Mr Kris Christmann
email@example.com | 01484 473222
Qualifications: BSc, MA, MA, Pg Cert. SSRM, MBPsS, FHEA.
I am an applied criminologist and Research Fellow at the Applied Criminology Centre (ACC) at the University of Huddersfield. I have personally helped generate in excess of £3,143,575 (GBP) (€4,142,682) in research grant income since 2005. I have 16 years of research experience, primarily for a range of Central Government clients as well as Local Government and third sector customers and other funders (the EU, and various research councils). This has included work in many areas of the CJS (Prisons, Youth Secure Estate, Police Custody Suites, Courts, Police computer forensics departments, Probation Service, YOTs. and others).
My main research interests include the study of radicalisation; counter-terrorism; and hate crime (for clients such as the: Youth Justice Board, Office for Security and Counter Terrorism, the Home Office, and the European Union's Fundamental Rights Agency). My other research interests include offender management and desistance (for various clients) and the welfare of children of prisoners (EU). I was part of a small bidding team that won a €2.65 million FP7 award from the EU to research the mental health impacts on children who have a parent in prison across 4 European countries (the now completed COPING Project). Myself and colleagues are in the process of writing up these findings for publication and dissemination.
Myself and ACC colleagues have recently completed research in counter terrorism for the EU (DG Move - Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport) examining how to protect large, multi-modal transport hubs across Europe from terrorist attack as well as from serious crime (more information). The suite of reports delivered are currently being studied by commissioners and it is anticipated that some of this material will be published in the near future, by DG Move and also in academic outputs by ourselves.
Currently I'm working with colleagues on our CREST funded project studying barriers to reporting and sharing information with authorities concerning violent extremist activity and involvement in foreign conflict here in the UK, in addition to several other projects (please see 'Research and Scholarship').
Research and Scholarship
University research group memberships
I am currently a member of the Institute for Research in Citizenship and Applied Human Sciences and the Applied Criminology Centre.
- Radicalisation (the causes of radicalisation; the effectiveness of interventions with 'at risk groups' and radicalised individuals);
- Hate crime offending and hate crime policy;
- Offender resettlement and desistance;
- Repression Research;
- The unintended consequences of the criminal justice system.
In addition, I am interested in a number of conceptual and normative issues in the area where moral, legal and political philosophy intersect–particularly, obedience, authority, legitimacy, obligation, coercion, and privacy.
Community reporting thresholds: sharing information with authorities concerning violent extremist activity and involvement in foreign conflict: a UK replication study: Currently I'm working with colleagues on our CREST funded project studying barriers to reporting and sharing information with authorities concerning violent extremist activity and involvement in foreign conflict here in the UK.The first people to suspect that someone is involved in acts of violent extremism will often be close to them – family, friends, community insiders. Their preparedness to report them to authorities is viewed as a key step to the prevention of violent extremism. This project will explore people’s views, experiences and concerns if they were ever faced with this scenario; the dilemma they are confronted with.
Kirklees YOT and ACC Pilot Study: Exploring the Relationship between Young People’s Use of Social Media and Violence: The purpose of this research is to explore a possible relationship between the use of social media by young people and violence. In short, what we want to know is: to what extent, if any, young people’s use of social media in all its forms (e.g. texting, use of Whatsapp, Twitter, Facebook, media sharing networks and blogs) acts as a driver to violent behaviour and , if so, how does this work? For example, does it trigger violence? facilitate it? intensify it? or spread it to a larger number of victims?
Evaluation of the Fresh Start 4U Project - an offender education and employment project: We are undertaking a process evaluation, cost benefit analysis and analysis of project outcomes to see whether FreshStart 4U offers a successful and cost effective means of assisting offenders into employment and training.
