Portrait of Dr Paul Bills Dr Paul Bills

p.j.bills@hud.ac.uk | 01484 472769

  0000-0002-5468-6330

  paul-bills-4206aa78  


Biography

In January 2014 Paul took the role of Senior Lecturer in Automotive and Mechanical Engineering within the School of Computing Engineering and is currently Deputy Director of Graduate Education, course leader for BEng/MEng Mechanical Engineering and Deputy UoA Coordinator for Mechanical Engineering having previously been course leader for BEng/MEng Energy Engineering and admissions tutor for the mechanical engineering subject area. His academic duties include teaching of Mechanical Science, Eco-Design & IPR and Dimensional Measurement Systems. Paul is also a key member of the EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology.

Paul studied for a BEng in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Birmingham, graduating in 1999. He then moved on to complete an MSc in Engineering Design and Its Management at the University of Huddersfield, graduating in 2000.

As a direct result of his MSc work Paul went to work for DePuy International Ltd, a leading orthopaedics manufacturing company and part of the Johnson and Johnson group of companies. His work there led on to a PhD with the Surface Metrology Group at the Centre for Precision Technologies under the supervision of Prof Liam Blunt and Prof Jane Jiang with most of the project work completed at DePuy in Leeds and leading to graduation in 2008. Paul's PhD work involved the development of methods for the simulation and characterisation of wear in orthopaedic knee replacement joints.

In 2007 Paul was taken on as a Research Fellow at the Centre for Precision Technologies and then in 2011 as a Senior Research Fellow within the EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology where he developed a reputation as a world renowned expert on the subject of orthopaedic wear measurement.

Paul is a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, Member of the Institution of Engineering & Technology, member of the Orthopaedic Research Society and active committee member of both the British Standards Institution (XCT) and American Society for Testing and Materials (Medical Devices & Additive Manufacturing)

Paul is always open to new collaborations and currently leads projects involving leading academic institutions and industrial partners.

Alongside core work involving metrology development for specific engineering applications,  projects are currently ongoing in application of metrology in aspects of Biology, Forensics, Pharmaceutical Technology and Environmental Engineering. Paul is a member of the steering committee of the Secure Societies Institute and is a key member of the Arms and Armour Research Institute.

Outside of his research Paul has keen interests in music and sport, and is a long suffering supporter of Barnsley FC.

Research and Scholarship

Paul has a number of active areas of research which despite ranging across a number of subject areas share the common theme of the application of metrology to assess functionality of components and surfaces.

Paul has developed a reputation as a world renowned expert on the subject of orthopaedic wear measurement and has a large number of publications on this subject and has given a number of prestigious invited lectures. He is currently working with a number of colleagues at University College London and the University of Leeds to develop best practice methods for determining the geometry of retrieved implants and determining their ultimate mode of failure.  The overall aim of this research is to produce an overarching measurement methodology that is established from first principles and can be universally applied to the measurement of retrieved hip and knee replacements. The furthering of understanding in this area has great implications for society through the ability to close the loop of understanding and develop more effective, longer lasting joint replacements and is aligned with the current orthopaedic ‘Beyond Compliance’ agenda.

Paul is an active member of standards development bodies looking at the subjects of wear measurement and industrial use of computed tomography and he constantly develops and advocates the use of measurement best practice.  Paul is an active contributor to the American Society for Testing & Materials (ASTM), the British Standards Institute (BSI) and International Standards Organisation (ISO). Paul is an active member of ASTM committees F04 on Medical and Surgical Materials and Devices and F42 Additive Manufacturing Technologies, as well as the US TAG to ISO/TC150 and ISO/TC 261 and the BSI working group TDW/004/04/01on XCT.

Current active projects are in the area of characterization of retrieved orthopaedic implants, application of measurement uncertainty to industrial applications, application and critical appraisal of computed tomography, development of metrology for forensics, application and optimization of metrology for additive manufacturing applications and industrial metrology education.  The majority of Paul's work is in the area of dimensional form measurement, encompassing the measurement and specification of geometry and surface characterization.

