALP was evaluated following exposure to simulated gastric pH. The alginate-loaded liposomes were typically of the order of 10 ?m; however, there was evidence of vesicle aggregation thought to be due to alginate present on the surface of the vesicles. The typical size of the aggregated vesicles was ?30 ?m. The enzyme activity of APL following 2 h of exposure to simulated gastric pH was maintained at a significantly higher level when encapsulated in the alginate-loaded liposomes as compared to ALP loaded in conventional liposomes [80% as compared to 55% (p < 0.05), respectively].', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '8591', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '11', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1021/jf904466p', 'volume' => '58', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2010', 'status_changed_hour' => '16', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '11930' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1360230504', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bridson', 'eprintid' => '11930', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Rachel H.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Grover', 'eprintid' => '11930', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Liam M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Birdi', 'eprintid' => '11930', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Gupreet', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Bohari', 'eprintid' => '11930', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Siti Pauliena Mohd ', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'eprintid' => '11930', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '11', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'File attached by author won't open. Emailed author for replacment PP SJT 15/11/11', 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2011', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/image.png;/11930/1/science?_ob=MiamiImageURL%26_cid=274145%26_user=495973%26_pii=S1751616111002517%26_check=y%26_origin=%26_coverDate=17%2DOct%2D2011%26view=c%26wchp=dGLzVlt%2DzSkWA%26_valck=1%26md5=48db8582632a1a40e2a5366be3a4af4e%26ie=%252Fsdarticle.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '19', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Modification of alginate degradation properties using orthosilicic acid', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/19/30', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '49', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2011.10.001', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '11', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '7', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '181-187', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2011', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials', 'lastmod_second' => '19', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1751-6161', 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '19', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 2, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '11930', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '2', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20120200', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '9', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '20', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '6', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '15', 'datestamp_day' => '15', 'abstract' => 'Biopolymers such as alginates have been widely researched for clinical use. Their clinical application, however, have been limited due to their unpredictable and often rapid degradation rates. Here we show that the degradation of an alginate hydrogel can be tailored through the addition of orthosilicic acid (OSA). On immersion in aqueous media a negligible quantity of orthosilicic acid was released from the gel matrix. The presence of the OSA within the gel was shown to significantly slow degradation of the alginate hydrogel when immersed in a potent calcium chelator (EDTA) when compared with the control group. Sample degradation was associated with a significant calcium release from the non modified gel; however, the orthosilicic acid modified gel did not release detectable levels of calcium over the same period. This suggests that the orthosilicic acid inhibits degradation of the gel by forming an interaction with the calcium cross-links. A rapid reduction in the storage modulus G’, was observed in alginate made without OSA, however, the G’ exhibited by the orthosilicic acid modified alginate did not reduce significantly (p<0.05) Furthermore, although both the OSA and alginate exhibit negative charges in solution, it is likely that they form weak interactions, this hypothesis was proven by demonstrating the efficacy of OSA for binding the alginate hydrocolloid. The findings of this study are likely to have utility in applications where controlling gel degradation is desirable, such as in cell delivery or in the controlled release of molecules in the body.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '8591', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '6', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1016/j.jmbbm.2011.10.001', 'volume' => '6', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2012', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '9889' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1342612567', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'eprintid' => '9889', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Perrie', 'eprintid' => '9889', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Yvonne', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '3', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2011', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/image.png;/9889/2/20100113620.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '28', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Enteric Pharmaceutical Capsules', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/98/89', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '52', 'refereed' => undef, 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => undef, 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '3', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '20', 'publisher' => undef, 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2011', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'patent', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '21', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '12', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '28', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '1342616167', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 5, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '9889', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2011', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '5', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20100500', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '18', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '18', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '24', 'datestamp_day' => '24', 'abstract' => 'This