Development of Hate Crime Reporting Tools: Myself and Michelle Rogerson, and colleagues at Sheffield Hallam University (Kevin Wong and Dan Ellingworth) are developing several practical tools which have resulted from our thinking and research about hate crime reporting more generally:
- A Hate Crime Reporting Assessment Tool: Knowing that an awful lot of hate crime goes unreported is not very helpful. Being able to identify the approximate size of the problem space does at least allow service planners some notion of the shortfall they should aim to address. Our ‘Hate Crime Reporting Performance Assessment Tool’ aims to solve this problem. Knowing levels of hate crime victimisation and rates of hate crime reporting allows an ‘uplift figure’ to be calculated which corresponds to the known extent of under-reporting across equality groups and the proportional extent to which the Police data needed to be increased by to account for under-reporting. The tool is based on analysis of 6 sweeps of the British Crime Survey (CSEW), which will consider the factors determining: the levels of hate crime victimisation; and the likelihood of reporting an incident.
- A Hate Crime Third Party Reporting Centre Assessment Tool: There is a research gap in knowledge about the efficacy of third party reporting centres (TPRCs) and, despite there being some success stories (Stop Hate UK; TellMAMA; TrueVision) and more local examples, the wider picture up and down the country is far more difficult to gauge. The few evaluative research studies available give some cause for concern about the effectiveness of many TPRCs, therefore we have developed a tool that provides some measure of productivity over time - connecting programmes with measureable outcomes to determine success.
Both tools are about to be piloted by statutory agencies and we will be reporting on their feedback and more detail about the tools on our forthcoming hate crime event in October 12th 2016. (Note the event is free and all interested parties are warmly invited).
Selected research projects:
- COPING: Children of Prisoners, Interventions and Mitigations to Strengthen Mental Health
- Pre-Empt: Establishing Best Practice in Counter Terrorism at the Operational, Tactical and Strategic Levels for Multi-Modal Passenger Terminals
- i-HOP and University of Huddersfield Quality Assessment Tool for Research and Evidence concerned with children and families of offenders
- Preventing Violent Extremism (YJB)
- Youth Gun Crime and Gang Involvement
- The Prevalence of Racially Motivated Offending and Provision of Targeted Interventions (YJB)
- Understanding Concerns About Community Relations
- The Role of Public Authorities and Professionals in Supporting and Promoting the Fundamental Rights of LGBT Persons in the EU
- Hate Crime in Suffolk: Understanding Prevalence and Support Needs
- Wakefield Hate Crime Victim Support Needs (Wakefield Metropolitan Council)
- Offender Resettlement Utilising Case Management Approach (Manchester Community Safety Partnership)
- Evaluation of ‘Step-On’ Short-term Prisoner Resettlement Initiative: (GONW )
- Tackling the Demand for prostitution, Rapid Evidence Assessment
- Health Needs and Motivations of Male Sex Workers in Kirklees
- From DTTOs to DRRs via DIP: Taking forward best practice into the treatment of substance misusing offenders
- Evaluating the Impact of the Joint Agency Groups (JAGs) in Liverpool: Crime Reduction Outcomes and Joint Working Issues
- NHS Health Professionals in Police Custody Suite Settings
- International and Internet cases of Child Sexual Abuse
- Evaluation of New Deal for Communities, Crime Theme, Main Phase
- Analysis of Abandoned Vehicle Fires in Five Brigade Areas
- Evaluation of West Yorkshire Police's Volunteers in Policing Project
- Evaluation of Burglary Reduction Programme in North of England
- West Yorkshire Police Targeted Youth Outreach Programme
Publications and Other Research Outputs
Wong, K. and Christmann, K. (2017) ‘Hate Crime Victimisation’. In: Handbook on Victims Issues in Criminal Justice. London, UK: Routledge. .