Paul is an executive board member and UK lead for the EU wide metrology education 'driving licence' known as 'CMTrain' which is an industrially focused vocational blended training course in co-ordinate metrology and metrology best-practice.  The course has three levels from 'Operator' to 'Expert' and is performed with a combination of distance 'in-situ' learning and attendance based workshops. The course is run in partnership with a number of European universities.  Renishaw are a collaborative provider in the UK and Rolls Royce and Hewlett Packard have adopted the course as a component of their core training for a number of their engineering metrologists.

Paul currently has a number of interdisciplinary projects utilising industrial computed tomography encompassing areas of additive manufacturing, mechanical engineering, environmental engineering, biology, forensics, food science and archaeology. CT is a technology that is growing in popularity and performance having been adopted by a number of engineering companies.  Paul is a founder member of the BSI UK task force to define and build standards in this area and the aim is to encourage best practice based on a deeper understanding of the technology.

Paul is a key member of the Arms and Armour Research Group, a multidisciplinary team of academics involved in the discovery and analysis of historical artefacts, military weaponry and historical sites as well as contemporary firearms, with a particular emphasis on using cutting edge science and technology breakthroughs to carry out this research and offer a commercial service.

Research Affiliations

Particular areas of research include

  • Traceable metrology for characterisation of bearing and taper surfaces in retrieved medical implants
  • Measurement of wear on non-bearing orthopaedic surfaces
  • Application of metrology to additive manufacturing
  • Imaging for characterisation of surface biofilms
  • Application and assessment of measurement uncertainty
  • Industrial application and best practice in micro-CT
  • Industrial metrology education (pedagogy)
  • Characterisation, simulation and reconstruction of historical artefacts
  • Development of international standards

Current Collaborators

  • National Physical Laboratory (NPL)
  • Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
  • National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ)
  • British Standards Institute (BSI)
  • London Implant Retrieval Centre
  • University College London
  • University of Leeds
  • Technical University of Denmark (DTU)
  • Drexel University
  • University of Southampton
  • University of Padova
  • DePuy Synthes
  • Stryker
  • Rolls-Royce
  • Renishaw
  • BorgWarner
  • Royal Armouries
  • Christie’s
  • English Heritage

Research Funding

  • European Commission, Leonardo da Vinci Programme ‘Blended Learning course on Measurement Uncertainty for advanced vocational training (MuVoT) 2012-2014, € 49,179
  • European Commission, Erasmus+ Programme ‘Geometrical Product Specification and Verification Toolbox’ 2015-2018,  € 57,068

Publications and Other Research Outputs

2016

Hothi, H., Panagiotopoulos, A., Whittaker, R., Bills, P., McMillan, R., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2016) ‘Damage Patterns at the Head-Stem Taper Junction Helps Understand the Mechanisms of Material LossJournal of Arthroplasty . ISSN 0883-5403

Townsend, A., Blunt, L. and Bills, P. (2016) ‘Investigating the capability of microfocus x-ray computed tomography for areal surface analysis of additively manufactured parts’. In: American Society for Precision Engineering Summer Topical Meeting: Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Finish in Additive Manufacturing, 27th - 30th June 2016, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Shah, P., Racasan, R. and Bills, P. (2016) ‘Comparison of Different Additive Manufacturing Methods Using Computed TomographyCase Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation . ISSN 2214-6571

Bills, P (2016) ‘Introduction to Computed Tomography as an aid to Forensic Analysis’. In: Age Estimation Workshop, 13th - 14th May 2016, University of Huddersfield, UK

Shah, P., Racasan, R. and Bills, P. (2016) ‘Comparison of Different Additive Manufacturing Methods Using Optimized Computed Tomography’. In: Dimensional X-Ray Computed Tomography Conference, 10th May 2016, National Physical Laboratory, London, UK

Li, T., Racasan, R. and Bills, P. (2016) ‘The evolution of Geometrical Product Specification and Verification in the field of surface metrology and the challenges of its vocational training’. In: 12th International Scientific Conference on Coordinate Measuring Technique, 18th - 20th April 2016, Bielsko-BIala, Poland