invention pertains generally to the field of hard enteric capsules, and more particularly, to capsules consisting of (a) a film-forming, water-soluble polymer; (b) an acid-insoluble polymer; (c) a gelatinising agent; (d) an auxiliary for gelation; (e) at least one plasticiser; (f) minor ingredients, including, optionally, a colouring agent and a flavouring agent; and the balance of the composition being water. The present invention also pertains to the use of the capsule in the delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients or dietary supplements and methods for producing hard enteric capsules. ', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '8591', 'patent_applicant' => 'Yvonne Perrie; Alan M. Smith', 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '18', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'US20100113620', 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2010', 'status_changed_hour' => '12', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '19439' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1410258791', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Fleming', 'eprintid' => '19439', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Leigh', 'creators_id' => 'l.t.fleming@hud.ac.uk' }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 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'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '12', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Development of a synovial fluid analogue with bio-relevant rheology for wear testing of orthopaedic implants', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/94/39', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '33', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.12.009', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '1', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '9', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '177-184', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials', 'lastmod_second' => '42', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '17516161', 'datestamp_hour' => '16', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '12', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 4, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '19439', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '9', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20140400', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '10', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '19', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '28', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '7', 'datestamp_day' => '7', 'abstract' => 'The rheological properties of synovial fluid (SF) are crucial to the performance of joint prostheses. During the development of joint prostheses, wear tests are performed, which simulate joint movements in diluted solutions (usually between 25–33% v/v) of bovine serum which has very different rheological properties compared with native SF, where rheology is maintained by hyaluronan. Consequently, there is a need to develop a more suitable artificial SF. In this study, we used rheological techniques to understand SF flow properties which provided an insight into the mechanical behaviour required of a practical SF analogue. Steady-shear viscosity measurements were performed to reveal changes as a function of shear rate. To analyse the viscoelastic properties small deformation oscillatory measurements of storage modulus (G’) loss modulus (G’’) and complex viscosity (??) were made. The rheological properties of the SF where compared with those of the polysaccharides sodium alginate, gellan gum and mixtures of both polymers. Initial results revealed classic shear thinning behaviour for the SF with a small Newtonian plateau at low shear rates with a gradual reduction in viscosity with increasing shear rate. Viscoelasticity measurements also showed that at low frequencies of oscillation there was a viscous response with G’’ greater than G’ and at higher frequencies there was an elastic response. Rheological properties were found to be similar to that of a 50:50 mix of 2% w/v high molecular weight alginate and 0.75% w/v gellan gum. Importantly, the lubricating behaviour of the serum differed significantly from the biopolymer blend over a full range of sliding velocities. The biopolymer blend was shown to lubricate the opposing surfaces more effectively. This difference was attributed to the more rapid alignment of the polysaccharide during shear when compared with the bovine albumin (the most abundant protein in serum), which typically exhibits a globular structure and has a tendency for self-association. These results suggest that polysaccharide solutions with bio-relevant rheology maybe be suitable as lubricants for in vitro orthopaedic prosthetic wear tests.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '8591', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '28', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.12.009', 'volume' => '32', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2014', 'status_changed_hour' => '16', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '16128' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1357140867', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Ma', 'eprintid' => '16128', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Paul', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Grover', 'eprintid' => '16128', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Liam M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Jamshidi', 'eprintid' => '16128', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Parastoo', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'eprintid' => '16128', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk' }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Khosrowyar', 'eprintid' => '16128', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Katahyunne', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '11', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'Emailed author for PP SJT 29/11/12', 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2012', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/16128/1/JEN_2012.