Thomas, P., Busher, J., Macklin, G., Rogerson, M. and Christmann, K. (2016) ‘Hopes and Fears: Community cohesion and the White working class in one of the failed spaces of multiculturalism’ Sociology . ISSN 0038-0385
Thomas, P., Busher, J., Macklin, G., Rogerson, M. and Christmann, K. (2016) ‘Hopes and Fears: Community cohesion and the White working class in one of the failed spaces of multiculturalism’ Sociology: The journal of the British Sociological Association . ISSN 0038-0385
Wong, K. and Christmann, K. (2016) ‘Justice Reinvestment: Motherhood and Apple Pie?Matching Ambition to Capacity and Capability’ Federal Sentencing Reporter . ISSN 1053-9867
Robertson, O., Christmann, K., Sharratt, K., Berman, A., Manby, M., Ayre, E., Foca, L., Asiminei, R., Philbrick, K. and Gavriluta, C. (2016) ‘Children of Prisoners: Their Situation and Role in Long-Term Crime Prevention’. In: Women and Children as Victims and Offenders: Background, Prevention, Reintegration. : Springer International Publishing. pp. 203-232. ISBN 978-3-319-28423-1
Wong, K. and Christmann, K. (2016) ‘Justice Reinvestment: Motherhood and Apple Pie?Matching Ambition to Capacity and Capability’ Federal Sentencing Reporter . ISSN 1053-9867
Christmann, K. and Sharratt, K. (2015) i-HOPs Quality Assessment Tool for research and evidence around Children of Offenders Barnados / University of Huddersfield: Barnados / University of Huddersfield
Christmann, K. and Sharratt, K. (2015) i-HOP Guidebook: Using the Quality Assessment Tool for research concerning Children of Offenders Barnados / University of Huddersfield: Barnados / University of Huddersfield
Christmann, K. and Sharratt, K. (2015) i-HOPs Quality Assessment Tool and Guidebook An Introduction Barnados / University of Huddersfield: Barnados / University of Huddersfield
Thomas, P., Busher, J., Macklin, G., Rogerson, M. and Christmann, K. (2015) ‘Understanding Concerns about Community Relations’ Identity papers: A journal of British and Irish studies , 1 (1), pp. 67-78. ISSN 2058-6205
Thomas, P., Rogerson, M., Macklin, G., Christmann, K. and Busher, J. (2015) Understanding Concerns about Community Relations in Kirklees Huddersfield: Univesrity of Huddersfield
Busher, J., Christmann, K., Macklin, G., Rogerson, M. and Thomas, P. (2015) Understanding Concerns about Community Relations in Calderdale Huddersfield: University of Huddersfield
Christmann, K (2013) ‘Arresting development?’ Police Professional (380), pp. 20-21.
Christmann, K (2013) ‘Arrested development?’ Justice for Children of Prisoners Newsletters: Police, Judges and Sentencing (3), pp. 6-7.
Jones, A., Gallagher, B., Manby, M., Robertson, O., Schützwohl, M., Berman, A., Hirschfield, A., Ayre, L., Urban, M., Sharratt, K. and Christmann, K. (2013) Children of Prisoners: Interventions and mitigations to strengthen mental health . Huddersfield: University of Huddersfield. ISBN 9781862181168
Wong, K., Christmann, K., Meadows, L., Albertson, K. and Senior, P. (2013) Hate Crime in Suffolk: Understanding prevalence and support needs Sheffield: Sheffield Hallam University/University of Huddersfield
Christmann, K., Turliuc, M. and M?irean, C. (2012) ‘Risk and Resilience in Children of Prisoners: A Research Review’ Scientific Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University - Sociology and Social Work Section , 5 (2). ISSN 2065-3131
Hirschfield, A., Christmann, K., Wilcox, A., Rogerson, M. and Sharratt, K. (2012) Process Evaluation of Preventing Violent Extremism Programmes for Young People Youth Justice Board
Christmann, K (2012) Preventing Religious Radicalisation and Violent Extremism: A Systematic Review of the Research Evidence Youth Justice Board
Smithson, H., Wilcox, A., Monchuk, L., Christmann, K. and Wong, K. (2011) ‘The prevalence of youth racially motivated offending: What do we really know?’ Probation Journal , 58 (3), pp. 233-249. ISSN 0264-5505
Wilcox, A., Smithson, H., Christmann, K., Monchuk, L. and Wong, K. (2010) Racially motivated offending and targeted interventions London: Youth Justice Board for England and Wales
Christmann, K. and Wong, K. (2010) ‘Hate Crime Victims and Hate Crime Reporting: Some Impertinent Questions’. In: Hate Crime: Concepts, policy, future directions. Abingdon: Willan Publishing. . ISBN 978-1-84392-779-2
Wilcox, A., Christmann, K., Rogerson, M. and Birch, P. (2009) Tackling the Demand for Prostitution: A Rapid Evidence Assessment of the published research literature Home Office