Bills, P., Shah, P., Townsend, A., Blunt, L. and Racasan, R. (2016) ‘Characterization of complex additive manufactured structures for the medical device industry using computed tomography’. In: Dimensional X-Ray Computed Tomography Conference, 10th May 2016, National Physical Laboratory, London, UK

Townsend, A., Pagani, L., Yin, C., Bills, P. and Blunt, L. (2016) ‘Areal surface texture measurement of additively manufactured parts’. In: ASTM Workshop on Additive Manufacturing for Medical Applications, 3rd May 2016, San Antonio, TX, USA

Shah, P., Racasan, R. and Bills, P. (2016) ‘Challenges in measurement and specification of complex additive manufactured structures for the medical device industry’. In: ASTM Workshop on Additive Manufacturing for Medical Applications, 3rd May 2016, San Antonio, TX, USA

Alberts, L., Martinez-Nogues, V., Cook, R., Maul, C., Bills, P., Racasan, R., Stolz, M. and Wood, R. (2016) ‘Comparison of Simulator Wear Measured by Gravimetric vs Optical Surface Methods for Two Million Cycles’. In: Orthopaedic Research Society Annual Meeting, 5th - 8th March 2016, Orlando, Florida, USA

Di Laura, A., Whittaker, R., Hothi, H., Meswania, J., Henckel, J., de Villiers, D., Kwon, Y., Racasan, R., Bills, P., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2016) ‘Understanding Why Dual-Taper Hips Fail’. In: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting, 1-5 March 2016, Orlando, USA

Shah, P., Racasan, R. and Bills, P. (2016) ‘Comparison of Different Additive Manufacturing Methods Using Optimized Computed Tomography’. In: 6th Conference on Industrial Computed Tomography, 9th -12th February 2016, Wels, Austria , pp. 43-44

Kontogiorgos, V., Shah, P. and Bills, P. (2016) ‘Influence of supramolecular forces on the linear viscoelasticity of glutenRheologica Acta . ISSN 0035-4511

2015

Racasan, R., Bills, P., Blunt, L., Hart, A. and Skinner, J. (2015) ‘Method for Characterization of Material Loss from Modular Head-Stem Taper Surfaces of Hip Replacement Devices’. In: Modularity and Tapers in Total Joint Replacement Devices. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. pp. 132-146. ISBN 978-0-8031-7627-0

Foster, K., Bills, P., Blunt, L., Jiang, X. and Leary, R. (2015) ‘The use of additive manufacturing for the presentation of ballistic toolmark evidence in court’. In: 7th European Academy of Forensic Science Conference, 6-11 September 2015, Prague, Czech Republic

Hothi, H., Berber, R., Whittaker, R., Bills, P., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2015) ‘Detailed Inspection of Metal ImplantsHip International , 25 (3), pp. 227-231. ISSN 1120-7000

Groschl, A., Gotz, J., Loderer, A., Bills, P. and Hausotte, T. (2015) ‘Measures of improvement MUVoT, a Blended Learning course on the topic of Measurement Uncertainty for advanced Vocational TrainingProcedia CIRP , 27, pp. 111-116. ISSN 2212-8271

Bills, P., Racasan, R., Tessier, P. and Blunt, L. (2015) ‘Assessing the material loss of the modular taper interface in retrieved metal on metal hip replacementsSurface Topography: Metrology and Properties , 3 (2), p. 025002. ISSN 2051-672X

Whittaker, R., Hothi, H., Meswania, J., Bills, P., Racasan, R., Eskelinen, A., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2015) ‘36mm Metal-on-Metal Hips have Similar Taper Material Loss Rates as Larger Diameter Hips from the Same Manufacturer’. In: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting, March 24-28 2015, Las Vegas, NV, USA

Hothi, H., Whittaker, R., Meswania, J., Bills, P., Blunt, L., Racasan, R., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2015) ‘Material Loss at the Head Taper Junction of the Metal-on-Metal Pinnacle Total Hip Replacement’. In: Orthopaedic Research Society Annual Meeting, March 28-31 2015, Las Vegas, NV, USA

Panagiotopoulos, A., Hothi, H., Whittaker, R., Matthies, A., Bills, P., Racasan, R., Blunt, L., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2015) ‘Charactering taper junction wear helps understand the mechanism of failure of metal on metal hip replacements.’. In: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting, March 24-28 2015, Las Vegas, NV, USA