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '27', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Tailoring gel modulus using dispersed nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/01/61/28', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '35', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17458080.2012.724182', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '11', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '2', 'publisher' => 'Taylor & Francis', 'pagerange' => '652-661', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2012', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Journal of Experimental Nanoscience', 'lastmod_second' => '1', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '1745–8080', 'datestamp_hour' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '27', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 11, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '16128', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2013', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '1', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20121100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '15', 'number' => '6', 'rev_number' => '11', 'edit_lock_user' => '3494', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '29', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '29', 'datestamp_day' => '29', 'abstract' => 'Mammalian cells are known to respond to the elastic modulus of the surface to which they adhere. Consequently, there is interest in developing strategies to control the elastic moduli of materials, including hydrogels. One way of controlling modulus in hydrogels is to introduce reinforcing agents such as inorganic materials, for example hydroxyapatite (HA). Although several authors have reported the reinforcement of hydrogels with ceramic particles, there have not been any studies to investigate the effect of size and crystallinity of HA particles on the mechanical properties of hydrogel. In this study, synthetic Calcium phosphate of two different crystallite sizes: one on the nano-scale (50?nm) and the other on the micro-scale (150?nm) have been used to manufacture HA/gellan gum (GG) composites. It was shown that while nano-scale HA (nHA) reinforced the hydrogel structure, the micro-scale HA (mHA) material acted to weaken it (2.5?wt% HA). Furthermore, it was found that by increasing the content of the nHA in the composite to 50?wt%, the yield strength and bulk modulus was increased by four- and nine-fold, respectively. The reinforcing effect of nHA was attributed to its higher association with the GG coil structure when compared with the mHA, which disrupted gel structure', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '8591', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '29', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1080/17458080.2012.724182', 'volume' => '7', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2012', 'status_changed_hour' => '14', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '9888' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1300967566', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hunt', 'eprintid' => '9888', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'N.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Mehrban', 'eprintid' => '9888', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'N.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Grover', 'eprintid' => '9888', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Liam M.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'eprintid' => '9888', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '3', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2011', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/9888/1/Mehrban_et_al__Hydrocolloids.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '23', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'A comparative study of iota carrageenan, kappa carrageenan and alginate hydrogels as tissue engineering scaffolds', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/98/88', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '53', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/eBook/978-1-84755-199-3', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '3', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '24', 'publisher' => 'Royal Society of Chemistry', 'pagerange' => '407-413', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2011', 'book_title' => 'Gums and stabilisers for the food industry ', 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'book_section', 'publication' => 'Gums and stabilisers for the food industry 15', 'lastmod_second' => '23', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '9781847551993', 'datestamp_hour' => '11', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '23', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 5, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '9888', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2011', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => '9781847558312', 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '3', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20100500', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => '440', 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '11', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '13', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '53', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '24', 'datestamp_day' => '24', 'abstract' => 'The increasingly aging population and lack of donor tissue has pushed tissue regeneration to the forefront of modern biomedical research and biopolymers traditionally found in the food and pharmaceutical industry are increasingly being used in tissue engineering. The development of tissue engineering provides the opportunity to take a sample of cells from a patient which are then cultured in vitro to organise into functional tissue that can then be implanted back into the patient, ultimately, overcoming problems of tissue rejection and the need for donor tissue. To grow replacement tissue requires a suitable substrate or scaffold for cells to attach, proliferate and organise into viable tissue that can be safely implanted into the body. Biopolymers and hydrogel forming biopolymers in particular, have been shown to be a promising scaffold material due having properties that resemble the environment of the mammalian extracellular matrix (ECM). In addition properties such as mild gelation conditions, potential for good mass transport of nutrients and waste molecules, nontoxic nature and biological compatibility provide an advantage over synthetic polymers and ceramic and metallic materials which have also been used as tissue engineering scaffolds. ', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '8591', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '53', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => '10.1039/9781847558312', 'volume' => '15', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2010', 'status_changed_hour' => '11', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '20846' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1403008153', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'eprintid' => '20846', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Abodinar', 'eprintid' => '20846', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Atiga', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Morris', 'eprintid' => '20846', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Gordon', 'creators_id' => 'g.morris@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '6', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_msword.png;/20846/1/Atiga_paper_final_accepted_version.docx', 'status_changed_second' => '47', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'A novel method to estimate the stiffness of carbohydrate polyelectrolyte polymers based on the ionic strength dependence of zeta potential', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/08/46', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'public', 