Wong, K. and Christmann, K. (2009) ‘The Role of Victim Decision Making in Reporting of Hate Crimes’ Community Safety Journal , 7 (2), pp. 19-35. ISSN 1757-8043
Smithson, H., Christmann, K., Armitage, R., Monchuk, L., Whitehead, A. and Rogerson, M. (2009) Young Peoples Involvement in Gangs and Guns in Liverpool University of Huddersfield
Wilcox, A. and Christmann, K. (2008) ‘Getting paid for sex is my kick: a qualitative study of male sex workers’. In: Sex as Crime?. London, UK: Willan Publishing. pp. 118-136. ISBN 978-1-84392-267-4
Rogerson, M. and Christmann, K. (2007) ‘Burglars and wardrobe monsters. Practical and ethical problems in the reduction of crime fear’ British Journal of Community Justice , 5 (1), pp. 79-94. ISSN 1475-0279
Wilcox, A. and Christmann, K. (2006) Sex for sale: qualitative study of male sex workers Huddersfield, UK: University of Huddersfield (Unpublished)
Gallagher, B., Fraser, C., Christmann, K. and Hodgson, B. (2006) International and internet child sexual abuse and exploitation Huddersfield, UK: University of Huddersfield
Christmann, K. and Rogerson, M. (2004) Crime, fear of crime and quality of life: Identifying and Responding to Problems Research Report 35 Sheffield: CRESR
Rogerson, M., Christmann, K. and Walters, D. (2003) Fear of Crime and Insecurity in New Deal for Communities CRESR
Gallagher, B., Christmann, K., Fraser, C. and Hodgson, B. (2003) ‘International and internet child sexual abuse and exploitation - issues emerging from research’ Child and Family Law Quarterly , 15 (4), pp. 353-371. ISSN 1358-8184
- I sit on the Editorial Advisory Board for The British Journal of Community Justice.
- Invited to be an 'expert reviewer' by the Research Executive Agency of the European Commission (REA) to assess the 2016-2017 Work programme, part of Horizon 2020, evaluating the Call topic:REV-INEQUAL-2016-02: Contemporary radicalisation trends and their implications for Europe.
- Invited attended Equality and Human Rights Commission: round-table discussion on Hate Crime (8.2.16).
- I am an Associate of Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.
- I have provided consultancy and expertise to a range of bodies and organisations including: Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism; A number of Local County Council's regards hate crime and situational crime prevention.
- Peer reviewed papers for: The Journal of Military and Strategic Studies (JMSS); The British Journal of Community Justice (BJCJ); Safer Communities; International Journal of Conflict and Violence (IJCV)
- Book Proposal Reviews for: Routledge Publishing
- Grant reviews for: The Big Lottery Fund; ESRC Small and Large Grants Reviewer
I have given a number of interviews to local press (Huddersfield Examiner; Sheffield Star) and local and regional radio (BBC Leeds, Real Radio) and national radio to either discuss trends in crime data, hate crime policy and practice, or a range of other criminological topics. My last interview was just before the General Election for BBC 5 Live.
Research Degree Supervision
- Ruvimbo Gombedza: How do women on community orders, with substance misuse problems, perceive the support that is provided to desist from crime?
- Fran Haskins: How might a Prevent training package for prison-based clinicians enable them to practice more effectively with convicted Islamic extremists? Understanding the potential for and risks of utilising the therapeutic alliance in counter-radicalisation efforts
- Charlotte Inman: Examining the relationships between religiosity, alcohol consumption and violent behaviour in adolescents in North West England
- Stephen Parkinson: Older Offenders in and Beyond the Criminal Justice System
- Osabiya Babatunde: Ethnic Militancy and Preventive Policy in Nigeria
There are a number of research areas that I can supervise, these are broadly:
- The causes and process of radicalisation (political and religious radicalisation and violence); measures to prevent radicalisation (principally Prevent policy);
- Hate crime offending and prevalence, and hate crime policy and interventions;
- Offender management and desistance research;
- Protest policing; the militarisation of policing; police deviance and criminality.
Teaching and Professional Activities
- HFB2003 Introduction to Criminology and Criminal Justice
- HFB2011 Myths and Realities of Crime
- HIB1024 Violent Crime
- HIB2000 Final Year project for the Social Sciences