Panagiotopoulos, A., Hothi, H., Whittaker, R., Meswania, J., Bills, P., Racasan, R., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2015) ‘Identifying The Pattern of Material Loss at the Head-Neck Junction Wear Helps Determine the Mechanism of Failure of Metal on Metal Total Hip Replacements’. In: Orthopaedic Research Society Annual Meeting, March 28-31 2015, Las Vegas, NV, USA

Blunt, L., Bills, P. and Fleming, L. (2015) ‘Metrology for Bio Systems’. In: 15th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, March 2-5 2015, Charlotte, NC, USA

2014

Calvert, S., Power, J., Ryall, H. and Bills, P. (2014) ‘Presentation of Digital 3D reconstruction of historical textile fragment’. In: The 89th Textile Institute World Conference 2014, 2-6th November 2014, Wuhan, China

Calvert, S., Ryall, H., Power, J. and Bills, P. (2014) ‘Digital 3D reconstruction of historical textile fragment’. In: Proceedings of The 89th Textile Institute World Conference. Wuhan, China: The Textile Institute. . ISBN 978-1-84626-xxx-x

Calvert, S., Power, J., Bills, P. and Ryall, H. (2014) ‘Digital 3D Reconstruction of Historical Textile Fragment’. In: Transition: Re-thinking Textiles and Surfaces, 26th-27th November 2014, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, United Kingdom

Bills, P., Racasan, R., Tessier, P. and Blunt, L. (2014) ‘Methods to assess material loss of the modular taper interface in retrieved hip replacements’. In: Structures Surfaces in Engineering, Metrology and Healthcare, 30th September 2014, NPL, Teddington, London, UK

Calvert, S., Power, J., Ryall, H. and Bills, P. (2014) ‘Reconstructing textile heritageJournal of Writing in Creative Practice , 7 (3), pp. 415-425. ISSN 1753-5190

Whittaker, R., Hexter, A., Hothi, H., Panagiotidou, A., Bills, P., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2014) ‘Component Size Mismatch of Metal on Metal Hip Arthroplasty: An Avoidable Never Event.Journal of Arthroplasty , 29 (8), pp. 1629-1634. ISSN 0883-5403

Hothi, H., Bills, P., Racasan, R., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2014) ‘Bearing Surface Changes Of Retrieved MOM Hips Predict Factors Associated With Failure’. In: 15th European Federation of National Associations of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (EFORT) Congress, 4-6 June 2014, London, UK

Whittaker, R., Hothi, H., Hexter, A., Henckel, J., Panagiotidou, A., Bills, P., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2014) ‘Component Size Mismatch Of Metal On Metal Hip Arthroplasty: An Avoidable Never Event’. In: 15th European Federation of National Associations of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (EFORT) Congress, 4-6 June 2014, London, UK

Plowucha, W., Jakubiec, W., Humienny, Z., Hausotte, T., Savio, E., Dragomir, M., Bills, P., Marxer, M., Wisla, N. and Mathieu, L. (2014) ‘Geometrical Product Specification and Verification as toolbox to meet up-to-date technical requirements’. In: The 11th International Scientific Conference “COORDINATE MEASURING TECHNIQUE” CMT 2014,, 2nd - 4th April 2014, Bielsko-Biala, Poland

Hothi, H., Matthies, A., Berber, R., Whittaker, R., Bills, P., Racasan, R., Blunt, L., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2014) ‘The reproducibility of a semi-quantitative scoring method for taper corrosion and fretting, and its usefulness for predicting the volume of material loss’. In: Orthopaedic Research Society - 60th Annual Meeting, March 15-18 2014, New Orleans, LA, USA

Matthies, A., Cro, S., Bills, P., Racasan, R., Blunt, L., Blunn, G., Henckel, J., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2014) ‘Which factors determine the volume of material lost from the taper junction of metal-on-metal hip replacements?’. In: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting, March 11-15 2014, New Orleans, LA, USA