'lastmod_minute' => '33', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.05.063', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '6', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '17', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '6-9', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Carbohydrate Polymers', 'lastmod_second' => '47', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0144-8617', 'datestamp_hour' => '12', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '47', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 11, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '20846', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '6', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20141100', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '12', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '8', 'edit_lock_user' => '3483', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '33', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '17', 'datestamp_day' => '17', 'abstract' => 'Polysaccharides have received a great deal of attention from, for example, the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Their conformations (flexibility/ stiffness) span a wide range of conformational flexibilities with large hydrated volumes, these properties are important in relation to polysaccharide structure - function relationships. Perhaps the simplest parameter available to estimate the dilute solution conformation of polysaccharides is the Smidsrød-Haug stiffness parameter (B) where the stiffness of polyelectrolytes can be estimated by measuring the intrinsic viscosity at a number of different ionic strengths. In this paper we propose an alternative method for estimating the Smidsrød-Haug stiffness parameter (B) using the ionic strength dependency of zeta potential. For this purpose we have studied a number of different polysaccharides. 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'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '5', 'datestamp_day' => '5', 'abstract' => 'In order to produce hydrogel cell culture substrates that are fit for the purpose, it is important that the mechanical properties are well understood not only at the point of cell seeding but throughout the culture period. In this study the change in the mechanical properties of three biopolymer hydrogels alginate, low methoxy pectin and gellan gum have been assessed in cell culture conditions. Samples of the gels were prepared encapsulating rat bone marrow stromal cells which were then cultured in osteogenic media. Acellular samples were also prepared and incubated in standard cell culture media. The rheological properties of the gels were measured over a culture period of 28 days and it was found that the gels degraded at very different rates. The degradation occurred most rapidly in the order alginate > Low methoxy pectin > gellan gum. The ability of each hydrogel to support differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells to osteoblasts was also verified by evidence of mineral deposits in all three of the materials. These results highlight that the mechanical properties of biopolymer hydrogels can vary greatly during in vitro culture, and provide the potential of selecting hydrogel cell culture substrates with mechanical properties that are tissue specific. 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'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2011', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/9880/2/JCR_Liposomes_alginate.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '26', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => '3D culture of bone-derived cells immobilised in alginate following light-triggered gelation', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/98/80', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '55', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2007.01.011', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '3', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '21', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '94-101', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2011', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Journal of Controlled Release', 'lastmod_second' => '26', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0168-3659', 'datestamp_hour' => '16', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '26', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 5, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '9880', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2011', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '3', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20070500', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '16', 'number' => '1', 'rev_number' => '15', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '55', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '21', 'datestamp_day' => '21', 'abstract' => 'Photoreactive liposomes have been exploited as a means of developing 3D tissue constructs. Liposomes formulated using the photosensitive lipid 1,2-bis(4-(n-butyl)phenylazo-4?phenylbutyroyl)phosphatidylcholine (Bis Azo PC), which undergoes conformational change on stimulation with long wavelength ultraviolet light, were prepared with entrapped CaCl2 before being incorporated into a 4% alginate solution. It was shown that stimulation of the photosensitive lipid using a light emitting diode (LED) (peak emission at 385 nm, dose equivalent to 9 mJ/cm2) caused the release of liposome entrapped CaCl2, resulting in cross-linking of the alginate solution and immobilisation of bone derived cells over a range of seeding densities, approximately 97% of which remained viable for periods of up to 14 days in culture. Entrapment volumes of a variety of liposome types were evaluated and interdigitating fusion vesicles were identified as having the highest payload (24%), however the inclusion of cholesterol as a means of shifting Bis Azo PC sensitivity into the visible light wavelengths resulted in an approximately 10-fold reduction in calcium entrapment. This application of light-sensitised liposomes offers the potential to create complex tissue engineering substrates containing cells immobilised in precise locations, in contrast with substrates onto which cells are seeded post production. 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'creators_name_given' => 'Katerina', 'creators_id' => undef }, '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Kontogiorgos', 'eprintid' => '20277', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Vassilis', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Conway', 'eprintid' => '20277', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Barbara R', 'creators_id' => 'b.r.conway@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Ghori', 'eprintid' => '20277', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Muhammad U.