Matthies, A., Bills, P., Racasan, R., Blunt, L., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2014) ‘Analysis of the taper supports retention of a well-fixed stem in revision surgery of metal-on-metal hip replacements’. In: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting, March 11-15 2014, New Orleans, LA, USA

2013

Hothi, H., Cro, S., Bills, P., Blunt, L., Racasan, R., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2013) ‘Correlation Between the Detailed Visual Inspection of Retrieved Metal-on-Metal Hips and Their Volumetric WearBone and joint journal: Orthopaedic Proceedings , 95-B (Sup 34), p. 78. ISSN 1358-992X

Racasan, R., Fleming, L., Bills, P., Skinner, J., Hart, A. and Blunt, L. (2013) ‘Characterisation of Wear Morphology at the Head Cup Bearing Interface in Retrieved Metal-on-Metal Hip ReplacementsBone and joint journal: Orthopaedic Proceedings , 95-B (Sup 34), p. 488. ISSN 1358-992X

Matthies, A., Racasan, R., Bills, P., Blunt, L., Cro, S., Panagiotidou, A., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2013) ‘Material Loss at the Taper Junction of Retrieved Large Head Metal-on-Metal Total Hip ReplacementsJournal of Orthopaedic Research , 31 (11), pp. 1677-1685. ISSN 0736-0266

Hothi, H., Matthies, A., Berber, R., Whittaker, R., Bills, P., Racasan, R., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2013) ‘The reliability of a semi-quantitative scoring method for taper corrosion and fretting, and its usefulness for predicting the volume of material loss’. In: International Society for Technology in Arthroplasty 26th Annual Congress, 16-19 October 2013, Palm Beach, Florida, USA

Groschl, A., Akkasoglu, G., Loderer, A., Plowucha, W., Werner, T., Bills, P. and Hausotte, T. (2013) ‘MUVOT - Establishing an International Vocational Training Program on the Topic of Measurement Uncertainty’. In: 11th International Symposium on Measurement and Quality Control, 11-13 September 2013, Cracow-Kielce, Poland

McHugh, M., Bills, P. and Vanin, S. (2013) ‘PMI estimation in submerged bones: a new strategy’. In: International Conference on Forensic Sciences, 8th-9th July 2013, London

Hothi, H., Cro, S., Bills, P., Blunt, L., Racasan, R., Blunn, G., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2013) ‘Correlation between the detailed visual inspection of retrieved metal-on-metal hips and their volumetric wear’. In: International Society for Technology in Arthroplasty 26th Annual Congress, 16-19 October 2013, Palm Beach, Florida, USA

Fleming, L., Racasan, R., Bills, P., Skinner, J., Hart, A. and Blunt, L. (2013) ‘Characterisation of wear morphology at the head-cup bearing interface in retrieved metal-on-metal hip replacements’. In: International Society for Technology in Arthroplasty 26th Annual Congress, 16-19 October 2013, Palm Beach, Florida, USA

Lou, S., Jiang, X., Bills, P. and Scott, P. (2013) ‘Defining True Tribological Contact Through Application of the Morphological Method to Surface TopographyTribology Letters , 50 (2), pp. 185-193. ISSN 1023-8883

Racasan, R., Bills, P., Blunt, L. and Xiao, S. (2013) ‘Measurement of material loss’. In: Are Modular Hip Junctions An Issue?, 29th April 2013, The Royal Society of Medicine, London

Bills, P., Blunt, L., Racasan, R., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2013) ‘Accurate determination of material loss at the taper interface of retrieved metal-on-metal hip replacements’. In: 19th International Conference on Wear of Materials, 14-18th April 2013, Portland, Oregon USA

Bills, P., Racasan, R., Tessier, P. and Blunt, L. (2013) ‘Assessing the wear of the modular taper interface in retrieved metal-on-metal hip replacements’. In: 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013), June 17-21, 2013, Taipei, Taiwan

Hart, A., Matthies, A., Bills, P., Racasan, R., Blunn, G., Blunt, L. and Skinner, J. (2013) ‘The taper junction contributes one third of the total volumetric material loss in large diameter metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties’. In: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting, March 19-23 2013, Chicago, IL, USA

Matthies, A., Racasan, R., Bills, P., Panagiotidou, A., Skinner, J., Blunn, G. and Hart, A. (2013) ‘Corrosion is the main mechanism of material loss at the taper junction of large head metal on metal hip replacementsBone and joint journal: Orthopaedic Proceedings , 95-B (Sup 13), p. 13. ISSN 1358-992X

Hart, A., Matthies, A., Racasan, R., Bills, P., Panagiotidou, A., Blunt, L., Blunn, G. and Skinner, J. (2013) ‘Taper wear contributes only a third of the total volumetric material loss in large head metal on metal hip replacementBone and joint journal: Orthopaedic Proceedings , 95-B (Sup 13), p. 14. ISSN 1358-992X

2012

Hart, A., Matthies, A., Racasan, R., Bills, P., Panagiotidou, A., Blunt, L., Blunn, G. and Skinner, J. (2012) ‘Taper wear contributes only a third of the total volumetirc material loss in large head metal on metal hip replacement’. In: British Orthopaedic Research Society Annual Meeting, September 24th-25th 2012, London, UK

Matthies, A., Racasan, R., Bills, P., Panagiotidou, A., Blunt, L., Skinner, J., Blunn, G. and Hart, A. (2012) ‘Corrosion is the main mechanism of material loss at the taper junction of large head metal on metal hip replacements’. In: British Orthopaedic Society Annual Meeting, September 24th-25th 2012, London, UK

Bills, P., Racasan, R., Hart, A., Skinner, J., Jiang, X. and Blunt, L. (2012) ‘Using metrology to bridge the gap in understanding between engineering and biological failure: the case of metal-on-metal hip replacements’. In: 1st Annual EPSRC Manufacturing the Future Conference, 19th-20th September 2012, Loughborough, UK

Bills, P., Racasan, R., Hart, A., Skinner, J. and Blunt, L. (2012) ‘Accurate determination of clinical wear in retrieved metal-on-metal hip replacement joints’. In: Euro-Mediterranean Conference on Bioengineering and Biomaterials, 4th-6th July 2012, Fes, Morocco

Blunt, L., Bills, P. and Racasan, R. (2012) ‘Measurement of Tapers’. In: Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacements: Re-solving The Uncertainties, 28th May 2012, Royal College of Surgeons of England, London

Bills, P. and Blunt, L. (2012) ‘Measurement of Bearing Surfaces’. In: Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacements: Re-solving The Uncertainties, 28th May 2012, Royal College of Surgeons of England, London

Bills, P., Underwood, R., Cann, P. and Hart, A. (2012) ‘What is required to measure the wear of explanted metal on metal hips?Bone and joint journal: Orthopaedic Proceedings , 94-B (Sup 18), p. 100. ISSN 1358-992X

Hexter, A., Blunn, G., Bills, P., Panagiotidou, A., Matthies, A., Skinner, J. and Hart, A. (2012) ‘The Definition of Taper Failure in Metal-On-Metal Modular Total Hip Replacement’. In: ASTM Symposium on Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Replacement Devices, 8th May 2012, Phoenix, AZ, USA

Bills, P., Racasan, R., Skinner, J., Hart, A. and Blunt, L. (2012) ‘Effect of Uncertainty on Wear Measurement of Metal-on-metal Total Hip Replacement Components’. In: ASTM Symposium on Metal-on-Metal Total hip Replacement Devices, 8th May 2012, Phoenix, AZ, USA

Bills, P., Lou, S. and Jiang, X. (2012) ‘Development of morphological filtering method for specification and characterisation of hip replacement taper junctions’. In: 12th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, 4th-8th June 2012, Stockholm, Sweden

Bills, P., Racasan, R., Underwood, R., Cann, P., Skinner, J., Hart, A., Jiang, X. and Blunt, L. (2012) ‘Volumetric wear assessment of retrieved metal-on-metal hip prostheses and the impact of measurement uncertaintyWear , 274, pp. 212-219. ISSN 0043-1648

2011

Bills, P. and Blunt, L. (2011) ‘Wear Measurement of MoM Hips’. In: Orthopaedic Research UK Meeting – Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacements: Solving The Uncertainties, 14th December 2011, Royal College of Surgeons, London, UK