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'eprintid' => '20277', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk' } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '5', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => 'Emailed for FT 20/5/14', 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => undef, 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2014', 'fileinfo' => '', 'status_changed_second' => '34', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Okra Extracts In Pharmaceutical And Food Applications', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/02/02/77', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'inpress', 'item_issues_count' => '1', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'none', 'lastmod_minute' => '9', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2014.04.024', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '5', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '10', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => undef, 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2014', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'Food Hydrocolloids', 'lastmod_second' => '34', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0268005X', 'datestamp_hour' => '15', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '34', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => undef, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '20277', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2014', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '7', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20140000', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '8', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '11', 'edit_lock_user' => '6', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '43', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '20', 'datestamp_day' => '20', 'abstract' => 'The potential of okra extract was evaluated for uses in pharmaceutical and food applications. Okra polysaccharides were extracted and dried using different drying procedures (oven drying and freeze-drying). The extracts were examined by means of measurement of swelling and dissolution behaviour of okra extract-based hydrophilic matrices for controlled drug release and emulsification capacity of n-hexadecane. Drying technique and solubility of drugs used were shown to have a significant impact on the swelling and dissolution of the hydrophilic matrix tablets prepared. It was shown that the oven-dried extracts increased swelling of the matrices by approximately 20% compared with freeze dried extracts, resulting in slower drug release. The relative drug solubility also contributed to the extent of swelling and drug release with poorly soluble flurbiprofen reducing the swelling and the release rate when compared with freely soluble theophylline. The emulsification capacity of the okra extracts was also investigated and they were found to emulsify n-hexadecane at pH 3.0. The emulsions produced had an average droplet size of ?6 ?m rising to ?23 ?m after 5 days then remaining relatively constant following 30 days of storage. These results highlight the potential of okra polysaccharide as an alternative sources to fabricate hydrophilic matrix tablets or as stabilisers of emulsions that can be used to deliver drugs or nutrients.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '8591', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '43', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.foodhyd.2014.04.024', 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2014', 'status_changed_hour' => '15', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '9882' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1300896768', 'creatorlist' => { '4' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Mohammed', 'eprintid' => '9882', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '4', 'creators_name_given' => 'Afzal R.', 'creators_id' => undef }, '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Hassan', 'eprintid' => '9882', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Zahra', 'creators_id' => undef }, '3' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'eprintid' => '9882', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '3', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Chandrasekhar', 'eprintid' => '9882', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Rahul', 'creators_id' => undef }, '2' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'AlHusban', 'eprintid' => '9882', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'creators_name_given' => 'Farhan', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '3', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2011', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/9882/1/Eur_J_Pharm_Biopharm_Fast_melts.pdf', 'status_changed_second' => '14', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'The role of formulation excipients in the development of lyophilised fast-disintegrating tablets', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/98/82', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '16', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2008.11.011', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '3', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '23', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '119-129', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2011', 'book_title' => undef, 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'article', 'publication' => 'European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics', 'lastmod_second' => '14', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => '0939-6411', 'datestamp_hour' => '16', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '14', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 5, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '9882', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2011', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => undef, 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '3', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20090500', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => undef, 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '16', 'number' => '1', 'rev_number' => '12', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'Q1', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '16', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '23', 'datestamp_day' => '23', 'abstract' => 'Despite recent success, many fast-disintegrating tablets (FDTs) still face problems of low mechanical strength, poor mouth-feel and higher disintegration times. This study aimed to optimise FDTs using a progressive three-stage approach. A series of hardness, fracturability and disintegration time tests were performed on the formulations at each stage. During Stage I, tablets were prepared in concentrations between 2% and 5% w/w, and were formulated at each concentration as single and combination bloom strength gelatin (BSG) using 75 and 225 BSGs. Analysis revealed that both hardness and disintegration time increased with an increase in gelatin concentration. A combination (5% gelatin) FDT comprising a 50:50 ratio of 75:225 BSGs (hardness: 13.7 ± 0.9 N and disintegration time: 24.1 ± 0.6 s) was judged the most ideal, and was carried forward to Stage II: the addition of the saccharides sorbitol, mannitol and sucrose in concentrations between 10% and 80% w/w. The best properties were exhibited by mannitol-containing formulations (50%-hardness: 30.9 ± 2.8 N and disintegration time: 13.3 ± 2.1 s), which were carried forward to the next stage: the addition of viscosity-modifying polymers to