Bills, P., Underwood, R., Sayles, R., Cann, P., Hart, A., Blunt, L. and Jiang, X. (2011) ‘Taper Wear in Large Head Metal-on-Metal Hips’. In: International Conference on BioTribology 2011, 18th - 21th September 2011, Imperial College

2010

Zeng, S., Blunt, L., Jiang, X. and Bills, P. (2010) ‘Investigation of the material removal characteristic for polishing CoCr alloy’. In: Future Technologies in Computing and Engineering: Proceedings of Computing and Engineering Annual Researchers' Conference 2010: CEARC’10. Huddersfield: University of Huddersfield. pp. 177-182. ISBN 9781862180932

Bills, P., Underwood, R., Cann, P., Hart, A., Jiang, X. and Blunt, L. (2010) ‘What is required to measure the wear of explanted metal-on-metal hips?’. In: British Orthopaedic Research Society Annual Meeting, 12th-13th July 2010, Cardiff University

2009

Bills, P. and Cunningham, J. (2009) ‘Determination of clinical wear in retrieved total hip replacement joints using shadowgraph and co-ordinate measurement methods’. In: Internatiional Conference on Bioengineering and Biomaterials, 18 - 20 March 2009, ENSAM, Meknes, Morocco

Blunt, L., Bills, P., Jiang, X., Hardacker, C. and Chakrararty, G. (2009) ‘The role of tribology and metrology in the latest development of bio-materialsWear , 266 (3-4), pp. 424-431. ISSN 0043-1648

2008

Blunt, L., Bills, P., Jiang, X. and Chakrabarty, G. (2008) ‘Improvement in the assessment of wear of total knee replacements using coordinate-measuring machine techniquesProceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine , 222 (3), pp. 309-318. ISSN 0954-4119

Bills, P., Blunt, L. and Chakrabarty, G. (2008) ‘Developing techniques for the dimensional assessment of true clinical wear in retrieved total joint replacements’. In: Materials for Improved Wear Resistance of Total Artificial Joints. Eibar, Spain: Tekniker. pp. 109-118. ISBN 978-84-932064-4-4

2007

Bills, P., Blunt, L. and Jiang, X. (2007) ‘Development of a technique for accurately determining clinical wear in explanted total hip replacementsWear , 263 (7-12), pp. 1133-1137. ISSN 0043-1648

Bills, P (2007) The development of a geometric methodology for the determination of volumetric wear in total joint replacements & development of a total knee replacement joint using new and novel measurement techniques. Doctoral thesis, University of Huddersfield.

2006

Bills, P., Blunt, L. and Jiang, X. (2006) ‘A metrology solution for determination of form deviation and wear in orthopaedic joint replacements’. In: 33rd Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Tuesday 12th - Friday 15th September 2006, Trinity and all Saints College, Leeds

Blunt, L., Bills, P., Hardaker, C. and Pantelis, C. (2006) ‘The use of CMM techniques to assess the wear of total knee replacements’. In: Nodtrib 2006 - The 12th Nordic Symposium on Tribology. Lyngby, Denmark: DTU Tryk. p. 61. ISBN 87-90416-17-1

2005

Bills, P., Brown, L., Jiang, X. and Blunt, L. (2005) ‘A metrology solution for the orthopaedic industryJournal of Physics , Series, pp. 316-319. ISSN 1742-6596

2004

Bills, P., Blunt, L. and Hardaker, C. (2004) ‘The use of CMM techniques to assess the functionality of total knee replacements’. In: 8th International Symposium on Measurement and Quality Control in Production. Dusseldorf, Germany: VDI Verlag GmbH. pp. 73-80. ISBN 3-18-091860-8

2002

Bills, P., Hardaker, C., Goldsmith, A., Smith, S., Isaac, G. and Dowson, D. (2002) ‘Differential wear between femoral heads and acetabular cup inserts in metal-on-metal total replacement joints’. In: Institution of Mechanical Engineers – ‘Engineers and Surgeons – Joined at the Hip’, 13-15 June 2002, London, UK