improve mouth-feel and aid pre-gastric retention. Addition of carbopol 974P-NF resulted in the enhancement of viscosity with a compromise of the hardness of the tablet, whereas Pluronic F127 (6%) showed an increase in disintegration time and viscosity with retention of mechanical properties. ', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '8591', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '16', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/j.ejpb.2008.11.011', 'volume' => '72', 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2009', 'status_changed_hour' => '16', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef }, '9884' => { 'funders' => undef, 'conductors_name_family' => undef, 'num_pieces' => undef, 'department' => undef, 'contributors_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_second' => undef, 'keywords' => undef, 'lyricists_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_id' => undef, 'edit_lock_since' => '1300898730', 'creatorlist' => { '1' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'eprintid' => '9884', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '1', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk' }, '0' => { 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'creators_name_family' => 'Grover', 'eprintid' => '9884', 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'pos' => '0', 'creators_name_given' => 'Liam M.', 'creators_id' => undef } }, 'exhibitors_id' => undef, 'latitude' => undef, 'replacedby' => undef, 'status_changed_month' => '3', 'editors_name_honourific' => undef, 'admin_note' => undef, 'event_title' => undef, 'date_type' => 'published', 'pres_type' => undef, 'longitude' => undef, 'creators_name_honourific' => '', 'include_in_hebci' => 'no', 'producers_name_honourific' => undef, 'scopus_citation_count' => undef, 'datestamp_year' => '2011', 'fileinfo' => '/style/images/fileicons/text_html.png;/9884/1/books?id=vHXw8vs7scYC%26pg=PA595%26dq=Hydrocolloids%2Band%2BMedicinal%2BChemistry%2BApplications%26hl=en%26ei=Dk2DTfj%2DH6iShAfN0cHHBA%26sa=X%26oi=book_result%26ct=result%26resnum=1%26ved=0CDQQ6AEwAA', 'status_changed_second' => '53', 'exhibitors_name_honourific' => undef, 'editors_id' => undef, 'title' => 'Hydrocolloids and Medicinal Chemistry Applications', 'corp_creators' => undef, 'contributors_name_given' => undef, 'alt_title' => undef, 'contributors_name_family' => undef, 'sponsors' => undef, 'output_media' => undef, 'editors_name_lineage' => undef, 'dir' => 'disk0/00/00/98/84', 'overlay_journal_id' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_year' => undef, 'ispublished' => 'pub', 'item_issues_count' => '0', 'conductors_name_given' => undef, 'sword_depositor' => undef, 'full_text_status' => 'restricted', 'lastmod_minute' => '45', 'refereed' => 'TRUE', 'contact_email' => undef, 'copyright_holders' => undef, 'date_day' => undef, 'gscholar_impact' => undef, 'official_url' => 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-374195-0.00018-5', 'succeeds' => undef, 'datestamp_month' => '3', 'commentary' => undef, 'lastmod_day' => '23', 'publisher' => 'Elsevier', 'pagerange' => '595-618', 'include_in_pedagogical' => 'no', 'task_purpose' => undef, 'status_changed_year' => '2011', 'book_title' => 'Modern Biopolymer Science: Bridging the Divide between Fundamental Treatise and Industrial Application ', 'thesis_name' => undef, 'event_location' => undef, 'type' => 'book_section', 'publication' => undef, 'lastmod_second' => '53', 'place_of_pub' => undef, 'contributors_name_honourific' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_day' => undef, 'issn' => undef, 'datestamp_hour' => '16', 'exhibitors_name_given' => undef, 'creators_name_family' => 'Smith', 'composition_type' => undef, 'producers_id' => undef, 'datestamp_second' => '53', 'note' => undef, 'edit_lock_until' => '0', 'editor_note' => undef, 'pedagogic_type' => undef, 'date_month' => 7, 'rights' => undef, 'contributors_type' => undef, 'scopus_id' => undef, 'eprintid' => '9884', 'producers_name_given' => undef, 'thesis_type' => undef, 'projects' => undef, 'lastmod_year' => '2011', 'data_type' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_minute' => undef, 'editors_name_given' => undef, 'isbn' => ' 9780123741950 ', 'include_in_cv' => 'yes', 'editors_name_family' => undef, 'lastmod_month' => '3', 'event_dates' => undef, 'fulltimestamp' => '20090700', 'learning_level' => undef, 'conductors_name_lineage' => undef, 'pages' => '640', 'source' => undef, 'lastmod_hour' => '16', 'number' => undef, 'rev_number' => '16', 'edit_lock_user' => '116', 'series' => undef, 'creators_name_lineage' => '', 'pos' => '2', 'metadata_visibility' => 'show', 'eprint_status' => 'archive', 'creators_name_given' => 'Alan M.', 'exhibitors_name_lineage' => undef, 'divisions' => 'sas', 'institution' => undef, 'subjects' => 'RS', 'gscholar_datestamp_hour' => undef, 'producers_name_lineage' => undef, 'lyricists_name_given' => undef, 'completion_time' => undef, 'status_changed_minute' => '45', 'conductors_name_honourific' => undef, 'exhibitors_name_family' => undef, 'lyricists_name_honourific' => undef, 'event_type' => undef, 'importid' => undef, 'status_changed_day' => '23', 'datestamp_day' => '23', 'abstract' => 'From functioning as simple space-fillers, lubricants or protective coatings, to providing three-dimensional matrices for cell growth, to acting as the functional moiety in environmentally responsive ‘smart devices’, the range of applications of biopolymers in biomedicine is vast. Hydrogel-forming biopolymer systems have characteristics that are advantageous in a biological context in comparison with more conventional engineering materials that have been used to repair damaged or missing tissues, the capacity to permit molecular diffusion due to high water content being a prime example. In mechanical terms, gel-forming biopolymers more closely resemble soft tissue and so increasingly find application in soft tissue repair, an area of biomaterials science that has received limited attention until relatively recently. Aside from intrinsic physical properties, however, it is the fundamental chemistry of natural polymer systems that provides scope for some of the more ingenious applications of these materials to biomedical problems. For example, the capacity for certain biopolymers to form cross-linked gels under physiological conditions presents opportunities for minimally invasive routes to delivery of drug and or cell-loaded implants into the body. It is the purpose of this chapter to summarize some of the ways in which these materials are applied and to identify the contribution of the biopolymer in each example to the functionality of the system described. ', 'creators_id' => 'a.m.smith@hud.ac.uk', 'contributors_name_lineage' => undef, 'userid' => '8591', 'patent_applicant' => undef, 'monograph_type' => undef, 'datestamp_minute' => '45', 'lyricists_name_family' => undef, 'sword_slug' => undef, 'id_number' => 'doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-374195-0.00018-5', 'volume' => undef, 'gscholar_datestamp_month' => undef, 'conductors_id' => undef, 'suggestions' => undef, 'referencetext' => undef, 'date_year' => '2009', 'status_changed_hour' => '16', 'gscholar_cluster' => undef, 'producers_name_family' => undef } };

2014

Mahdi, M., Conway, B. and Smith, A. (2014) ‘Evaluation of gellan gum fluid gels as modified release oral liquids International Journal of Pharmaceutics , 475 (1-2), pp. 335-343. ISSN 0378-5173

Abodinar, A., Smith, A. and Morris, G. (2014) ‘A novel method to estimate the stiffness of carbohydrate polyelectrolyte polymers based on the ionic strength dependence of zeta potentialCarbohydrate Polymers , 112, pp. 6-9. ISSN 0144-8617

Ghori, M., Ginting, G., Smith, A. and Conway, B. (2014) ‘Simultaneous quantification of drug release and erosion from hypromellose hydrophilic matricesInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics , 465 (1-2), pp. 405-412. ISSN 0378-5173

Smith, A., Fleming, L., Wudebwe, U., Bowen, J. and Grover, L. (2014) ‘Development of a synovial fluid analogue with bio-relevant rheology for wear testing of orthopaedic implantsJournal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials , 32, pp. 177-184. ISSN 17516161

Morris, G., Smith, A. and Kontogiorgos, V. (2014) ‘Editorial: Special Issue of Food Hydrocolloids: Bridging the Divide Food Hydrocolloids . ISSN 0268-005X

Ghori, M., Alba, K., Smith, A., Conway, B. and Kontogiorgos, V. (2014) ‘Okra Extracts In Pharmaceutical And Food ApplicationsFood Hydrocolloids . ISSN 0268005X

2013

Asare-Addo, K., Mahdi, M. and Smith, A. (2013) ‘Development of modified release paediatric liquids’. In: 5th EuPFI Conference, 18th-19th Spain 2013, Barcelona, Spain , pp. 31-32

2012

Smith, A., Hunt, N., Shelton, R., Birdi, G. and Grover, L. (2012) ‘Alginate hydrogel has a negative impact on in vitro collagen 1 deposition by fibroblastsBiomacromolecules , 13 (2), pp. 4032-4038. ISSN 1525-7797

Jamshidi, P., Ma, P., Khosrowyar, K., Smith, A. and Grover, L. (2012) ‘Tailoring gel modulus using dispersed nanocrystalline hydroxyapatiteJournal of Experimental Nanoscience , 7 (6), pp. 652-661. ISSN 1745–8080

Grover, L. and Smith, A. (2012) ‘Hydrocolloids and Medicinal Chemistry Applications. In Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics’. In: Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics. : Elsevier. pp. 365-384. ISBN 978-1-4557-2834-3

Birdi, G., Bridson, R., Smith, A., Bohari, S. and Grover, L. (2012) ‘Modification of alginate degradation properties using orthosilicic acidJournal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials , 6, pp. 181-187. ISSN 1751-6161

2011

Smith, A (2011) ‘Degradation of polysaccharide hydrogels seeded with bone marrow stromal cells Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials , 4 (7), pp. 1157-1166. ISSN 1751-6161

Buselli, E., Smith, A., Grover, L., Levi, A., Allman, R., Mattoli, V., Menciassi, A. and Beccai, L. (2011) ‘Development and characterization of a bio-hybrid skin-like stretchable electrodeMicroelectronic Engineering , 88 (8), pp. 1676-1680. ISSN 0167-9317

Smith, A (2011) ‘Inorganic Reinforcement of Alginate Hydrogel’. In: 2011 Materials Research Society Spring Meeting & Exhibit, 25th-29th April 2011, San Francisco, California

Smith, A. and Miri, T. (2011) ‘Alginates in Foods’. In: Practical food rheology: an interpretive approach. : Wiley. pp. 113-132. ISBN 9781444391060

2010

Hunt, N., Smith, A., Gbureck, U., Shelton, R. and Grover, L. (2010) ‘Encapsulation of fibroblasts causes accelerated alginate hydrogel degradationActa Biomaterialia , 6 (9), pp. 3649-3656. ISSN 1742-7061

Perrie, Y. and Smith, A.(2010) Enteric Pharmaceutical Capsules. US20100113620.

Mehrban, N., Hunt, N., Smith, A. and Grover, L. (2010) ‘A comparative study of iota carrageenan, kappa carrageenan and alginate hydrogels as tissue engineering scaffolds’. In: Gums and stabilisers for the food industry . : Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. 407-413. ISBN 9781847558312

Smith, A., Jaime-Fonseca, M., Grover, L. and Bakalis, S. (2010) ‘Alginate-Loaded Liposomes Can Protect Encapsulated Alkaline Phosphatase Functionality When Exposed to Gastric pHJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 58 (8), pp. 4719-4724. ISSN 0021-8561

AlHusban, F., ElShaer, A., Kansara, J., Smith, A., Grover, L., Perrie, Y. and Mohammed, A. (2010) ‘Investigation of Formulation and Process of Lyophilised Orally Disintegrating Tablet (ODT) Using Novel Amino Acid CombinationPharmaceutics , 2 (1), pp. 1-17. ISSN 1999-4923