Esteem

Journal Reviewer

  • Wear
  • Precision Engineering
  • Tribology International
  • Tribology Letters
  • Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics
  • Proceedings of the IMechE Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science
  • Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
  • American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)

Membership of professional bodies

  • Member of Institution of Engineering & Technology (MIET)
  • Fellow of Higher Education Academy (FHEA)
  • Member of Orthopaedic Research Society (ORS)
  • Member of American Society for Testing & Materials (ASTM)

Invited external public lectures and seminars

  • Orthopaedic Research UK ‘Metal-on-metal hip replacements: Solving the uncertainties’, Royal College of Surgeons of England, 14th December 2011
  • Orthopaedic Research UK ‘Metal-on-metal hip replacements: Re-Solving the uncertainties’, Royal College of Surgeons of England, 28th May 2012.
  • Orthopaedic Research UK ‘Are Modular Hip Junctions An Issue?’, The Royal Society of Medicine, London, 29th April 2013.
  • Dimensional X-Ray Computed Tomography Conference, National Physical Laboratory, London, 10th May 2016.

Research Degree Supervision

Current research students

Main supervisor

  • Paras Shah (Dimensional Metrology for Additive Manufacturing)
  • Darshil Kapadia (Orthopaedic wear measurement)
  • Simon McKenna (Historical artefact characterisation)
  • Sidikat Ibrahim (Industrial metrology blended learning tools)
  • Matthew Holland (Characterisation of wear on freeform surfaces)
  • Peter Smithurst (Gunmaking by machinery)

Co-supervisor

  • Katie Foster (Metrology for ballistics and tool mark identification)
  • Andrew Townsend (Surface Metrology for Additive Manufacturing)
  • Shams E Tabriz (Turbocharger Fatigue Analysis)

Potential postgraduate/doctoral research projects

  • Measurement of wear in UHMWPE orthopaedic components.
  • Surface characterisation of retrieved orthopaedic joints.
  • Measurement of non-bearing orthopaedic surfaces.
  • Industrial metrology blended learning tools
  • Metrology for additive manufacturing
  • Optimisation and verification of CT for industrial applications
  • Software development – Data fusion leading to development of 3D visualisation tools.

Please contact this member of staff to discuss other possible opportunities aligned to current research areas.

Current opportunities

  • Please contact this member of staff to discuss possible opportunities.

Enterprise Activities

Paul is an executive board member and UK lead for the EU wide metrology education 'driving licence' known as 'CMTrain' which is an industrially focused vocational blended training course in co-ordinate metrology and metrology best-practice. 

The course has three levels from 'Operator' to 'Expert' to meet the demands of different types of CMM users and is performed with a combination of distance 'in-situ' learning with appropriate tutorial support and attendance based ‘hands-on’ workshops.  The content of the course covers aspects of general metrology good practice, geometry,  co-ordinate metrology, quality management and statistical process control.

The course is aimed at anyone who is likely to interact with dimensional and co-ordinate metrology, specifically:

  • Inspection Planners
  • Measurement engineers
  • CMM programmers
  • Machine operators
  • Designers

CMTrain has been specifically developed to be complementary to the training offered by instrument manufacturers and can be integrated into an existing quality systems training programme.

Paul is always open to new collaborations of an interdisciplinary nature. Such projects currently ongoing in application of metrology in aspects of Forensics, Archaeology, Food Science, Pharmaceutical Technology and Textiles. Paul was one of the founder members of the Institute for Skin Integrity and Infection Prevention and is a key member of the Arms and Armour Research Institute.

Administrative Responsibilities

  • Deputy Director of Graduate Education
  • Course Leader BEng/MEng  Mechanical Engineering
  • Deputy UoA Coordinator Mechanical Engineering
  • Steering Group Secure Societies Institute
  • Member of School Teaching & Learning Committee
  • Member of School Research Strategy Group
  • Member of School Research Ethics Group

Teaching and Professional Activities

Module Leader

  • NFA2168 – Mechanical Engineering & Science
  • NHM2408 – Eco-Design & IPR
  • NMM3588 – Dimensional Measurement Systems

Course Leader – BEng/MEng Mechanical Engineering

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