Smith, A., Ingham, A., Grover, L. and Perrie, Y. (2010) ‘Polymer film formulations for the preparation of enteric pharmaceutical capsulesJournal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology , 62 (2), pp. 167-172. ISSN 0022-3573

2009

Mehrban, N., Smith, A. and Grover, L. (2009) ‘Evaluation of iota-carrageenan as a Potential Tissue Engineering Scaffold’. In: 8th World Congress of Chemical Engineering (WCCE8), August 23 to 27, 2009, Montréal, Canada

Grover, L. and Smith, A. (2009) ‘Hydrocolloids and Medicinal Chemistry Applications’. In: Modern Biopolymer Science: Bridging the Divide between Fundamental Treatise and Industrial Application . : Elsevier. pp. 595-618. ISBN 9780123741950

Chandrasekhar, R., Hassan, Z., AlHusban, F., Smith, A. and Mohammed, A. (2009) ‘The role of formulation excipients in the development of lyophilised fast-disintegrating tabletsEuropean Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics , 72 (1), pp. 119-129. ISSN 0939-6411

Smith, A., Grover, L., Jaime-Fonseca, M., Yahya, F. and Bakalis, S. (2009) ‘Encapsulation and Stability of bioactive proteins in gel loaded liposomes’. In: 5th International Symposium on Food Rheology and Structure, 2009, ETH Zurich

2008

Clark, S., Cross, M., Smith, A., Court, P., Vipond, J., Nadian, A., Hewison, R., Batchelor, H., Perrie, Y., Williams, A., Aldwell, F. and Chambers, M. (2008) ‘Assessment of different formulations of oral Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in rodent models for immunogenicity and protection against aerosol challenge with M. bovisVaccine , 26 (46), pp. 5791-5797. ISSN 0264-410X

Smith, A., Jarved, O., Batchelor, H. and Perrie, Y. (2008) ‘Bacille Calmette–Gue´ rin (BCG)-loaded alginate beads as a potential oral tuberculosis vaccine for wildlifeJournal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology , 60 (S1). ISSN 0022-3573

Harris, J., Smith, A., Campbell-Lynch, S. and Shelton, R. (2008) ‘Dramatic changes in bulk deformation behaviour of gellan gum on cross-linking with mixed cations’. In: Gums and Stabilisers for the Food Industry . : Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. 79-86. ISBN 9780854044610

2007

Smith, A., Shelton, R., Perrie, Y. and Harris, J. (2007) ‘An Initial Evaluation of Gellan Gum as a Material for Tissue Engineering ApplicationsJournal of Biomaterials Applications , 22 (3), pp. 241-254. ISSN 0885-3282

Smith, A., Basra, A., Batchelor, H. and Perrie, Y. (2007) ‘Alginate Beads as Potential Oral Vaccine Delivery Platforms: Effect of Coating Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology , 59 (s1), p. A55. ISSN 0022-3573

Agoub, A., Smith, A., Giannouli, P., Richardson, R. and Morris, E. (2007) ‘“Melt-in-the-mouth” gels from mixtures of xanthan and konjac glucomannan under acidic conditions: A rheological and calorimetric study of the mechanism of synergistic gelationCarbohydrate Polymers , 69 (4), pp. 713-724. ISSN 0144-8617

Smith, A., Harris, J., Shelton, R. and Perrie, Y. (2007) ‘3D culture of bone-derived cells immobilised in alginate following light-triggered gelationJournal of Controlled Release , 119 (1), pp. 94-101. ISSN 0168-3659

2006

Smith, A., Harris, J., Shelton, R. and Perrie, Y. (2006) ‘3D Culture of bone-derived cells following light triggered gelation of alginate by Ca2+ release from photosensitive liposomesJournal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology , 58 (S1), p. A51. ISSN 0022-3573

2005

Smith, A., Shelton, R., Harris, J. and Perrie, Y. (2005) ‘Formation of alginate hydrogel scaffolds for tissue engineering by light activated release of calcium from photosensitive liposomesJournal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology , 57 (S1), p. S42. ISSN 0022-3573

Research Degree Supervision

Opportunities for self funded PhD studies are available in the following research areas

  • Injectable cell culture substrates for tissue regeneration
  • Development of modified release oral liquid formulations for pediatrics
  • Developing bioresponsive hydrogels for tissue engineering applications

Applications are welcome from potential students with an interest in formulation development or the physicochemical properties of macromolecules.

Last updated Thursday 6 March 2014
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